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  • 1.
    Bjerke, Björn
    et al.
    Ekonomihögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The role of marketing rational and natural business start-ups2013In: Entrepreneurial marketing: a global perspective / [ed] Zubin Sethna, Rosalind Jones, Paul Harrigan, Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013, p. 63-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our interest is entrepreneurship and marketing and their possible overlap and/or synergy. This chapter is about the role marketing plays in various business start-ups. It makes a distinction between rational and natural business start-ups. To understand this distinction, the chapter starts by outlining a recent development of the subject of entrepreneurship as we see it, that it is possible to talk about a narrow and a broad view of the field of entrepreneurship today. The chapter ends by discussing which role marketing can play in different business start-ups in general and in rational and natural business start-ups in particular.

  • 2.
    Frankelius, Per
    et al.
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI), Företagsekonomi (FEK), Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sverige.
    Gunnarsson, Claes
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Johanzon, Conny
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    What’s in it for me?: How to understand relevance when designing greentech export assistance programs2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Frankelius, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Johanzon, Conny
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Gunnarsson, Claes
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The cleantech mystery: new theoretical model for understanding export capabilities in small and mediumsized innovative cleantech companies2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observers argue that Swedish cleantech companies are excellent at technology, but lackin making business and creating export. We call this the cleantech mystery. Twoimportant questions are what creates export capabilities, and what are the barrierscleantech companies face when exporting viewed from different perspectives? Wesuggest a holistic model for understanding the export conditions of innovative cleantechcompanies at micro and macro levels. The model relies on foundations from fourdifferent theoretical views, and two case studies. The first case is United Stirling(related to Kockums and FFV in Linköping) and its spin-offs. We focus on the dream tocreate sun-powered engines that in turn generate electricity. The second case is theAerosoltrapTM illustrating a creative inventor and his struggle with commercialization.The result is a tentative model, as well as some critical notions regarding the cleantechmystery.Keywords: Cleantech, Innovation, Export, Capabilities, Market orientation,Stirling engines, Aerosoltrap.

  • 4.
    Gunnarsson, Claes
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Frankelius, Per
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Johanzon, Conny
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Exploring Export Barriers of Cleantech Businesses: An Interview Survey of Swedish Cleantech Companies2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5. Hills, Gerald E.
    et al.
    Hansen, Davíd J.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    A value creation view of opportunity recognition processes2005In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 404-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunity recognition is an important part of value creation processes and vice-versa.  A qualitative study, involving in-depth, semi-structured interviews of 59 firm-owners/founders in the U.S. and Sweden was conducted to better understand how entrepreneurs and SME owners engage in opportunity recognition and marketing practices. The findings revealed evidence of: planning to be opportunistic, a propensity to take action, opportunities perceived incrementally over years, instantaneous opportunity evaluation, first customer testing rather than formal market research, both Kirznerian alertness and Schumpeterian new combinations, job dissatisfaction and industry experience preceding opportunity recognition, support for the Bhave model, variations in the level of search, entrepreneurs taking “ownership” of ideas that were not originally theirs, use of supply and demand in recognizing opportunities and contingent opportunity recognition.

  • 6.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    et al.
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Hultman, Claes
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Promotion and advertising2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Businesses must sell.  And, while the quality, price, availability, etc., of the goods and/or services to sell must fit the markets in which they are to be sold, sales do not occur unless (potential) customers know what a business has to offer.  Where there is only one supplier, customer awareness is given.   But in a highly competitive environment, a condition that typifies most small business markets, a gaggle of voices attempt to familiarize (potential) customers with the goods and/or services they sell and the reasons (potential) customers should patronize them rather than someone else.  Effectively, each competitor endeavors to distinguish from the crowd.  This differentiation process requires promotion, often including formal advertising.  Successful promotion and advertising typically demands considerable amounts of human and/or physical capital.  Since most small businesses are resource constrained, the promotional challenges for small-business owners and managers are even more demanding than they would be in other situations. This issue of the National Small Business Poll, therefore, focuses on Promotion and Advertising.

