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  • 1.
    Addo, Louis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hajiesmaeili, Mahboobeh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Growth and mortality of sympatric Atlantic salmon and brown trout fry in fluctuating and stable flows2023In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, no 2, p. 282-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-daily fluctuations in streamflow may have adverse effects on the biota downstream of dams in hydropeaking-regulated rivers. Although the stranding of salmonid fry is one documented effect of hydropeaking, little is known about the species-specific behavioural and subsequent growth effects of sub-daily flow fluctuations. We investigated the effects of sub-daily flow fluctuation on growth, mortality and behaviour of sympatric Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) fry (29–34 mm) in a laboratory experiment. The fluctuating flow treatment negatively affected growth and increased mortality for trout but not for salmon. The level of aggressive behaviour was similar in the fluctuating- and stable-flow treatments. Within the fluctuating flow treatment, there was a trend that more fishes were visibly active above the substrate during low than high flow. These findings suggest that hydropeaking-induced flow fluctuations may affect fry of different salmonid species in different ways and that brown trout fry may be more vulnerable to hydropeaking effects than Atlantic salmon fry. It can therefore be important to consider the possibility of divergent reactions by different fish species under hydropeaking situations and to incorporate species-specific strategies to conserve culturally and economically relevant riverine fish species.

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  • 2.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Griffioen, Ben
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Winter, Erwin
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fish Migration River Monitoring Plan2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish have problems passing the Afsluitdijk Dam that separates the Wadden Sea from Lake IJsselmeer. To re-establish the connectivity and thereby allow fish to pass there is an initiative to build a fishway, the Fish Migration River (FMR), at the Konwerderzand sluice complex. This report proposes a monitoring program to evaluate the functionality of the FMR, but also to monitor passage possibilities through the existing sluices. The goals of the monitoring plan are to estimate 1) The overall passage past the Afsluitdijk dam to and from Lake IJsselmeer, 2) The attraction efficiency, 3) The passage efficiency, and 4) The use of the FMR as habitat and for acclimatization for the transition into freshwater.

    We present an overview of previous and ongoing monitoring in the area to establish the current state of knowledge. The report also includes a presentation of available and suitable methods for a future monitoring program considering the broad spectra of target fish species, and their abundances. The proposed program includes a description of study design and available techniques and cost-estimates of the monitoring program.

    The proposed program will target ten species: European eel (aal), flounder (bot), three-spined stickleback (dreidoornige stekelbaars), twait shad (fint), North Sea houting (houting), river lamprey (rieverprik), smelt (spiering), Atlantic salmon (zalm), brown trout (forel) and sea lamprey (zeeprik). The monitoring program includes plans for how to capture, tag and track the study fish using the most suitable tagging techniques. Furthermore, the most optimal sites for installation of automatic data detection stations are identified.

    The total cost for the proposed project is 3.5 M€ and covers both investments in equipment and costs for personnel. However, if costs for investments in techniques such as RFId-stations and fish counters are excluded, the total cost is reduced to 1 M€ for a program running two years before and four years after the completion of the FMR. The program is considered sufficient to evaluate the FMR at Kornwerederzand from the most important perspectives: the overall passage efficiency and the use of the FMR as habitat.

    It should be noted that this report is the first step towards a full-scale monitoring program, giving insight into possible methods, study design and associated costs. The next important step will be to develop the program in more detail and to start the initial phase of the monitoring project. We predict that such activities will identify the need for, and the relevance of, a more extensive monitoring program to study the effects of the FMR on a population level and on a large geographical scale.

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  • 3.
    Degerman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural sciences.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Occurrence and habitat use of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in running waters: lessons for improved monitoring, habitat restoration and stocking2019In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, E-ISSN 1573-5125, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 639-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the management of the Europeaneel (Anguilla anguilla) in freshwater, it isessential to define important lotic habitats. Electrofishingdata from 289 wadeable, hard-bottom sites in 69Swedish coastal rivers and streams, originally surveyedfor salmonid monitoring, were used to evaluatethe effects of sampling- and habitat-related factors oneel occurrence. Probability of eel occurrence, asinfluenced by sampling procedure (sampled area,number of consecutive runs and ambient watertemperature) and habitat characteristics (size ofcatchment, dominating bottom substrate, shade, watervelocity, mean depth), was evaluated for small (totallength B 150 mm) and large ([150 mm) yelloweels. Data were analysed in a mixed presence/absencegeneralized linear model with dispersal (distance tomouth from sampled site), habitat and samplingrelatedvariables as covariates. The two modelsexplained variation in occurrence to 81.5% for smalleel and 76.2% for large eel. Probability of eeloccurrence decreased with distance from the rivermouth, and increased with sampled area, number ofruns, water temperature, coarser substrate and size ofriver. We suggest that future eel habitat restorationshould focus on lower reaches of larger rivers withsuitable coarse bottom habitats. Stocking of young eelshould be carried out in comparable accessible habitatsin the upper reaches where eel densities are low.The results also strongly indicate that eel may besampled together with young salmonids with DCelectrofishing in wadeable habitats.

