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  • 1.
    Caruelle, Delphine
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Mkt, N-0484 Oslo, Norway..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). BI Norwegian Business Sch, Oslo, Norway.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lervik-Olsen, Line
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    The use of electrodermal activity (EDA) measurement to understand consumer emotions: A literature review and a call for action2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 104, p. 146-160Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a psychophysiological indicator of emotional arousal. EDA measurement was first employed in consumer research in 1979 but has been scarcely used since. In the past decade, the ease of access to EDA recording equipment made EDA measurement more frequent in studies of consumer emotions. Additionally, recent calls to include physiological data in consumer studies have been voiced, which in turn is increasing the interest in EDA. Such a growing interest calls for assessing why and how EDA measurement has been used and should be used in consumer research. To this end, we undertook a critical review of studies of consumer emotions that employed EDA measurement. We found that most of these studies did not sufficiently report how they recorded and analyzed EDA data, which in turn impeded the replication of the findings. We therefore make recommendations derived from the psychophysiology literature to help consumer researchers get meaningful insights from EDA measurements. Finally, we call on researchers to be more transparent when reporting how they recorded and analyzed EDA data.

  • 2.
    Huneke, Tabea
    et al.
    EBS Business Sch, Oestrich, Germany..
    Benoit (nee Moeller), Sabine
    Univ Roehampton, London SW15 5SL, England..
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Does Service Employees' Appearance Affect the Healthiness of Food Choice?2015In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 94-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Derived from previous research on social influence on food consumption and social comparison theory, this article examines the effect of service employees' appearance on consumers' food choice using an experimental study, involving a video manipulation and eye-tracking technique. The video shows a menu being proffered by a waitress whose degree of apparent healthiness varies (healthy, overweight, unhealthy lifestyle). The menu contains both healthy and unhealthy meal alternatives. The analysis of participants' eye movements demonstrated that exposure to the overweight employee did not stimulate greater (i.e., earlier or longer) attention to unhealthy meal alternatives, whereas exposure to the employee who displayed an unhealthy lifestyle did. These findings have social and managerial implications: The postulated stigma according to which the presence of overweight others encourages unhealthy eating appears questionable. Service providers that might secretly hire according to body weight have no grounds to do so. In contrast, employees signaling an unhealthy lifestyle through their style choices prompt patrons to pay more attention to unhealthy meal alternatives. Food service providers might want to take this factor into consideration and actively manage the aspects that can be altered by simple measures. (C) 2014 The Authors. Psychology & Marketing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 3.
    Högberg, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gamified in-store mobile marketing: The mixed effect of gamified point-of-purchase advertising2019In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 50, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of gamification on in-store mobile advertisement. More specifically, it investigates the effect of gamification on the inclination to act on offers gained at point of purchase. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted at a supermarket, where real customers were recruited. Eye tracking, smartphone activity logging and choice were used to investigate the customers’ behaviour. The results reveal that gamification is not always useful for increasing the tendency to act on offers. In fact, engagement in a gamified shopping task is needed; otherwise, the tendency to act on offers might even decrease when gamifying.

  • 4.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Mirror, mirror, on the menu: Visual reminders of overweight stimulate healthier meal choices2019In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 47, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether viewing an overweight (vs. normal weight or no) female on a food menu influences women's visual attention toward healthy and unhealthy menu alternatives and, in turn, their actual food choices. Participants (N = 121) viewed a food menu depicting healthy and unhealthy food options, with their calorie content stated, and selected the food option they were most willing to eat. Depending on condition, the menu featured an overweight female (unhealthy), a normal weight female (healthy), or no female (control). Participants in the unhealthy condition looked more at healthy (vs. unhealthy) meal alternatives than participants in the other conditions and were more inclined to choose healthy food options with lower calorie content, with visual attention toward healthy and unhealthy meal alternatives mediating the effect of experimental condition on calorie content and food choices. These results suggest that exposure to overweight women in food settings may make customers more motivated to choose healthier meals. 

