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  • 1.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine. Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and Assessment of Medical Technology, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine. Department of Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and Assessment of Medical Technology, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sahlberg-Blom, Eva
    Örebro University, Department of Nursing and Caring Sciences.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Department of Public Health, O¨ rebro County Council, O¨ rebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and Assessment of Medical Technology, O¨ rebro, Sweden; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Urinary incontinence - why refraining from treatment?: a population based study2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 301-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate why persons with urinary incontinence (UI) refrain from seeking care and treatment.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based study was undertaken in which a public health survey and a specific UI questionnaire were sent to 15 360 randomly selected residents (age 18-79 years) of Orebro County, Sweden. For all persons reporting UI, the expressed wish for treatment or no treatment was analyzed in relation to relevant variables from both inquiry forms using binary logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 64.5%. UI was reported by 2194 persons, 1724 of whom comprised the study population. A statistically significant association was found between the degree of UI and a desire for treatment. Persons who did not experience daily leakage and those who did not perceive the leakage as troublesome or having an affect on their daily life mostly stated that they did not desire treatment. Socioeconomic or other health-related factors were not associated with desiring or not desiring treatment for UI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it is the perceived severity of UI that determines whether afflicted persons desire treatment or not. Other factors, relating to seeking healthcare in general, were not found to be of importance. Interventions to identify those in need of treatment for UI should primarily be directed towards those with severe symptoms.

  • 2.
    Andrén, Daniela
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Clark, Andrew
    Paris School of Economics, Paris, France.
    D’Ambrosio, Conchita
    Université du Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Karlsson, Sune
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Nya sätt att mäta välbefinnande? En analys av subjektiva och objektiva mått2019In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 1, p. 44-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andrén, Daniela
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Clark, Andrew
    Paris School of Economics, Paris, France.
    D'Ambrosio, Conchita
    Université du Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.
    Karlsson, Sune
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Subjective and physiological measures of well-being: an exploratory analysis using birth-cohort data2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a rich longitudinal data set following a cohort of Swedish women from age 10 to 49 to analyse the effects of birth and early-life conditions on adulthood outcomes. These latter include both well-being and the stress hormone cortisol. Employment and marital status are important adult determinants of well-being. Log family income and absence from school also predict adult well-being, although their importance falls when controlling for adult and birth characteristics. Among the birth characteristics, we find that high birth weight (>4.3kg) affects adult well-being. We predict the level of adult cortisol only poorly, and suggest that the relationship between life satisfaction and cortisol is non-monotonic: both high and low cortisol are negatively correlated with life satisfaction. The results from an OLS life satisfaction regression and a multinomial logit of high or low cortisol (as compared to medium) are more similar to each other.

  • 4.
    Andrén, Daniela
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Clark, Andrew E.
    Paris School of Economics - CNRS, Paris, France.
    D’Ambrosio, Conchita
    Université du Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.
    Karlsson, Sune
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    New ways to measure well-being?: A first joint analysis of subjective and objective measures2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study is, to our knowledge, the first joint analysis of subjective and objective measures of well-being. Using a rich longitudinal data from the mothers pregnancy until adulthood for a birth cohort of children who attended school in Örebro during the 1960s, we analyse in a first step how subjective (self-assessed) and objective (cortisol-based) measures of well-being are related to each other. In a second step, life-course models for these two measures are estimated and compared with each other. Despite the fact that our analysis is largely exploratory, our results suggest interesting possibilities to use objective measures to measure well-being, even though this may imply a greater degree of complexity.

  • 5.
    Andrén, Daniela
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Mudenda, Lackson Daniel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Which firms employ older workers?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing emphasizes on the importance of allowing people as they grow older to continue to work according to their work capacity and preferences. This paper builds on earlier literature that shows that firms employ older workers, but they tend not to hire them, and provides an explorative analysis of the establishments that employ older workers. A special focus is on how sensitive are the findings when the definition of older workers become more restrictive. Using employer-employee data from Swedish administrative registers, we found that the difference in establishments’ employment is large enough to explain some of theobserved difference across definitions. The retirement age in the guaranteed pension scheme, i.e., 65 years, seems to be one the institutional settings that affect both the employees and employers’ decision for work after 65, but also the establishment’s size, age and ownership.