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  • 4.
    Eggers, Florian
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Fiskevårdsteknik AB, Sverige.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hebrand, V.
    Fiskevårdsteknik AB, Sverige.
    Methods for the Assessment of Fishways (Upstream Fish Passage)2024In: Advances in Hydraulic Research: 40th International School of Hydraulics / [ed] Monika B. Kalinowska; Magdalena M. Mrokowska; Paweł M. Rowiński, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2024, Vol. Part F2923, p. 67-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation of rivers by manmade barriers has impeded the ability of riverine fish to move freely. Barriers can be improved by fishways that can partially mitigate the negative impacts by acting as aquatic corridors. Effective fishways require knowledge about the physiological and spatial demands of fish species, but the existing knowledge largely derived from laboratory settings. Evaluating fishway performance is needed for optimisation of their hydraulic design and positioning. Qualitative methods include trapping, electrofishing, and camera observations to estimate the number of individuals passing (effectiveness). For quantitative assessment, the study of individual fish behaviour can identify fishway sections in need of improvement and estimate associated efficiencies. This can be accomplished by telemetric techniques such as PIT tagging, radio, and hydroacoustic telemetry.

  • 5.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Winter sheltering by juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta): Effects of stream wood and an instream ecothermic predator2017In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal streams, juvenile salmonids spend substantial amounts of time sheltering in the streambed and in stream wood, presumably as a means of protection against the physical environment and from terrestrial endothermic predators. Relatively little is known about sheltering by salmonids in response to instream ectothermic predators.We tested the effects of burbot (Lota lota) on the winter sheltering behaviour of PIT-tagged 0+ brown trout (Salmo trutta) in daylight and darkness. Sheltering in the streambed by trout was studied in the presence and absence of fine wood bundles.We found that the use of streambed and fine wood was lower in darkness than in daylight. Availability of fine wood significantly decreased sheltering in the streambed, and this effect was more pronounced in daylight than in darkness. The presence of a burbot significantly decreased sheltering in the streambed, had no effect on use of fine wood and resulted in a higher number of exposed trout.Our results indicate that juvenile brown trout decrease streambed sheltering in response to a burrowing, ectothermic predator.

  • 6.
    Erlandsson, Ann
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Sverige.
    Lundholm, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergh, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Petrova, Elitsa
    Central Hospital Karlstad, Sweden.
    Alamdari, Farhood
    Västmanlands Hospital, Sweden.
    Helleday, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sverige.
    Davidsson, Sabina
    Örebro universitet, Sverige.
    Andren, Ove
    Örebro universitet, Sverige.
    Tarish, Firas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sverige.
    Infiltrating immune cells in prostate cancer tissue after androgen deprivation and radiotherapy2023In: International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, ISSN 0394-6320, Vol. 37, article id 03946320231158025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has long been a cornerstone in treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa), and is known to improve the results of radiotherapy (RT) for high-risk disease. The purpose of our study was to use a multiplexed immunohistochemical (mIHC) approach to investigate the infiltration of immune cells in PCa tissue after eight weeks of ADT and/or RT with 10 Gy.

    Methods: From a cohort of 48 patients divided into two treatment arms, we obtained biopsies before and after treatment and used a mIHC method with multispectral imaging to analyze the infiltration of immune cells in tumor stroma and tumor epithelium, focusing on areas with high infiltration.

    Results: Tumor stroma showed a significantly higher infiltration of immune cells compared to tumor epithelium. The most prominent immune cells were CD20(+) B-lymphocytes, followed by CD68(+) macrophages, CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cells, FOXP3(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs), and T-bet(+) Th1-cells. Neoadjuvant ADT followed by RT significantly increased the infiltration of all five immune cells. Numbers of Th1-cells and Tregs significantly increased after single treatment with ADT or RT. In addition, ADT alone increased the number of cytotoxic T-cells and RT increased the number of B-cells.