  • 5.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Left isn’t always right: Placement of pictorial and textual package elements2013In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 115, no 8, p. 1211-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the positioning of textual and pictorial design elements on a package affects visual attention (detection time) toward these element types. The study has a 3 × 2 (Stimulus × Location) between-subjects design. One pictorial and two textual package elements, located on the top right- or top left-hand side of a package, were used as stimuli. Visual attention was measured by eye-tracking. A total of 199 university students participated. The data were analysed using a two-way ANOVA and a Pearson’s chi-square analysis with standardised residuals. The results show that in order to receive the most direct attention, textual elements should be on the left-hand side of a package, whereas pictorial elements should be on the right-hand side. This is inconsistent with previous design directions (based on recall), suggesting the opposite element organisation. Previous research has focused on recall (whether respondents remember having seen package elements) or preference (whether respondents prefer a package based on element positioning). The focus of the present study was whether respondents actually saw the different elements on a package, and how long it took them to detect such elements. Detection time for certain element types can be viewed as a new and complementary way of evaluating the position of package elements. The paper also addresses whether preference is a result of easy information acquisition.

  • 6.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Vision (im) possible? The effects of in-store signage on customers’ visual attention2014In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 676-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used two eye-tracking field experiments to investigate the extent to which in-store signage is used during navigation and decision making, and how the viewing of signage influences customers’ visual attention and choice behavior. One hundred and seventy-five customers at a grocery store were exposed to signage stimuli while carrying out predefined shopping tasks. Experiment 1 shows that attention toward signage is affected by customers’ levels of store familiarity and in-store search stage (navigation vs. decision making). Experiment 2 demonstrates that signage has a considerable impact on the direction and magnitude of customers’ visual attention during decision making.

  • 7.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Vision (im)possible: The effects of in-store signage on customers’ visual attention2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Spotlighting Customers' Visual Attention at the Stock, Shelf and Store Levels with the 3S Model2019In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 147, p. 1-6, article id e58846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several models of the in-store search process exist in the fields of retailing, marketing, and consumer-based research. The present article presents a new conceptualization of this search process, which captures customers' visual attention at three distinct levels of analysis: Stock, Shelf, and Store. We refer to this conceptualization as the 3S Model and illustrate its usefulness through three eye-tracking studies, one from each level of analysis. Our experimental examples, which range from manipulating certain stimuli on a single product (e.g., the placement of textual and pictorial packaging elements) to manipulating the entire shopping trip for customers during their stay in a store (e.g., through more or less specific shopping tasks), highlight the broad applicability of this alternative approach for understanding customers' in-store search behavior. Thus, our model can be seen as a helpful tool for researchers interested in how to conduct experimental eye-tracking studies that shed light on the perceptual processes preceding product choices and purchase decisions. The 3S Model is equally suitable in controlled lab conditions and under ecologically valid settings in the real retail environment. Furthermore, it can be used from the micro level, with a focus on the meaningful metrics on a particular product, through the intermediate level, with the emphasis on the area surrounding products in shelves and other in-store spaces, all the way to the macro level, examining customers' navigational paths throughout a store as a function of their shopping tasks, cognitive capacity, or ability to acquire in-store information.

  • 9.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Eye-tracking Customers’ In-store Search Behavior: The Effect of Store Familiarityon Visual Attention at Different Stages of the Search Process2014In: 2014 Shopper Marketing & Pricing Conference Proceedings / [ed] Grewal, Roggeveen, Nordfält, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Familiar Packaging in a Crowded Shelf: The influence of Product Recognition and Visual Attention on Preference FormationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In complex decision-making situations consumers employ a variety of heuristics to simplify their decisions. One such strategy is the recognition heuristic, which is employed in the initial stage of decision-making to construct a consideration set for further evaluation. The result of this process is that recognised products continue further into the decision-making process, hence receiving more visual attention. This paper focuses on the influence this increased visual attention has on preference construction compared with the preference formation from recognition of products. In an eye-tracking experiment, this study showed that preferences were constructed on the fly as an effect of increased visual attention. However, product recognition moderated the influence of visual attention on preference construction. The results showed that product recognition increased the effect of visual attention on preference formation. Consequently, recognition resulted in increased attention and increased attention resulted in construction of preference.

  • 11.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    What Does it Take to Get your Attention?: The influence of In-Store and Out-of-Store Factors on Visual Attention and Decision Making for Fast-moving Consumer Goods2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision making for fast-moving consumer goods involves a choice between numerous similar alternatives. Under such demanding circumstances, a decision is made for one product. The decision is dependent on the interaction between the environment and the mind of the consumer, both of which are filled with information that can influence the outcome. The aim of this dissertation is to explore how the mind and the environment guides attention towards considered and chosen products in consumer decision making at the point-of-purchase.