  • 6.
    Andrén, Daniela
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Emotional Health During Childhood and Adult Life-Satisfaction2019In: Fourteenth Workshop on Costs and Assessment in Psychiatry ‘The Value of Mental Health Services’ Venice - March 29-31, 2019: Book of Abstracts, John Wiley & Sons, 2019, Vol. 22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Franzén, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. 2 Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jan-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Centre for Assessment of Medical Technology, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Urology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Obstetrics and Gynaecology,Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden; Centre for Assessment of Medical Technology, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Urinary incontinence in women is not exclusively a medical problem: a population-based study on urinary incontinence and general living conditions2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 226-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyse differences in general health and general living conditions between women with and without urinary incontinence (UI).

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in Orebro County, Sweden. A public health questionnaire, "Life and Health", was sent to a randomly selected sample of the population. The questionnaire consisted of 87 questions on broad aspects of general and psychiatric health. An additional questionnaire was enclosed for those respondents who reported experiencing UI. The data were analysed using binary logistic regression. The final study population constituted 4609 women, 1332 of whom had completed both questionnaires. The remaining 3277 had completed only the Life and Health questionnaire. Effect measures were odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were found between UI and the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.20-1.76), fatigue and sleeping disorders (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.30-1.95), feelings of humiliation (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.12-1.50), financial problems (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11-1.66), and reluctance to seek medical care (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.21-1.68).

    CONCLUSION: UI among women is commonly associated with a number of different psychosocial problems as well as an expressed feeling of vulnerability.

  • 8.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Statistiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bias Reduction Of Finite Population Imputation By Kernel Methods2013In: Statistics in Transition, ISSN 1234-7655, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 139-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Missing data is a nuisance in statistics. Real donor imputation can be used with item nonresponse. A pool of donor units with similar values on auxiliary variables is matched to each unit with missing values. The missing value is then replaced by a copy of the corresponding observed value from a randomly drawn donor. Such methods can to some extent protect against nonresponse bias. But bias also depends on the estimator and the nature of the data. We adopt techniques from kernel estimation to combat this bias. Motivated by Pólya urn sampling, we sequentially update the set of potential donors with units already imputed, and use multiple imputations via Bayesian bootstrap to account for imputation uncertainty. Simulations with a single auxiliary variable show that our imputation method performs almost as well as competing methods with linear data, but better when data is nonlinear, especially with large samples.

  • 9.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Stockholms universitet, Statistiska institutionen.
    Binary logistic regression with stratified survey data2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Stockholms universitet, Statistiska institutionen.
    Informed kernel imputationArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Stockholms universitet, Statistiska institutionen.
    Kernel Imputation2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Department of Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kernel imputation: a method to reduce bias of hot deck imputation2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Consider a sample from a finite population with missing values, where the goal is to estimate some finite population characteristic, typically a mean or a total. One way of handling the missing values is hot deck imputation. Each donee unit that has some missing values is then matched up with a pool of donor units, based on the similarity between values that are observed both on the donee and its potential donors. The missing values are then filled in by copies from corresponding observed values on units that are (randomly) drawn from the donor pool.

    Hot deck imputation is good at preserving distributions among variables, and therefore provides robustness to nonlinear relationships. Estimates may however suffer from bias, if the continuity of the observed variables is not sufficiently accounted for in the matching of the donee to its potential donors, for example if continuous variables are categorized. The bias is especially evident if the donee is located at the boundary of the observed data.

    By incorporating several ideas from kernel density estimation, we propose how to reduce the bias of hot deck imputation. Also, as a way of accounting for imputation uncertainty through multiple imputation, we base our method on Lo’s (1988) finite population Bayesian bootstrap.

    Results from simulations show that our method performs at least as well as competing methods for the estimation of means and confidence intervals, especially given a larger sample size and nonlinear relationships among the variables.

  • 13.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Statistiska institutionen, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kernel imputation for a finite population2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Statistiska institutionen, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kernel imputation in Small Areas2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Stockholms universitet, Statistiska institutionen.
    Kernel imputation with multivariate auxiliariesArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Dept. of Statistics, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Multiple Kernel Imputation: A Locally Balanced Real Donor Method2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an algorithm for imputation of incomplete datasets based on Bayesian exchangeability through Pólya sampling. Each (donee) unit with a missing value is imputed multiple times by observed (real) values on units from a donor pool. The donor pools are constructed using auxiliary variables. Several features from kernel estimation are used to counteract unbalances that are due to sparse and bounded data. Three balancing features can be used with only one single continuous auxiliary variable, but an additional fourth feature need, multiple continuous auxiliary variables. They mainly contribute by reducing nonresponse bias. We examine how the donor pool size should be determined, that is the number of potential donors within the pool. External information is shown to be easily incorporated in the imputation algorithm. Our simulation studies show that with a study variable which can be seen as a function of one or two continuous auxiliaries plus residual noise, the method performs as well or almost as well as competing methods when the function is linear, but usually much better when the function is nonlinear.