    Conclusions: Neoadjuvant ADT in combination with RT results in a higher inflammatory response compared to RT or ADT alone. The mIHC method may be a useful tool for investigating infiltrating immune cells in PCa biopsies to understand how immunotherapeutic approaches can be combined with current PCa therapies.

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  • 7.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Jakobi Sustainability AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Dept Environm & Life Sci, River Ecol & Management, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Temperature during embryonic development in brown trout influences juvenile behaviour in encounters with predators2024In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 322, no 3, p. 241-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in thermal conditions during embryogenesis can have far-reaching impact throughout ontogeny and may give rise to behavioural variation. Many animals, such as salmonids, exhibit behavioural trade-offs related to foraging and predator avoidance. How embryonic temperature affects these behaviours has remained unexplored. Not only abiotic conditions during embryogenesis but also biotic factors such as predator conditioning may affect fish behaviour, especially anti-predator responses. We examined how elevated temperatures and predator odours throughout embryogenesis affect the behaviour of 28-37 mm young-of-the-year brown trout (Salmo trutta) in encounters with predators, namely Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar; 20 cm) and burbot (Lota lota; 40 cm). Juvenile brown trout were more active and aggressive if they were incubated in warmer water as eggs than if they were incubated in colder water, and trout remained inactive longer when encountering predators if they were cold incubated. Brown trout were less active and aggressive when an Atlantic salmon was present than when a burbot or no predator was present. Behavioural responses did not differ between trout that had been subjected to water with versus without predator odours during embryogenesis, possibly because brown trout were not subjected to conspecific alarm cues during egg incubation. This study shows that thermal conditions during embryogenesis can influence fish behaviour early in life and thus contribute to behavioural variation, with potential effects on life history. Considering the rapid warming of northern regions, elevated embryonic temperatures may contribute substantially to variation in salmonid behaviour in the near future. Variation in environmental conditions during embryogenesis of salmonids can have far-reaching impact throughout ontogeny and may give rise to variation in anti-predator behaviour. In a laboratory experiment, we showed that elevated temperatures throughout embryogenesis increased the activity and aggression of 28-37 mm brown trout fry and reduced the time to first movement in encounters with predators (burbot and Atlantic salmon). Predator odour during embryogenesis did not affect brown trout fry behaviour.image

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  • 8.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Manuscript: Temperature and predator-mediated regulation of cortisol and brain gene expression in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Temperature and predator-mediated regulation of plasma cortisol and brain gene expression in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2020In: Frontiers in Zoology, E-ISSN 1742-9994, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Temperature affects many aspects of performance in poikilotherms, including how prey respond when encountering predators. Studies of anti-predator responses in fish mainly have focused on behaviour, whereas physiological responses regulated through the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis have received little attention. We examined plasma cortisol and mRNA levels of stress-related genes in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) at 3 and 8 degrees C in the presence and absence of a piscivorous fish (burbot,Lota lota). Results A redundancy analysis revealed that both water temperature and the presence of the predator explained a significant amount of the observed variation in cortisol and mRNA levels (11.4 and 2.8%, respectively). Trout had higher cortisol levels in the presence than in the absence of the predator. Analyses of individual gene expressions revealed that trout had significantly higher mRNA levels for 11 of the 16 examined genes at 3 than at 8 degrees C, and for one gene (retinol-binding protein 1), mRNA levels were higher in the presence than in the absence of the predator. Moreover, we found interaction effects between temperature and predator presence for two genes that code for serotonin and glucocorticoid receptors. Conclusions Our results suggest that piscivorous fish elicit primary stress responses in juvenile salmonids and that some of these responses may be temperature dependent. In addition, this study emphasizes the strong temperature dependence of primary stress responses in poikilotherms, with possible implications for a warming climate.