  • 7.
    Hills, Gerald, E.
    et al.
    Bradley University, Peoria Illinois, USA.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    A Foreword: Qualitative Recollections2013In: Entrepreneurial Marketing: a global perspective / [ed] Zubin Sehtna, Rosalind Jones and Paul Harrigan, Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013, p. xvii-xixChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    et al.
    Bradley University, Peoria Il, USA.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Academic roots: the past and the present of entrepreneurial marketing2011In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in entrepreneurial marketing is about 30 years old. During this period research has followed many trajectories. Two important but divergent routes are small business marketing versus entrepreneurial marketing mirroring the discourse of small businesses versus entrepreneurial firms. Today small business marketing and entrepreneurial marketing are regarded as separate research fields, however related. EM-researches have been very open-minded towards different approaches in methodology, especially compared to research within mainstream marketing in the US. During this rather long period of time advances in other disciplines have been beneficial for our own research. One such example is the development of Effectuation theory allowing us to understand entrepreneurial decision-making and consequently, important aspects of entrepreneurial marketing behaviour. Many of the research questions, regarded as important by scholars in a panel 1986, are still regarded as important, for example new venture growth. Other issues have lost its relevance. But over all many important questions still are waiting for an answer and the whole research field of Entrepreneurial marketing offers tremendous research opportunities.

  • 9.
    Hills, Gerald, E.
    et al.
    Bradley University, Peoria IL, USA.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Entrepreneurial marketing: conceptual and empirical research opportunities2013In: Entrepreneurship Research Journal, ISSN 2157-5665, E-ISSN 2157-5665, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 437-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last 25 years, Entrepreneurship has become a well-established discipline joining the long-established marketing discipline as two important cornerstones in Business Studies. The interface between these disciplines, the Marketing and Entrepreneurship Interface (M/E Interface), has been researched for 30 years and is now becoming an established research area with outlets in both marketing and entrepreneurship. In a meeting to formulate a research strategy for M/E, a number of M/E scholars discussed the past, present, and future of M/E research. One conclusion was labeled “the future is in the past”. Much of what has been discussed for two decades is still as valid as in earlier days. Trends in society have made the M/E research questions even more important to address today. The challenge for future researchers is to make better theoretical synthesis of previous thinking and empirical efforts.

    Although there has been growth in the amount of M/E research, one fact has not changed. There are still numerous, exciting opportunities to create new knowledge at the M/E Interface. This article discusses the existing streams of research and potential opportunities for additional research. Research at the M/E Interface presents an opportunity for new scholars to be at the forefront of a new discipline.

  • 10.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    et al.
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    History and some theoretical foundations of entrepreneurial marketing2008In: Research at the Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface: proceedings from the International Symposium ín Marketing and Entrepreneurship 2008, Chicago: Univ of Illinois , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Hills, Gerald, E.
    et al.
    Bradley University, Peoria IL, USA.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Research in marketing and entrepreneurship: a retrospective viewpoint2011In: Journal of Reserach in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1471-5201, Vol. 13, no 01, p. 8-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon 13 years of the Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship and developments in the field over that period.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors reflect upon the past and future of the marketing and entrepreneurship discipline.

    Findings – There is an abundance of important research questions to fuel faculty and PhD student research for years to come.

    Originality/value – This paper has value as a reflective piece which goes on to pose research questions of the future.

    Keywords Marketing, Entrepreneurialism, Research, Journals Paper type Viewpoint

    Introduction

    The Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship (JRME) was launched more than a decade ago by pioneers John Day and Paul Reynolds at the University of Huddersfield. In the meantime, Robert Schwartz and Vince Pascal devoted years of effort to the success of the journal as well. It is appropriate to note that if we apply small business failure/success statistics to this venture, it has clearly been a success. It has been successful in several ways. The sheer existence of a journal at the marketing/entrepreneurship interface has helped to legitimize this academic domain and it has supported young scholars who must show new knowledge in refereed publications – now the quality of our work has supported moving the journal to a highly reputable publisher. We suggest that there is an emerging historical parallel with the American Journal of Small Business which became Entrepreneurship Theory&Practice, now one of the two top journals in the field of entrepreneurship. JRME, with its new publisher and new editor, Jonathan Deacon, will build upon the shoulders of its founders. Gerry Hills was honored to write an “Inaugural Commentary” then and now, to share some retrospective thoughts after the passing of a decade. Looking to several observations made at that time.

