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  • 1.
    Braunerhielm, Lotta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Methods for collaborative geomedia: Development of place based tourism experiences2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast pace of technical development within the tourism industry creates a gap between technology and the resources and knowledge of many small business owners. By launching the Geomedia approach within the research field in tourism studies, we are building a bridge between technology and people and connecting media with a place-based perspective. This also influences our method.

    In this paper we present a pilot study as part of an ongoing research project, where the purpose is to develop a method for site specific digital media productions. Taking our starting point in two specific tourist sites, one nature-based site and one cultural heritage site, we use the historical geography in a coordinated innovation process. We have been drawing on knowledge from various agents such as researchers, digital developers, the public sector, tourism business and users (visitors / locals). In this paper we will discuss the development of a place-based method.

  • 2.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Jansson, AndréKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).Lindell, JohanKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).Ryan Bengtsson, LindaKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).Tesfahuney, MekonnenKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds2018Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book introduces and develops the concept of geomedia studies as the name of a particular subfield of communication geography. Despite the accelerating societal relevance of 'geomedia' technologies for the production of various spaces, mobilities, and power-relations, and the unquestionable emergence of a vibrant research field that deals with questions pertaining to such topics, the term geomedia studies remains surprisingly unestablished. By addressing imperative questions about the implications of geomedia technologies for organizations, social groups and individuals (e.g. businesses profiting from geo-surveillance, refugees or migrants moving across national borders, or artists claiming their rights to public space) the book also aims to contribute to ongoing academic and societal debates in our increasingly mediatized world.

  • 3.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för geografi och turism.
    Introducing Geomedia Studies2018Inngår i: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen, London: Routledge, 2018Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Introducing geomedia studies2017Inngår i: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Karin Fast, André Jansson, Johan Lindell, Linda Ryan Bengtsson, Mekonnen Tesfahuney, Routledge, 2017, s. 1-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Introduction to Geomedia Studies2018Inngår i: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan-Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, mekonnen, Routledge, 2018, s. 1-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    A spatial approach to fan labor: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo (2015) on Spotify, she mobilized her fans through an immersive marketing campaign that stretched across and beyond media platforms: an 8-bit game, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, Dreamhack, and a major Swedish music festival were key campaign platforms. The campaign construction was hardly unique, but rather illustrative of current trends in cultural production, including transmedia marketing and the increasing reliance on fan labor.This paper argues that informed spatial approaches to fan labor, and business strategies aimed to cultivate such labor, are missing in the existing research on cultural production. While descriptions of our transmediatized culture often-times do include spatial metaphors, such as “flow”, “stream”, “fluid”, and “liquid”, our conviction is that a more serious engagement with geography is vital for understanding, mapping, and ultimately critiquing industry practices that potentially are exploitive, unethical, and even harmful.Therefore, this paper suggests a theoretical framework for exploring the geographies of fan labor and presents exemplifying cartographies of authentic music marketing campaigns. The framework is influenced by two recent ‘turns’ in media and communication studies: the labor turn and the spatial turn. From labor theory, we borrow the idea that consumer engagement can be read as labor that is typically unpaid, affective, and voluntarily given. Spatial theory, next, provides us with a conceptual toolbox to disentangle the spatiality of transmedia marketing, including the relationship between physical and virtual elements.The notion of ‘transmediascape’ is brought in to describe the embodiment of transmedia marketing – in mediated and non-mediated spaces and flows. Such transmediascapes, the paper argues, can be read as the perfect soil for fan labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble fan affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Due to its multifaceted connotation – pointing towards both affectivity and mobility – the term ‘mobilization’ fruitfully bridges labor theory and spatial theory and serves, ultimately, as a key concept for analyzing contemporary forms of cultural production.