    Consumers are equipped with several effort reduction strategies to simplify complex decision making. The selection of strategies can be conscious or automatic and driven by information in the environment or the mind of the decision maker. The selected decision strategy reduces the set of options to one alternative in an iterative process of comparisons that are fast and rely on perceptual cues to quickly exclude irrelevant products. This thesis uses eye-tracking to explore this rapid processing that lacks conscious access or control. The purpose is to explore how product packaging and placement (as in-store factors), and recognition, preferences, and choice task (as out-of-store factors) influence the decision-making process through visual attention.

    The results of the 10 experiments in the five papers that comprise this thesis shed new light on the role of visual attention in the interaction between the environment and the mind, and its influence on the consumer. It is said that consumers choose with their eyes, which means that unseen is unsold. The results of this thesis show that it is just as important to be comprehended as it is to be seen. In split-second decision making, the ability to recognize and comprehend a product can significantly impact preferences. Comprehension stretches beyond perception as consumers infer value from memory structures that influence attention. Hence, the eye truly sees what the mind is prepared to comprehend.

  • 12.
    Shams, Poja
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Familiarity and preference formation during the choice process2012In: The Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye Tracking May 2-4, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Shams, Poja
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The verticality heuristic: Why top shelf is not always top notch in product placementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many factors influence the consumer’s attention at point-of-purchase (POP), and suppliers invest heavily in these factors to influence behaviour and to increase the likelihood their products’ will ultimately be chosen. This paper contributes to the research on decision-making at POP by exploring shelf verticality (vertical space position) and product packaging as factors influencing consumer attention, consideration, and choice. We explored the inferences consumers drew from shelf verticality and product packaging by measuring visual perception in the decision-making process. In two eye-tracking experiments with value specific tasks (premium or budget), we found that consumers made inferences based on shelf verticality, which in turn influenced the initial visual attention towards products on the shelf. Nevertheless, consumers ultimately made value inferences from product packaging in consideration and choice of products. The implication is that consumers anticipate premium products to be placed on the top shelf level and budget products on the bottom. Any deviation from this expectation leads to longer search time. The main contribution of this research is that consumers use shelf verticality to reduce the search effort, similar to a heuristic, when product search is initiated. Consequently, the optimal placement of a product should be based on consumers’ expectations.

  • 14.
    Shams, Poja
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Packaging placement and design as extrinsic cues: A visual perception study on non-durables consumer goods2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Shams, Poja
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Revisiting Russo and Leclerc2012In: ETRA2012, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, p. 389-392Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we revisit a seminal research contribution by Russo and Leclerc [1994], which identified three stages of the consumer choice process; (1) orientation, (2) evaluation, and (3) verification. Their three stage model broke with previous research favoring two stage models and it disconfirmed the models of planned analysis of choice in favor of an adaptive and constructive process [Wedel and Pieters 2008]. The aim of this paper is to replicate the original study by Russo and Leclerc [1994] to better understand the characteristics of the different stages of the consumer choice process. We argue that such a replication is needed due to the advancements in the technology of eye-tracking during the last 15 years and the detrimental effects of think-aloud protocols. In general, our replication of the research by Russo and Leclerc [1994] confirms the three stage model they suggested by, but we identify some noteworthy differences regarding the time it takes to make a decision and the mean observation time in the three stages

  • 16.
    Shams, Poja
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Using Heuristics to Revisit Consumer Choice Processes through the Eyes of the ConsumerManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to test Russo and Leclerc’s (1994) three-stage model and evaluate the influence that product familiarity and decision task have on the three stages of consumer choice process. Previous researchers have suggested that consumer choice is performed in a structured manner in a multiple-stage process. These stages are understood as sub-processes of a consumer choice process and consist of iterations of elimination and consideration within the consumer choice process. Russo and Leclerc (1994) identified three such stages – (1) orientation, (2) evaluation, and (3) verification – by studying variations of visual attention in the consumer choice for fast-moving consumer goods. We conducted three eye-tracking experiments with results that generally confirmed the staged consumer choice model suggested by Russo and Leclerc (1994). However, we identified differences in how the mean observation time varies over the three stages of the process. In contrast to the findings of Russo and Leclerc (1994), our results show that product familiarity influences the evaluation and verification stage of the consumer choice process as familiar products are attended longer then unfamiliar. The results show that the influence of product familiarity depends on the decision task, as familiarity has an influence on the consumer choice process when preference choice task is given, but not when a specific quality choice task is given to consumers. Additionally, the results of the experiments are interpreted in terms of heuristics to shed further light on the underlying cognitive processes of the consumer stage model. The results show that the influence of decision task and product familiarity is an effect of different decision heuristics employed during the choice process.