    The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/1471-5201.htm

  • 12.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    et al.
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Some theoretical foundations of entrepreneurial marketing2008In: Innovation, competitiveness, growth and tradition in SMEs: rencontres de St-Gall 2008 / [ed] Urs Fueglistaller, Thierry Volery, Walter Weber, St Gallen, Schweiz: KMU Verlag HSG , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial Marketing is a scholarly concept that is beginning to blossom. The quantity and quality of related research and writing is increasing and theoretical as well as empirical works are ex-panding the frontiers of knowledge. It is our hope that this paper will stir creative thinking among the readers as we combine several important domains.

  • 13.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    et al.
    University of Illinois, Chicago ILL,USA.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Kraus, Sascha
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Schulte, Reinhard
    Leuphana Uiniversity, Lueneburg, Germany.
    History, theory and evidence of entrepreneurial marketing: an overview2010In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, ISSN 1368-275X, E-ISSN 1741-5098, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial marketing (EM), i.e., the interface of the two research fields of entrepreneurship and marketing, is a scholarly concept that is receiving increasing interest. In our article, we attempt to address definitional issues, theoretical foundations, historical milestones and new, preliminary empirical findings. More exactly, we propose our own definition of EM especially taking into consideration the entrepreneurial orientation behind this new marketing concept and the aim of creating customer value through such means as innovativeness, creativity, selling, networking or flexibility. Besides, we offer an overview of EM’s ‘modern history’ within the last 20 years and

  • 14.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    et al.
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Miles, Morgan P.
    Georgia Southern University.
    Entrepreneurial marketing and university education2007In: Handbook of research in entrepreneurship education: Vol. 1, A general perspective / [ed] Alain Fayolle, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2007, p. 219-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the last century, the content of marketing courses has been focused on understanding the practices and processes within large corporations; however, interest in the marketing practices of small- and medium-sized firms (SMEs) and by entrepreneurs has been increasing both in the U.S. and globally. It is now recognized that 99.7 percent of all U.S. employers are classified as small and 90 percent of these businesses employ fewer than 20 people. SMEs contribute 50 percent of private sector income and 54 percent of the private sector jobs in the U.S. and most of the net new job growth (U.S. SBA, 2004). While employment opportunities have shifted away from traditional large corporations to SMEs, marketing education has not reflected this change. In this chapter we adopt Venkataraman’s (1997: 123) perspective that entrepreneurship is the nexus of entrepreneurial “opportunity and enterprising individuals.”  This definition of entrepreneurship is broad enough to include individual and organizational venturing, strategic renewal, and social entrepreneurship.  Entrepreneurial marketing is explicitly linking Venkataraman’s (1997) nexus of entrepreneurial opportunities and individuals with the value creating, need satisfying mechanisms of marketing.  While entrepreneurial marketing can be applied in any organizational context from a new venture to a large established corporation, we take the position in this chapter that high growth SMEs has unique resource constraints, marketing strategy – implementation issues which are the focus of the present study.

  • 15.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    et al.
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Miles, Morgan P.
    Georgia Southern State University.
    The evolution and development of entrepreneurial marketing2008In: Journal of small business management (Print), ISSN 0047-2778, E-ISSN 1540-627X, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of entrepreneurial marketing (EM). First an historical perspective of the evolution of EM is offered and some central incidents are identified. Further, empirical indications of small and medium-sized firm marketing behavior are reported and analyzed. Some distinctive differences between EMand administrative focused marketing are identified. This paper provides future scholars with a summary of how EM has evolved into a potential new school of  marketing thought and offers several issues that should stimulate future research in EM.

     

  • 16.
    Hultman, Claes
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Marknadsföring i små företag2006In: Ledning i småföretag / [ed] Håkan Ylinenpää, Bo Johansson, Jan Johansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2006, p. 115-139Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    I detta kapitel diskuteras marknadsföring med fokus på små företag. Utgångspunkten är marknadsföringsteorin, som består av några stora huvudansatser, ett närmast oändligt antal teorier av mer eller mindre räckvidd samt ännu fler ramverk, klassifikationer och beslutsmodeller inom ramen för dessa. I det ryms också några sanningar, som verkar kunna upprepas i det oändliga, exempelvis kundfokus, konkurrensfördel och lönsamhet. Citatet nedan är från 2005, men skulle precis lika gärna kunna vara publicerat 1965.