  • 7.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    A spatial approach to fan labour: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo (2015) on Spotify, she mobilized her fans through an immersive marketing campaign that stretched across and beyond media platforms: an 8-bit game, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, Dreamhack, and a major Swedish music festival were key campaign platforms. The campaign construction was hardly unique, but rather illustrative of current trends in cultural production, including transmedia marketing and the increasing reliance on fan labor.This paper argues that informed spatial approaches to fan labor, and business strategies aimed to cultivate such labor, are missing in the existing research on cultural production. While descriptions of our transmediatized culture often-times do include spatial metaphors, such as “flow”, “stream”, “fluid”, and “liquid”, our conviction is that a more serious engagement with geography is vital for understanding, mapping, and ultimately critiquing industry practices that potentially are exploitive, unethical, and even harmful.Therefore, this paper suggests a theoretical framework for exploring the geographies of fan labor and presents exemplifying cartographies of authentic music marketing campaigns. The framework is influenced by two recent ‘turns’ in media and communication studies: the labor turn and the spatial turn. From labor theory, we borrow the idea that consumer engagement can be read as labor that is typically unpaid, affective, and voluntarily given. Spatial theory, next, provides us with a conceptual toolbox to disentangle the spatiality of transmedia marketing, including the relationship between physical and virtual elements.The notion of ‘transmediascape’ is brought in to describe the embodiment of transmedia marketing – in mediated and non-mediated spaces and flows. Such transmediascapes, the paper argues, can be read as the perfect soil for fan labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble fan affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Due to its multifaceted connotation – pointing towards both affectivity and mobility – the term ‘mobilization’ fruitfully bridges labor theory and spatial theory and serves, ultimately, as a key concept for analyzing contemporary forms of cultural production

  • 8.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Geographies of free labor: Mobilizing consumers across immersive transmediascapes2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo on Spotify in 2015, she simultaneously released an 8-bit game for her fans to play on kiddogame.com. By sharing high scores, users could win merchandise especially put together by the artist. The game was also promoted by one of the most well-known Swedish gaming streamers, posting his own Kiddo Game competition to his followers. A week after the release, Tove performed at Dreamhack, which also shared the game on their website and on Twitter. Later that summer, a live version of the game was staged at a major Swedish music festival, where Tove also performed. The game was easily shared via Facebook and twitter, and while playing the game the album played via Spotify.Worldwide, the music industry struggles to come to terms with how to make profit in times of illegal downloading, streaming, and Spotifyication. One apparent strategy is to rely on consumer engagement. The Tove Styrke campaign could be read as a contemporary example of so called transmedia marketing; that is, as a “holistic content creation approach” (Zeiser, 2015: xv) that simultaneously involves multiple content platforms. The attraction of transmedia marketing lies in its potential to foster engaged consumers who are ready to “haunt” a brand experience across several content platforms. In this paper, we join with the burgeoning critical scholarship that interprets consumer “engagement” as a form of labor. Since much of this labor gets paid in affect rather than money, such labor has rightfully been recognized as a form of free labor.While both transmedia marketing and free labor has been subjected to many studies over the last decade, there is a lack of research initiatives that explicitly address the spatiality of both of these phenomena (though see e.g. Stork’s [2014] engagement with the “transmedia geography” of the Glee franchise). What is more; if it is rare to talk about the geographies of transmediality in the first place, it is equally rare to talk about transmediality, at all, in relation to music. Perhaps not so surprisingly but all the more inaccurately, there seems to be a prevailing perception that transmedia productions are exclusive to, at least traditionally, more narrative-bound franchises such as television, film, game, or comic books. However, storytelling is becoming all the more important also to music brands. Consequently, we identify a need for studies that acknowledge that 1) the notion of transmediality is applicable also to music, and 2) that the spatiality of transmedia endeavors is worthy scholarly review. Our conviction is that just as work-places constitute obvious research objects in relation to other kinds of labor, so do the transmedia “social factories” warrant scholarly attention.As to compensate for the identified research lack then, this paper investigates several actual cases of transmedia marketing in the music industry – and the free labor that such marketing potentially engenders – by way of qualitative content analyses that employ a cross-disciplinary conceptual framework. The framework combines theoretical perspectives from the ‘spatial turn’ and the ‘labor turn’ in media studies and allows us to approach, and visually present, transmedia marketing as a landscape – what we call a transmediascape. Such transmediascapes, our results indicate, can be read as the perfect soil for free labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble consumer affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Thus, due to its multifaceted connotation, pointing towards both affectivity and mobility, we find that the term ‘mobilization’ serves as a fruitful link between spatial theory and labor theory and a key concept for analyzing the geographies of free labor.