  • 17.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Statistiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Real donor imputation pools2012In: Proceedings of the Workshop of the Baltic-Nordic-Ukrainian network on survey statistics, 2012 / [ed] Mārtiņš Liberts, Valmiera: University of Latvia , 2012, p. 162-168Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real donor matching is associated with hot deck imputation. Aux-iliary variables are used to match donee units with missing values to aset of donor units with observed values, and the donee missing valuesare ‘replaced’ by copies of the donor values, as to create completelyfilled in datasets. The matching of donees and donors is complicatedby the fact that the observed sample survey data is often both sparseand bounded. The important choice of how many possible donors tochoose from involves a trade-off between bias and variance. We trans-fer concepts from kernel estimators to real donor imputation. In asimulation study we show how bias, variance and the estimated vari-ance of a population behaves, focusing on the size of donor pools.

  • 18.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Some results from simulations with kernel imputation2010In: Workshop on Survey Sampling Theory and Methodology: August 23-27, 2010, Vilnius, Vilnius, Lithuania: Statistics Lithuania , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents someresults from the use of kernel imputation with boundary adjustment. The simulationsshow promising results and the method usually behaves equal to or better thancompetitive methods.

  • 19.
    Pettersson, Nicklas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    ELEKTRONISKA TEST SOM MOTIVERAR STUDENTER ATT VÄLJA FÖRBEREDELSE FRAMFÖR UPPSKJUTANDE2018In: NU2018 - Det akademiska lärarskapet: Abstrakt, 2018, article id Abstract: 729Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens tillgång till (sociala) medier och datorspel har lett till en kraftig ökning av prokrastinering (Steel, 2011). Typexemplet är en students frivilliga fördröjande av studierelaterad verksamhet trots att uppskjutandet förväntas leda till ett sämre utfall. Bortsett från en initial lägre stressnivå (Tice och Baumeister, 1997), yttras det i försämrat välmående och hälsa (Sirois och Pychyl, 2016) samt sämre studieresultat (Steel och Klingsieck, 2016). Förekomst av negativ ”statistikångest” i gängse statistik- och metodkurser är också hög (Onwuegbuzie, 2004).

    En stor utmaning för lärare ligger därför i att hjälpa studenter att jobba kontinuerligt och inte skjuta på sina studier. Utan tillräcklig repetition befästs ej grundläggande begrepp och färdigheter, varför djupare inlärning prioriteras ned på bekostnad av ytinlärning. I presentationen behandlas förändringen av en dugga, dvs mindre test under kursen som är poänggivande på sluttentamen, där ett tentamenslikt test ersatts av ’flipped classroom’- och ’gamificiation’-influerade veckovisa självrättande test i läroplattformen blackboard.

    Varje veckas inledande självstudier av anvisad litteratur, fokuserad på basfärdigheter och begrepp, underlättas genom testen där studenterna erhåller direkt feedback och flera slumpvisa försök tillåts. Härmed adresseras prokrastinering genom att testen är datorbaserade (Larwin och Larwin, 2011) frivilliga (Steel, 2011) för-test (Brown och Tallon, 2015) vilka är uppdelade (Vaessen et al, 2017), inbäddade (Sosa et al, 2011) med självtävlan mot en balanserad nåbar nivå (utifrån observationer i blackboard samt feedback i kursvärdering). Trots enskilda test bereds studenterna också en social kontext (Deci och Ryan, 1985) där lärandet kan fördjupas genom diskussion med andra studenter.

    Den nya duggan synes att bättre motivera studenterna att ta ansvar för sin egen inlärning genom att utgöra en utmanande lärmiljö. Detta märks genom att fler studenter lägger ned rimlig tid (enligt uppskattning från observationer i bland annat blackboard och kursvärderingarna) och kommer bättre förberedda varje vecka (vilket bl.a. märks på studenternas frågor). Studenterna väljer att vara aktiva och fokusera på rätt saker vid rätt tidpunkt (då de tar sig an duggan med dess grundläggande begrepp och färdigheter i början av veckan). Resultatet är en högre måluppfyllnad i såväl den aktuella som i efterliggande fortsättningskurs.

    Några preliminära resultat kommer att presenteras från ett pågående forskningsprojekt - syftande till att utvärdera, utveckla, samt vidga (den krävande) implementeringen – baserat på de data som generats under fyra terminer (med knappt 500 studenter inklusive deras ca 150 000 enskilda frågesvar) kommer.

1 - 19 of 19
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