    In today’s marketplace being customer centric is no longer a competitive advantage. It’s mandatory. For today’s marketing campaigns, ROI is no longer the final goal. It’s the first consideration .

     Några centrala begrepp som kommer att återkomma är värdeskapande och kundvärde. Och marknadsföring kommer att diskuteras utifrån synsättet att det handlar om frågor, som är relaterade till företagets förmåga att skapa kundvärde. Det kan verka som ett magiskt begrepp men det är egentligen okomplicerat. Med kundvärde avses det värde som kunden får för sina pengar. Ett lägre pris, allt annat konstant, ger ett högre kundvärde än ett högre pris. Bättre och/eller fler egenskaper i den vara eller tjänst som köps ger ett bättre kundvärde vid samma pris. Förutsatt att kunden förstår att utnyttja dessa egenskaper! Idag är det kombinationen av dessa, det vill säga bättre och billigare än tidigare erbjudande, som är ledstjärnan. 

     Att se marknadsföring som alla de processer som är relaterade till skapande av kundvärde innebär en vid definition av begreppet marknadsföring. Eftersom marknadsföring är ett så komplext teorifält är det heller inte möjligt att hitta en enstämmig uppfattning av vad som skall inräknas och vad som skall exkluderas. Av en del praktiker ses ämnet rent av begränsat till att enbart omfatta hur företaget kommunicerar med marknaden, det vill säga det ses som likställt med företagets marknadskommunikation.

     

    Att skapa värde för kunder är grundläggande i alla företag och är själva utgångspunkten för varje kommersiellt företags verksamhet. Här har storleken ingen betydelse utan varje företags förmåga att i samverkan med andra skapa överlägset kundvärde är det som avgör den långsiktiga överlevnadspotentialen. Och samtidigt måste naturligtvis företaget också generera överskott på verksamheten. Marknadsföring utgör därmed ett centralt fundament i verksamheten och hur marknadsföringsarbetet leds, organiseras och genomförs utgör således kanske den mest centrala ledningsuppgiften – i alla företag.

     

  • 17.
    Hultman, Claes
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Henningson, Thomas
    Almi Företagspartner.
    Wikholm, Jimmy
    Almi Företagspartner.
    Demand of mentoring among new starters2005In: Golden opportunities for entrepreneurship, Washington, DC: ICSB , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    In an earlier study we focused on entrepreneurs disappearing off to pension and the possibility to keep this population for a longer time in the market. We looked at senior management from a survey with 406 answering respondents. This lead to the paper "Mentoring New Entrepreneurs - a Course of Action to Retain Knowledge and Experience in Society", presented at ICSB World Conference in Johannesburg 2004. The question researched was senior management’s interested to act as mentors when they become pensioners, due to emotional bonds to their profession, identity and the satisfaction to pass on accumulated knowledge and experiences that have been build up during a lifetime. According to this survey there was an unambiguous result. 97% of the respondents were willing to act as mentors after retirement. The results have in that perspective found a promising alternative to keep senior management active in the market for a longer period of time, and help new entrepreneurs to success by decreasing the risk of failure.

     

    The paper we now would like to present at the ICSB World Conference 2005 in Washington DC is a continuation of the research on mentoring. This paper focuses on the potentially demand of having a mentor from the adept’s perspective. The results are based on a questionnaire sent to 200 new starters located all over Sweden.

     

    We know from research and practice, as the SCORE program in USA, that mentoring has a positive effect on new starters and therefore it is of great importance and interest to investigate further. When we look at mentoring programs they are open only for a small share of the total amount of new starters. Our earlier study revealed a high potentially supply of mentors that would by all means be a sufficient amount for all our new starters if the demand exists. Our research is a contribution within the field of supply and demand of mentors for new starters. Furthermore this could give new directions for governmental and other supporting agencies and indicate new directions for cost effective business development programmes within EU to SMEs and entrepreneurial firms.