    The era of transmediatization is marked by increased reliance, in all the more societal spheres, on content that transcend singular media platforms and, accordingly, by new modes of media consumption. Much research has recognized, confirmed, and explored this transformation, and ‘transmediality’ has hitherto been subjected to relatively extensive theorization. Nonetheless, the spatiality of transmediality remains largely undertheorized. As to correct for this shortage, this paper proposes transmediascape as an analytical tool for discerning the complex topographies of media ownership, technologies, texts, meanings, and practices that constitute today’s transmediatized culture. With inspiration from work in both the ‘spatial turn’ and ‘labor turn’ in media studies, we recognize the transmediascape as an arena of labour, where both paid and unpaid forms of work are carried out. Ultimately, we argue, the concept of transmediascape works as a tool for mapping geographies of free labour across institutional, technological, and textual levels. The present study illuminates current modes of ‘transmediascaping’ – or the practice of cultivating good “soil” for profitable consumer engagement – by focusing the transmedia marketing campaign that launched British/Irish boyband One Direction’s album ‘Made in the A.M’, in 2015.

  • 9.
    Jansson, André
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Braunerhielm, Lotta
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Collaborative geomedia: A critical approach to the spatial production of heritage2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Jansson, André
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Artists out of Place: The Invalidation of Network Capital in a Small-Town Cultural Community2018Inngår i: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen, London: Routledge, 2018Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för HumanIT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Möller, Cecilia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    OMNIBUS NEWS: Engagement or bussed?2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the summer of 2013 the municipal public bus system, Karlstadbuss, installed television sets (BUSS-TV) on all city buses. These TV sets are airing user-generated content, and traffic information, weather forecasts as well as news from the hybrid commercial/public service broadcaster TV4. This paper addresses the phenomenon from the theoretical intersection of communication geography and journalism studies. This means understanding the city-buses, at once mobile and semi-public spaces, as decorated with a new “communicative texture” that is renegotiating the time-space nexus traditionally tied to news consumption. Furthermore, it potentially implies that a basic news diet become more or less dispersed amongst commuters across the city, and across previous class-demarcations that would engender divergent news diets. This constitutes a potential challenge to the notion of the fragmented news audience and related worries over the increased number of “news avoiders”. From previous research we know that news consumption, even accidental, is linked with political and civic engagement. In an era where media consumption is increasingly fragmented or even avoided, the buss-news reinstalls the almost inescapable news of the 1970’s albeit in a highly situated and limited context. Nevertheless, this new space of ‘news on the move’ is yet to be explored theoretically and empirically. Thus, we ask about the role of Karlstadbuss as a carrier of omnibus news in the media ecology. The paper uses data derived from representative surveys (Värmlands-SOM) conducted before (2010) and after (2014) the introduction of BUSS-TV to study the impact of travelling with the city-buses on political interest and civic engagement as well as general news interest and consumption.

  • 12.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Mapping networks: A case study of inner Scandinavia’s music community2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To have expanded social and professional networks and media-related skills are considered valuable assets in today’s globalized society. It is sometimes suggested that individuals may interconnect their networks to facilitate global connectivity and thus a global market, independent of location. This is often referred to as network capital that then may be transformed into economic-material capital. However this study seek to problematize how both networks and network capital enfold in relation to local place-specific conditions – here referred to as a local cultural ecosystem. The study explores how the local cultural ecosystem plays into possibilities of global connectivity within creative communities in rural areas of Europe, using the music community as a case. The point of departure is local established networks amongst semi-professional and professional musicians and stakeholders in the region of Värmland (Sweden) and Hedmark (Norway). The two networks exist on each side of the countries shared boarder, thus placed within different local cultural ecosystem. However common activities, geographical closeness and digital networks also interconnect them. These networks are mapped through personal interviews and focus groups with musicians and stakeholders, and by participatory observations at local networking events. This is a work in progress, however the intention is to identify prerequisites and barriers within these local cultural ecosystems and use these findings to specify measures to support and strengthen a creative community within a rural area such as inner Scandinavia.