  • 17.
    Vakulenko, Yulia
    et al.
    Lund Univ, LTH, Sweden.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Hellstrom, Daniel
    Lund Univ, LTH, Sweden.
    Hjort, Klas
    Lund Univ, LTH, Sweden.
    Online retail experience and customer satisfaction: the mediating role of last mile delivery2019In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 306-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For various industries worldwide, recent years have been defined by the remarkable growth of e-commerce. Enabled by the Internet, retailers can reach more customers, spread much further in the distribution chain, and optimize their resources. In the new market environment, customer experience has become a source of competitive advantage. This study investigates the role of last mile delivery in the customer's e-retail experience. A quantitative methodology was used, which incorporated a survey that was conducted in Sweden and measured participants' most recent e-retail experience. The results indicate that the last mile delivery experience mediates the relationship between the customer's perception of the online shopping experience and customer satisfaction. These conclusions provide ground for further thorough investigations of the role of last mile delivery in the e-retail context and support e-retailers in increasing their customers' satisfaction.

  • 18.
    Vakulenko, Yulia
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Hellström, Daniel
    Lund University.
    Hjort, Klas
    Lund University.
    Service innovation in e-commerce last mile delivery: Mapping the e-customer journey2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 101, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The remarkable growth of e-commerce has defined the recent years of various industries worldwide. Driven by consumers, the e-commerce surge (e-retail in particular) stems from the final leg of the supply chain: the last mile. As the growing flow of e-commerce orders continues to generate new records for annual revenues, key actors in the last mile face the challenges of increasing customer demands and transportation volumes. In response, e-retailers and logistics service providers seek innovative service solutions, often powered by technological advancements. This study consisted of focus group interviews and a usability test that incorporated an innovative technology in the delivery service. The study provides insights into how service innovation affects e-customer behavior and presents a basic map of the e-customer journey. The findings also provide a foundation for improving management of the customer experience and aiding managerial decision-making when designing new e-commerce last mile services.

  • 19.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Heuristics and resource depletion: eye-tracking customers’ in situ gaze behavior in the field2014In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When we visit a retail outlet, we go there to complete some type of shopping goal. These goals may be very specific and precisely planned prior to entering the store, or more abstract, and something we think of on the spur of the moment. The stores may display tens of thousands of different products, making it difficult to achieve the shopping goal in a rational manner. As a result, we use different types of heuristics to meet our shopping goals. In this study, we investigate how a customer’s visual attention is influenced by their shopping goal, based on the results of three field experiments in three different contexts—a gas station, a sports store, and a grocery store. Firstly we establish that differences do exist in viewing behavior based on whether shopping goals are planned or unplanned. A more complex and unplanned shopping goal leads to increased observations of in-store stimulus. We then study whether or not the complexity of the first shopping goal also influences the viewing behavior of the next shopping goal, independently of the characteristics of the second goal. The findings confirm that complex decision heuristics deplete cognitive recourse. This finding results in diminished visual attention during subsequent choices. In turn, this has implications for a customer’s shopping behavior.

  • 20.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Consumer perception at the Point-of-Purchase: Evaluating proposed package designs in the eye-tracking lab2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer Perception at Point of Purchase: Evaluating Proposed Package Designs in an Eye-tracking Lab2010In: Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, ISSN 1751-8202, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s retail environment, consumer products are increasingly competing for customers’ attention. Research has shown that 60–80% of purchasing decisions are influenced in-store. Thus, packaging that stands out from competitors gains a competitive advantage. This study investigates the use of eye-tracking as a method to evaluate and design packaging with better Point-of-Purchase qualities. An eye-tracking laboratory was used and shoppers were recruited for three rounds of experiments. In total, 128 participants were recruited in order to assess the potential of eye-tracking. Results show that, when taking some methodological constraints into account, eye-tracking complements traditional methodologies with further insights when investigating the Point-of-Purchase qualities of packaging.