  • 18.
    Hultman, Claes
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Marketing perspectives2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are almost six million small employers in the United States and millions of other businesses without employees.  In addition, hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of businesses located outside the United States and many non-profits located within compete for American customers.  The resulting cacophony makes it very difficult for the individual small-business owner to emerge from the din and market his or her firm and its products/services.  Still, small-business owners and managers have no choice.  They must reach their potential customer base they are to have any chance of survival, let alone success.  Thus the marketing attributes and strategies employed in successful firms are of particular interest to many and yield this issue of the National Small Business Poll, Marketing Perspectives.

  • 19.
    Hultman, Claes
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Löwstedt, JanMälardalens högskola.
    Contemporary research at Swedish Graduate School of Business: [business change and renewal : reprints]2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The Swedish graduate school of business - Swedgrad2008In: Contemporary research at Swedish Graduate School of Business: [business change and renewal : reprints] / [ed] Claes Hultman, Jan Löwstedt, Örebro: Örebro university , 2008, p. 11-17Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Dennis, W. Denny
    National Federation for Independent Business, Washington DC..
    Hills, Gerald E.
    SMEs and marketing in the U.S.: preliminary, descrivtive findings2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge generation regarding effective marketing management over the past fifty years has been based on the study established, mature, large firms. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively explore how marketing-related behaviors actually occur in SMEs. The data for the survey report were collected for the NFIB Research Foundation by the executive interviewing group of the Gallup Organization. We concluded that most small-business owners seem to have a good intellectual (although intuitive) business foundation on which to build an appropriate marketing strategy and a strong marketing plan. They value customers, seek repeat business to the extent possible, and postpone immediately profitability for long term growth yet the differences as compared to largecorporations. Most notable is less emphasis on systematic means of market evaluation.

  • 22.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hansen, David
    University of Illinois.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    University of Illinois.
    Marketing/Entrepreneurship interface: revisited and future directions2007In: The entrepreneurship - innovation - marketing interface: 2nd symposium, Karlsruhe / [ed] Reinhold Würth, Wolfgang Gaul, Künzelsau, Germany: Swiridoff Verlag , 2007, p. 3-34Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Marketing and entrepreneurship have existed as two independent, scholarly domains until recent years. In the past decade, the growing quality of entrepreresearch has led to new contributions to marketing knowledge. And market opportunities and marketing may be the two most important elements underpinning successful business creation. This article places these developments into a broader environment and historical context, proposes research propositions to guide further research, based on a qualitative study, and suggests educational implications.

  • 23.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Henningson, Thomas
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Wikholm, Jimmy
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Supply and demand of mentoring: implementing theory into practice2007In: ICSB 2007 World Conference, 2007, Turku: ICSB , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to share our knowledge and experience of launching an extensive mentoring programme for new entrepreneurs in Sweden, based on the supply and demand theories from our research. In our first study, we wanted to determine the supply of mentors. We therefore examined senior executives located throughout Sweden in a survey with 406 respondents. We designed a questionnaire comprising 61 questions, which was sent to 1,269 potential respondents, with a response rate of 32%. This survey produced an unambiguous result: 97% of the respondents were willing to act as mentors for new entrepreneurs and almost 50% were willing to become a voluntary mentor. In our second study, to determine the demand for mentoring, we examined new starters in different sectors located throughout Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to 1,022 new starters. We found that eight out of ten start-ups and nearly nine out of ten start-ups in their first year in business would like a mentor. The third stage was to see whether our results would work in practice. We were now confident that it was possible to run more extensive mentoring programmes, in terms of the number of mentors and adepts per capita, than previously. The third stage was therefore to develop a large-scale mentoring programme. This mentoring programme is now government-financed and is being rolled out in stages across Sweden. This paper will present an account of the process and the results that we achieved.

  • 24.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hills, Gerald, E.
    Bradley University, Peoria IL, USA.
    Influence from entrepreneurship in marketing theory2011In: Journal of Reserach in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1471-5201, Vol. 13, no 02, p. 120-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to point at some examples where entrepreneurship theory can influence the developments within marketing theory.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors present conceptual arguments for an increased attention to findings within entrepreneurship theory in the future research and education of marketing.