  • 13.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Nätverkskapital i kulturella ekosystem: fallstudie inre Skandinavien2016Inngår i: Musikliv i snabb förändring – hur förändras forskningen?: Mirac: Music-focused Interdisciplinary reserach and Analysis Center, konferensbidrag, 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Re-negotiating social space: Public art installations and interactive experience2012Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital media technologies are becoming increasingly and extensively integrated into our way of living. We communicate, inform and entertain ourselves through media technologies in disparate spaces. When digital technology is integrated into our everyday environment, the border between media interfaces and physical environments is blurred. Traditional divisions of spaces dissolve and are rearranged, complicating the linkages between private and public spheres.

     

    The key phenomenon shaping these experiences with digital media technologies is interactivity. Interactivity intersects these spaces allowing users of mediated content to be affected by the actual, and vice versa. This study has emerged through the need for further research focusing on the term interactivity in today’s media practices, contributing with more targeted research and theoretical work concerning the interconnection between space and digital technologies. The study pursues interactivity by taking on a different perspective than earlier research, staging a qualitative study from a grounded theory perspective complemented by phenomenological theory. In this way interactivity is approached from diverse angles, moving away from earlier fixations on technology and placing it within social and spatial contexts.

     

    The study uses three contemporary Scandinavian interactive art installations, ‘Colour by Numbers’, ‘Emotional Cities’ and ‘Climate on the Wall’, to explore how interactivity plays into the relation between humans, technology and social space. The integration of interactive art installations in public space raises issues regarding humans’ sense of space and human relations vis-à-vis interactions with such artworks. The study finds evidence that interactive art installations can shift humans’ perceptions of space, allowing them to have social experiences and feel locally connected or anchored. Humans do not necessarily become placeless due to interactive technology. It may as well enhance space by converging with existing spatial references. The mediated and the actual may re-enforce each other expanding and transcending diverse spaces.

  • 15.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Svensson, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Williams College, US.
    From loss of life to loss of years: a different view on the burden of injury fatalities in Sweden 1972-20142018Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. 853-858Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Worldwide, about 5.8 million people die each year due to injuries. In Sweden, the corresponding number amounts to 3000. There are large differences among injury types regarding the age-profile of the fatalities and as most of them occur in older age groups, counting the absolute number of injury fatalities does not fully reflect the size of the burden of injury. Methods: Using age-and sex-specific life expectancy tables in combination with data on external causes of injury, the number of injury fatalities in Sweden for the time period 1972-2014 is converted to a sum of potential years of life lost (PYLL). We then fit cause and group-specific spline regression models to the data to estimate temporal trends in both fatality counts and PYLL. Results: There has been a steady reduction in the number of injury fatalities and in the sum of PYLL from the early 1970s to around the year 2000. Since then, there has been an increase in the number of injury fatalities and in the sum of PYLL. The upward trend is mainly explained by an increasing number of deaths due to poisonings and suicide, specifically among younger men. Conclusions: The increases in suicide and poisoning mortality offset the reductions in downward trending causes of injury mortality during the last decades. The share of PYLL is larger than the share of fatalities for both suicides and poisonings implying that an aging population does not cause the increase.

  • 16.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Edlom, Jessica
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    "#LookWhatYouMadeMeDo" Mobilizing fans in the contemporary music industry: - the Taylor Swift case2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On August 21, 2017, American superstar Taylor Swift launched an immersive marketing campaign for her upcoming album “Reputation”. Her first action consisted in a 10 second black and white film clip of a rattling snake. The clip was posted simultaneously on her personal Facebook and Instagram accounts and, generated massive response from her fans, who immediately started to speculate about Swift’s intentions with the video footage. The clip was the first of several efforts to invite consumers to participate in the album’s transmedia marketing campaign. The rattling snake video was followed by an international social media campaign effectively interconnecting diverse digital media platforms (Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Tumblr). The campaign involved very few traditional media appearances, but relied all the more on fan-based content and fan-initiated events. The fan base was anticipated to co-create content and take part in different joint events, not only online but also offline through for example pop-up museums, home-visits, and pop-up stores. 