  • 22.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer perception at the point-of-purchase2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Peripheral vision and the consumer choice process2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Unsold is unseen … or is it?: Examining the role of peripheral vision in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology2018In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 120, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual marketing, the truism that “unseen is unsold” means that products that are not noticed will not be sold. This truism rests on the idea that the consumer choice process is heavily influenced by visual search. However, given that the majority of available products are not seen by consumers, this article examines the role of peripheral vision in guiding attention during the consumer choice process. In two eye-tracking studies, one conducted in a lab facility and the other conducted in a supermarket, the authors investigate the role and limitations of peripheral vision. The results show that peripheral vision is used to direct visual attention when discriminating between target and non-target objects in an eye-tracking laboratory. Target and non-target similarity, as well as visual saliency of non-targets, constitute the boundary conditions for this effect, which generalizes from instruction-based laboratory tasks to preference-based choice tasks in a real supermarket setting. Thus, peripheral vision helps customers to devote a larger share of attention to relevant products during the consumer choice process. Taken together, the results show how the creation of consideration set (sets of possible choice options) relies on both goal-directed attention and peripheral vision. These results could explain how visually similar packaging positively influences market leaders, while making novel brands almost invisible on supermarket shelves. The findings show that even though unsold products might be unseen, in the sense that they have not been directly observed, they might still have been evaluated and excluded by means of peripheral vision. This article is based on controlled lab experiments as well as a field study conducted in a complex retail environment. Thus, the findings are valid both under controlled and ecologically valid conditions.

  • 25.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ricardo, Matos
    Unveiling the Hidden Aspects of Service Innovation: Using Eye Tracking to Understand and Enhance Customer Experience2019In: Service Innovation For Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing And Capturing The Value From Service Innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter Magnusson, Lars Witell, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2019, p. 179-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    A walk on the wild side: Investigating attention during the consumer choice process in a real supermarket setting2013In: Book of Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements / [ed] K. Holmqvist, F. Mulvey & R. Johansson, 2013, p. 168-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have investigated different facets of attention during the consumer choice process. Objectives have included how variation in attention changes throughout the choice process (Russo & Leclerc, 1994), its effect on preference formation (Shimojo et al 2003), the general distribution of attention (Wästlund et al, 2010), the effect of shelf placement (Chandon et al 2009), and the effect of a central placement on attention and choice (Atalay, 2010). The common drawback of these studies is that they are static lab experiments using digital images, which has been shown to influence gaze distribution (Tonkin et al, 2011). Therefore, in this study we use a head mounted eye-tracker to replicate previous research studies in a real retail environment to see if the results hold outside the lab. Data from 63 participants performing choice tasks in a supermarket are analysed. The results show support for a number of findings from previous research such as the initial central fixation bias and subsequent overrepresentation of observations of centrally placed products. Furthermore, the results support earlier findings on the general gaze distribution during the choice process but fail to replicate the strong effect of centrally placed products on choice. Additionally, methodological implications are discussed.

  • 27.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Consumer choice processes and consideration sets2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With thousands and thousands of items to choose from in supermarkets, finding a product on the shelf can be a challenge. Naturally, consumers do not see all products nor do they consider buying all products they see. The consumer first screens the original set of products and then considers a reduced set of alternatives. The consideration set is evaluated and reduced to one alternative that is chosen (Lapersonne et al. 1995). The choice is actually a consumer choice process including several steps, e.g., orientation, evaluation, and verification (Russo and Leclerc, 1994).

    In the present study we investigated consumers’ consideration sets and consumer choice processes in an experiment with 52 respondents in a supermarket. The respondents were instructed to choose one package of sandwich meat that they would like to buy. The  experiment included two displays of shelves: The first shelf contained one section of sandwich meat and one section of products like pickled garlic and sun-dried tomatoes.The second shelf contained only sandwich meat but with two distinctly different types of packaging. Where the respondents looked first, if the chosen product were in that section, and how much they looked at areas outside their consideration set were investigated. The results show that in the shelf with two categories of products the participants hardly looked at the non-target products during the orientation phase or the verification phase. In the shelf with two differently packaged sandwich meats the participants looked at both parts of the shelf during the orientation phase but significantly more at their selfselected target area during the verification phase. These results highlight the importance of products signaling appropriate attributes in order to even be looked at.

1 - 27 of 27
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