    Findings – Present mainstream marketing theory can be criticized for emphasizing managerial marketing behavior. Entrepreneurial activities are an important part of today’s business world and this should be reflected in how we teach and research marketing. The research interface between entrepreneurship and marketing can, therefore, create fruitful developments for marketing. Some examples are: opportunity recognition processes; how marketing decisions are made and implemented; and strategic marketing.

    Originality/value – The paper reflects the authors’ opinion and provides some arguments for an increased focus on entrepreneurial aspects in future marketing education and research. 

    Introduction

    The history of marketing theory is about a century old and other disciplines have had influence in its evolution. Starting in three parallel streams – institutional, commodity and functional – a rapid evolution took place after Second World War and escalated in the 1960s. Influences especially from behavioral sciences, organizational behavior and operational management have had strong impact on present marketing theory. The entrepreneurship discipline has evolved almost in parallel. A common view within entrepreneurship is that it all started with Richard Cantillion in the eighteenth century and developed with giants as Schumpeter (entrepreneur as innovator) (1934), Say (entrepreneur as coordinator) (1845), Kirzner (entrepreneur as arbitrator; opportunity-seeker) (1973) and Knight (entrepreneur as uncertainty reducer) (1921). Today entrepreneurship has gained world-wide acceptance as an important part of modern society as well as an established scholarly discipline. Influences between the two disciplines could be traced in the 1980s, however, it is hard to state when the first steps to research the interface between marketing and entrepreneurship started. The first research symposium of the interface was held in 1983 and since than entrepreneurial marketing (EM) has evolved to become more and more recognized. For a long period of time, EM was developed much along two trajectories; one with a focus on small business marketing behavior (Carson et al., 1995) and one with a focus on entrepreneur’s marketing behavior regardless of firm size (Hills and Hultman, 2011). The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/1471-5201.htm

     

  • 25.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Karlsson, Mari-AnnÖrebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Marknadsföring och den nya affärslogiken: antologi med fem resultatrapporter2002Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Wikholm, Jimmy
    Almi Företagspartner.
    Henningson, Thomas
    Almi Företagspartner.
    Mentor and mentee attitudes in mentoring for new entrepreneurs2008In: Advancing Small Business and Entrepreneurship: From Research to Results: Proceedings to 53th ICSB's World Conference 2008, Halifax, Can: ICSB , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A national governmental mentoring programme for new entrepreneurs was launched in Sweden in 2005. In Sweden there are now just over 2,000 mentors and mentees involved in the national programme.

    The purpose of this paper is to report of mentor and mentee attitudes towards participation in this mentoring programme. Data is based on extensive nationwide telephone interviews with 200 of the mentors and mentees involved.

    These results indicate that mentoring can be used to a much greater extent than was previously considered possible. If we harness the power of mentoring, we will see our new entrepreneurs developing much healthier and stronger enterprises.

     

     

  • 27.
    Kask, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hultman, Claes
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Blanda kanalerna rätt: Lämplig mix av marknadskanaler i detaljhandeln2016Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Kasouf, Chickery J.
    et al.
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worchester, MA.
    Darroch, Jenny
    Peter F. Drucker and Masotoshi Ito Graduate School of Management, Claremont, CA.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Miles, Morgan P.
    Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA.
    Service Dominant Logic: Implications at the marketing/entrepreneurship interface2008In: Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1471-5201, E-ISSN 1471-521X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research note is an exploration into the implications of an emerging school of marketing thought, service dominant logic (SDL), may have on the marketing/entrepreneurship interface.  First, SDL is discussed from a marketing perspective, then SDL and the traditional goods dominant logic of marketing are compared with respect to how they may impact a firm’s entrepreneurial processes.  Finally, a set of research implications for SDL at the marketing/entrepreneurship interface is offered.