     

    The music industry utilizes transmedia marketing due to its potential to foster fan engagement, or, as we understand it in this paper – fan labour. Fans produce and circulate content and facilitate the engineering of targeted marketing initiatives. The Swift campaign is thus an up-to-date example of how contemporary transmedia marketingemploy offline and online spaces to mobilize fans across and beyond media platforms. Buthow do fans responds to transmedia marketing and how do they navigate, act and perform across these online and offline spaces?

     

    This study investigates fan labour through a digital multi-method approach to the Swifttransmedia campaign. By collecting data from the artist’s social media accounts and hashtags specified by the campaign, we capture fan responses, actions, interactions and productions related to ‘laid out’ trails between the campaign’s online and offline spaces. The quantitative material allows us to map how fans move in the marketing time-space. Furthermore, the quantitative method guides us to places where more advanced forms of fan labour occur. As to deepen our understanding of how fan labour is performed within the Swiftmarketing universe, we complement the big data sampling with qualitative studies of specific transmedia places of engagement.

     

    Our results show that Swift fans (or ‘Swifties’) follow the paths prepared by the marketers. By placing events in different campaign milieus and by taking full advantage of technological affordances, fans are encouraged to migrate between campaign places. We identify different forms of labour in these places; notably, fans produce and share content with campaign producers as well as within their own networks, thus giving the campaign access to their social media networks and their productions. However, our study also detects instances of fan resistance. Fans use their voice to question specific campaign activities or if they feel sidestepped. Ultimately, our paper scrutinizes the blurry interplay between industry and fan engagement in transmedia spaces and offer – much needed – spatial perspectives on fan labour.

     

  • 17.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Transmedielandskapets geografi: Förädling av musikkonsumentens engagemang2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknadsföring av musik och artister blir i dagens medielandskap en aktivitet allt mer knuten till konsumenten. Konsumenter ombeds dela innehåll i sina nätverk, skapa eget innehåll som blir till marknadsföringsmaterial och besöka vissa specifika platser, både fysiska och digitala. Denna kvalitativa studie av 15 marknadsföringskampanjer åskådliggör hur konsumenternas engagemang blir värdeskapande för musikbranschen och hur konsumenternas aktiviteter kan ses som en form av (gratis)arbete. Studien visar också hur kampanjerna blir till vad vi har valt att benämna 'transmedielandskap' där konsumenter mobiliseras för att röra sig över detta landskap. Landskapsmetaforer hjälper oss att identifiera hur konsumenter uppmanas att följa tydligt utstakade stigar till olika fysiska och digitala platser (medieplattformar, events, konserter etc.) för att utföra väl specificerade uppgifter, och på så vis kultivera transmedielandskapet. Det synliggörs också hur samarbeten byggs mellan olika kommersiella aktörer för att mobilisera konsumenter där olika aktiviteter knyts till både tid och rum och ger ett kontinuerligt flöde i en kampanj. Genom denna studie bidrar vi till teoriutveckling kring konsumentengagemang som arbete och visa på engagemangets spatiala och temporala aspekter genom att teckna fram transmedielanskapets geografi.

  • 18.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Share! Like! Create! How fan is cultivated and practiced in the contemporary music industry2017Inngår i: 2017: AoIR Selected Papers of Internet Research, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When the band One Direction released their sixth album “Made in the A.M.” they marketed it through several joint events within different digital platforms. They used google streetview to create a fictional room, in which fans discovered new material and share it within their social networks using #MadeintheAM. In a joint event with Twitter they launched a 24-hour competition, asking which “country” loves One Direction the most. The 10 countries that were able to mobilize the most Twitter-activity on their country’s hashtag during a set period of time were rewarded with their own One Direction emoji. Just before the album release One Direction joined with Apple Music to stage an international competition that ran across several social media platforms and offered fans the chance to win tickets to an exclusive performance by the band. Connecting the music industry with media platforms combining social media happenings and live events, the campaign mobilized fans be part of the marketing of the album.