  • 29.
    Kilenthong, Pitsamorn
    et al.
    University of Illinois, Chicago IL, USA.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    Bradley University, Poeria, USA.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Sclove, Stanley L.
    University of Illinois, Chicago IL, USA.
    Entrepreneurial marketing practice: systematic relationships with firm age, firm size and operator’s status2010In: Strategic entrepreneurship: the promise for future entrepreneurship, family business and SME research? : Rencontres de St-Gall 2010 / [ed] Urs Fueglistaller, Thierry Volery, Walter Weber, St. Gallen: KMU Verlag , 2010, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantitatively examines systematic relationships between firms' characteristics and entrepreneurial marketing. Level of firms' entrepreneurial marketing practice is hypothesized to be influenced by firm's age, size, and operator's status. Results from multi-group confirmatory factor analyses show that the level entrepreneurial marketing practice has a systematic relationship with firm's age, but not with the status of firm's operator. The impact of firm size on entrepreneurial marketing practice is evident when firm's age is also taken into account. This study concludes that relationships between firm's characteristics and entrepreneurial marketing practice are complicated than anticipated and that researchers need a good measure in determing the level of firm's entrepreneurial marketing.

  • 30.
    Kilenthong, Pitsamorn
    et al.
    University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    Turner School of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Bradley University, Peoria ILL, USA.
    Entrepreneurial marketing behaviours: impact of firm age, firm size and firm's founder2016In: Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1471-5201, E-ISSN 1471-521X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 127-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically test whether a systematic relationship exists between firms' level of entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviours and firms' characteristics, including firm age, firm size and firm's founder.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper quantitatively investigates EM behaviours from data collected from 752 business owners through structured interviews. The data analysis applied was multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (multi-group CFA).

    Findings: Results from the analysis show that not all of the firms' characteristics determine firms' level of EM practice. The level of EM behaviours has a systematic relationship with firms' age but not with the founding status of the firms' manager. The impact of firm size on the level of EM behaviours is evident only when the firms' age is taken into account.

    Research limitations/implications: This paper concludes that relationships between EM behaviours and firm characteristics are more complicated than anticipated. Firms' characteristics alone may not be a good measure for identifying the level of a firm's EM. EM cannot be conceptualized solely in relation to the activities of small firms, young firms or founder-operated firms.

    Originality/value: This paper examines EM behaviours in a large survey and uses multi-group CFA to examine firms' EM practice through latent variables, instead of observed variables. The findings should complement knowledge regarding the EM concept generated from existing literature.

  • 31.
    Kraus, Sascha
    et al.
    Universität Liechtenstein, Vaduz, Liechtenstein.
    Eggers, Fabian
    Menlo College, Atherton CA, USA.
    Harms, Rainer
    Hills, Gerald
    Bradley University, Peoria IL, USA.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Diskussionslinien der Entrepreneurial Marketing  – Forschung: Ergebnisse einer Zitationsanalyse2011In: Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, ISSN 0044-2372, no 6, p. 27-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Entrepreneurial Marketing (EM) is a research field that grows dynamically and that seems to be heterogeneous. Heterogeneity of a research field exacerbates the orientation in and the advancement of the field. Therefore, this article strives to inventarize the EM-literature and thereby to identify key discussion lines of EM research.

    Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, we first outline the history of EM research, and identify core authors and core journal Based on a citation analysis of 199 EM papers with a total of 6,222 references and an ensuing expert evaluation, we identify four key discussion lines: (1) theoretical foundations, (2) entrepreneurship-marketing interface, (3) new venture- and SME-marketing, and (4) EM in the sense of innovative, proactive and risk-oriented marketing. These four discussion lines and the respective literature constitute a framework for the advancement of EM research.

  • 32.
    Kraus, Sascha
    et al.
    University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Filser, Matthias
    Montpellier Business School, Montpellier, France.
    Eggers, Fabian
    Dep of Marketing, Menlo College, Atherton CA, USA.
    Hills, Gerald
    Bradley University, Peoria ILL, USA.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The entrepreneurial marketing domain: a citation and co-citation analysis2012In: Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1471-5201, E-ISSN 1471-521X, ISSN 1471-5210, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 6-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Entrepreneurial marketing (EM) is at the brink of becoming an established discipline. To advance the field further and to better guide research efforts in different sub categories, the purpose of this paper is to examine the field’s intellectual structure with the help of citation and co-citation analysis.