     

    Recently the music industry has struggled with how to make profit in times of illegal downloading, streaming, and Spotifycation. One overarching strategy developed in response is to rely on consumer engagement, making the One Direction campaign a contemporary example of transmedia marketing involving multiple platforms simultaneously. The willingness of the music industry to use transmedia marketing is related to its potential to foster consumers’ engagement in brand experiences across several content platforms (cf. Jenkins, 2006). Like other actors in the entertainment industries, labels and artists are increasingly interested in exploring the potentials of transmedia entertainment and how consumers – without payment – contribute to the production and circulation of content across and beyond media platforms. In this paper, we understand online consumer engagement as a form of labor that reconfigures users as digital publics. Since much of this labor is paid for in affect rather than money, such labor has been recognized as a form of free labor (se for example Andrejevic, 2008; Baym 2009; Fuchs, 2014; Fast, 2012).

     

    But the One Direction campaign also illustrates the spatial qualities of such campaigns through the diversity of initiatives taken to mobilize consumers to perform different actions and move between different media platforms. While both transmedia marketing and free labor have been subjected to many studies very few studies address the spatiality of both of these phenomena (though see e.g. Stork’s [2014] “transmedia geography” and “performance space” of the Glee franchise). Spatial metaphors offer both a way to represent and visualize the movements of the consumers, as well as to understand how marketing campaigns construct immersive worlds where free labor is promoted and exploited. Using spatial metaphors also enables a methodological approach to transmedia marketing, positioning actions and actors in relation to each other in time and space. We develop the concept of transmediascape to refer to such contexts, a term directly inspired by Appadurai’s (1996: 35) ‘scape’-metaphor, which accentuates the global flows of people, technology, capital, media content, discourses, and ideas. Indeed, we suggest that the music industry purposely constructs digital narratives that spill over from one media platform to another forming transmediascapes.

     

    This paper explores how music consumers perform and act within music marketing campaigns, posing the question: How do music consumers navigate across the transmediascapes constituted by marketing campaigns? In this study we follow the music audience movement within the promotional campaign of one internationally known artist, capturing the audiences’ actions and interactions by using the artist’s hashtag and additional hashtags specified by the campaign. A network analysis allows us to map how the audience moves through the campaign in time and space, and how the prepared trails guide the consumer to various media platforms (e.g. from the official website, to Instagram, to Spotify, etc.) It is important to note that the analysis includes the trails that run from online to offline spaces, or from virtual to physical places (e.g. from Facebook to festival site, or vice versa). However, we also seek to understand users engagement in the production of content, and how this content is then recirculates within the campaign. Thus we have chosen a nethnographic approach to the campaign material. The quantitative material guides us to instances where content production occurs, allowing a close study of these specific events. Thus this is an exploratory study, following the case study approach (Yin, 2003), to approach one specific campaign in depth by adopting a multi-method approach rooted in digital methods (se for example Kozinets 2009; Hjort & Sharp 2014).

     

    Our preliminary results indicate that consumers within the music industry are mobilized as they assemble consumer affect and promote physical as well as virtual fan movement. The consumer follows a path constructed by the marketing campaign, making consumers migrating between various spaces located in different platforms. We identify audience engagement in these events and how audiences both produce and share content with the campaign as well as within their own networks – thus giving the campaign access to their social media networks and their productions. We also detect instances of resistance, where the audience use the hashtag or distributed material in a way that was not intended by the campaign. Finally, our paper also contributes with methodological development where acknowledging the spatial dimensions of free labor and transmedia marketing provide an analytical approach to media consumers within the contemporary transmediascapes.

  • 19.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ambiguities of Network Capital: Experiences of connectivity and integration among artists and craftmen in the cultural ecosystem of Arvika, Sweden2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To have the resources and the ability to travel, to have experienced foreign cultures, to have expanded social and professional networks, and to possess media-related skills, are valuable assets in today’s globalized society. Individuals may expand and interconnect their networks, thereby facilitating global connectivity and a global market, independent of location. This network capital can then be converted into economic-material capital. This paper, however, demonstrates that local circumstances play into how network capital may be beneficial and converted into economic-material resources. This study builds upon individual interviews with artists and craftpeople with a mobile life history in possession of national, and international networks and moving into or returning to the provincial municipality Arvika, Sweden. They experience themselves as integrated into, and valuable to, local cultural life. However, they are prohibited from converting their network capital into local assets due to politico-economic structures and traditions built into the local cultural ecosystem. Thus even though local and regional culture life could benefit from their network capital, our findings show that local cultural ecosystem may resist and distance itself from possibilities to engage in and make use of accessible networks. This problematizes the relation between network capital as a “currency”, and, the local place-specific cultural ecosystem.

  • 20.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Arvikas kulturella ekosystem: Förutsättningar och hinder för nätverksskapande och utveckling av kulturella och kreativa näringar i Arvika kommun2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag ser många landsbygdskommuner behovet av att aktivt arbeta med att locka till sig turister och nyinflyttade tillika behålla sin befolkning i kommunen. En del i detta arbete är att finna specifika värden och fokusområden som kan definiera olika lokala satsningar. Denna studie är en del i Arvika kommuns arbete med att identifiera och utveckla det unika i just deras kommun, vilket ligger inom kultursektorn. Studien tar därför utgångspunkt i kommunens kulturliv för att närmare förstå och identifiera de förutsättningar och barriärer som finns för att bygga starka lokala nätverk för utveckling av kulturella och kreativa näringar. På så sätt blir Arvika kommun till ett slags mikrokosmos där dynamiker liknande de som präglar samhället i stort går att studera. Det handlar om interaktionen mellan centrum och periferi (stad/land), liksom om spänningsfälten inom det kulturella fältet (olika kulturutövare och producenter). Via längre intervjuer har studien sökt fånga dels hur detta kulturella ekosystem ser ut, dels hur användningen av olika slags (ny) medieteknik påverkar och formas av detta system. Resultaten har betydelse inte bara ur ett akademiskt perspektiv utan också för utvecklingen av kulturpolitiska strategier på lokal/regional nivå.

  • 21.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Nahnfeldt, Cecilia
    Research Department, Church of Sweden, Uppsala.
    EXPERIENCING GENDERED WORK LIFE DILEMMAS THROUGH VIRTUAL REALITY2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the finding and learning outcomes from a practice-based exploratory study investigating how immersive experiences in Virtual Reality (VR) environments can communicate awareness of structural gender inequality. Studies within organizational change show that working with real life stories in familiar situations is more likely to make individuals understand and change their attitude towards gender inequality. However, most organizations lack time, knowledge, and experience in conducting such work. We also know that for long-term organizational change, these issues need to be addressed over time, rather as one-time events. This suggests that to boost awareness and change attitudes to gender inequality in organizations, there is a need to explore different forms of representations that can emotionally engage individuals, represent subtle everyday situations and be used over time.

     

    Virtual Reality has the potential to offer engagement as they are immersive: individuals react to virtual situations and events as if they were real. Studies show that VR environments can evoke emotional responses from users even though the visual representation is not an exact copy of a real environment. Features that allow for experiences of immersion are: presence (being within the represented space), interactivity (responding to the actions by the user) and plausibility (representations are reasonable in relation to what is conveyed). Even though VR-technology has this potential the design of the interface is essential. This raises the following research questions: What types of stories function within such environments? How should stories be represented to evoke engagement in Virtual Reality? In addition, if a person feels intimidated or forced into a situation, they are less likely learn. What type of design allow users to feel immersed without overstepping their personal boundaries? To examine these issues, we put together an interdisciplinary team of interactive storytellers, VR-developers and researchers to develop and test an immersive VR-environment. 

     

    The material used in the VR-environment originates from a research based method developed specifically to work with issues of gender inequality in work places. It uses real life scenarios of gendered work life dilemmas abstracted from anonymous qualitative research interviews. Three different scenarios were developed to be able to investigate experience in relation to immersion, emotion, presence, interactivity and plausibility. The VR-environment was then tested by educated discussants with extended experiences in the method, followed by individual interviews and a group discussion. The study show that the scenarios conveyed plausibility and that users felt immersed and present, especially when addressed by someone in the environment and when using real film-footage. Interactivity ad to the experience of immersion when relating to body movement, however frustrating and insufficient when users are to be engaged in the scenario. However, a central learning outcome was that limitations of interactivity, experience of presence and plausibility can be beneficial. Using these limitations within the design can effectively convey frustration, go beyond stereotypical settings and ensure not to trespass personal boundaries. 

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