     Design/methodology/approach – This paper is based on a two-stage research design. First a citation analysis is carried out through which thematic clusters are identified. In a second step a co-citation analysis is conducted to determine the intellectual structure of EM research.

    Findings – This study exposes the most influential authors and publications and emphasizes conjunctions among scholars and their findings. Results show three streams that are the foundation of EM research: theoretical foundations of management, entrepreneurship, and marketing; the research interface of marketing and entrepreneurship; SME and new venture marketing.

    Research limitations/implications – The results of a bibliometric analysis are limited by the publications that have been selected as a starting point. However, through the selection criteria chosen to identify the database for analysis, the authors are confident that the results illustrate the intellectual structure of EM research in its entirety. The authors recommend that future research should be conducted in one of the three sub-fields identified in this study.

    Practical implications – By laying out different research streams within EM it is hoped that future research will be guided in different directions. “Fine-tuning” of research efforts will benefit small, new,and entrepreneurial firms.

    Originality/value – The analyses conducted in this paper draw a picture of the field that is based ona quantitative approach and therefore sets itself apart from other literature reviews that have aqualitative core.

  • 33.
    Perwik, Jimmy
    et al.
    Almi företagspartner, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henningson, Thomas
    Quatos,,.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Mentor and mentee attitudes in mentoring for entrepreneurs with foreign background2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A national governmental mentoring programme for entrepreneurs with a foreign background from 56 different countries was launched in Sweden in 2009. The purpose is the follow-up of mentor and mentee attitudes to participation in this programme. Data is based on extensive nationwide telephone interviews with participating mentors and mentees. Additional in-depth interviews were made to gain a better understanding.

     

    Overall, we found very positive attitudes indicating that the programme’s main content and structure is well adapted to the present situation. The results indicate that mentoring can be used to a much greater extent than was previously considered possible. However, improvements are needed in certain areas, for example in the area of motivation and commitment, there is still much to be done to achieve optimal results. Hopefully, our results may stimulate colleagues in other countries to create similar successful programmes to facilitate entrepreneurship among immigrants.

  • 34.
    Whalen, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, University of Denver, Denver CO, USA.
    Uslay, Can
    Department of Marketing, Rutgers University, Piscataway NJ, USA.
    Pascal, Vincent J.
    Management Department, Eastern Washington University, Spokane WA, USA.
    Omura, Glenn
    Michigan State University, East Lansing MI, USA.
    McAuley, Andrew
    Southern Cross University, Lismore NSW, Australia.
    Kasouf, Chickery J.
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester MA, USA.
    Jones, Rosalind
    Department of Marketing, University of Birmingham Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hills, Gerald E.
    School of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Bradley University, Peoria IL, USA.
    Hansen, David J.
    Department of Management and Marketing, College of Charleston, Charleston SC, USA.
    Gilmore, Audrey
    Department of Business and Enterprise, Ulster University, Coleraine, UK.
    Giglierano, Joe
    Department of Marketing and Decision Sciences, San Jose State University, San Jose CA, USA.
    Eggers, Fabian
    Department of Marketing, Menlo College, Atherton CA, USA.
    Deacon, Jonathan
    The South Wales Business School, University of South Wales, Newport, UK.
    Anatomy of competitive advantage: towards a contingency theory of entrepreneurial marketing2016In: Journal of Strategic Marketing, ISSN 0965-254X, E-ISSN 1466-4488, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 5-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial marketing (EM), born out of the practice of firms operating in conditions of uncertainty, is emerging as a powerful alternative to cope with the decreasing effectiveness associated with traditional marketing. In this article, the authors provide their collective position regarding the field of EM. A brief history and conceptual background of EM is presented and the contextual differences that have shaped its evolution are considered. Distinctions between traditional and EM are derived based on discussions of the concepts of size, speed, market, opportunity, risk, and uncertainty. The perspective of value co-creation in uncertainty is used to develop a contingency framework to serve as the foundation towards a general theory of EM. Operand and operant resources and environmental conditions are proposed to moderate the EM process from opportunity recognition to entrepreneurial organization, EM, and temporary competitive advantage. The theoretical facets are illustrated with seven propositions and directions for future research.

1 - 34 of 34
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