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  • 10.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of temperature and a piscivorous fish on diel winter behaviour of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2019In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 64, no 1+, p. 1797-1805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low winter temperatures constrain predator-detection and escape capabilities, making poikilotherms vulnerable to predation. Investigations of temperature effects on predator-prey interactions can therefore be of special importance in light of ongoing climate change, where winter temperatures are predicted to increase substantially at northern latitudes. Behavioral responses of stream fishes to terrestrial predators in winter are well recognised, whereas responses to predatory fish have received little attention. Using stream flumes, we examined the anti-predator behaviour of one-summer-old brown trout (Salmo trutta) at 3 and 8 degrees C in the presence and absence of burbot (Lota lota) under night, dawn, and daylight conditions. Burbot was placed upstream of the trout, separated by net screens. Lower temperature and the presence of burbot reduced trout activity. Light increased trout shelter use, and trout sheltered more in the presence of burbot. An interaction between the presence of burbot and light conditions affected trout position in the flumes: at night and dawn, trout positioned themselves further downstream when burbot were present than when absent, whereas during the day, trout maintained the same position in the presence or absence of the predator. Our results suggest that piscivorous fish, in addition to terrestrial predators, shape the behaviour of prey fishes in streams during winter. We show how predator avoidance results in altered diel patterns of juvenile brown trout under winter conditions, and that temperature has additional effects on trout behaviour.

  • 11.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Do predator odours and warmer winters affect growth of salmonid embryos?2023In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, no 1, article id e12747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions early in ontogeny can have considerable effects later on in life. Many salmonids spawn during the autumn, and temperature during subsequent embryogenesis may have far-reaching effects on life-history traits, especially when considering ongoing climate change. Even biotic conditions during embryogenesis, such as predation threat, may affect later life stages. Here, we examined how predator odours and increased temperatures affect embryonic growth and development of a fish (brown trout Salmo trutta). We found that embryos had lower body mass and greater yolk volume close to hatching when subjected to predator odours. Trout embryos incubated at temperatures representing natural winter conditions were larger than embryos incubated at higher temperatures, although the latter hatched earlier. Fry sizes at emergence did not differ between treatments, perhaps because of compensatory growth during spring. This study shows that predator presence can have similar effects on embryonic growth of salmonids as warming winters, with possible impact later in ontogeny. 

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  • 12.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Åsman, Veronika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Winter Behavior of Juvenile Brown Trout in a Changing Climate: How Do Light and Ice Cover Affect Encounters with Instream Predators?2023In: Fishes, E-ISSN 2410-3888, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 521Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During winter, stream fishes are vulnerable to semi-aquatic predators like mammals and birds and reduce encounters by being active in darkness or under surface ice. Less is known about the behavior of fishes towards instream piscivorous fishes. Here, we examined how surface ice and light affected the anti-predator behavior of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) in relation to piscivorous burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus, 1758) and northern pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758) at 4 degrees C in experimental flumes. Trout had lower foraging and swimming activity and spent more time sheltering when predators were present than when absent. In daylight, trout's swimming activity was not affected by predators, whereas in darkness trout were less active when predators were present. Trout consumed more drifting prey during the day when ice was present, and they positioned themselves further upstream when under ice cover, regardless of light conditions. Trout stayed closer to conspecifics under ice, but only in the presence of pike. Piscivorous fishes thus constitute an essential part of the predatory landscape of juvenile trout in winter, and thus loss of ice cover caused by climate warming will likely affect trout's interactions with predators.

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  • 13.
    Hajiesmaeili, Mahboobeh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Addo, Louis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Gammelkroppa Lax AB, Sweden.
    Railsback, Steven F.
    Humboldt State University, United States.
    Syrjänen, Jukka
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Kala- ja vesistötutkimus Vesi-Visio, Finland.
    Blixt, Marco
    Fortum Sverige AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sustaining high-value salmonid populations in regulated rivers: Insights from individual-based modelling of brown trout and Atlantic salmon2024In: Global Ecology and Conservation, ISSN 2351-9894, Vol. 51, article id e02887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To combat climate change, societal pressure to develop fossil-free hydroelectricity is growing. There is a great need, however, for environmental assessment tools that can predict the effects of streamflow regulation on biodiversity in hydropower-regulated rivers. Ecological modelling lets practitioners: 1) set broad bounds on population-level responses of key species and 2) identify knowledge gaps and prioritize research needs. Individual-based models (IBMs) are powerful tools for assessing relative benefits of alternative management actions, and therefore help to develop more sustainable hydropower solutions. We applied the inSALMO 7.3-SD IBM for populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (S. salar) in the lower Gullspång River, Sweden. We simulated the effects of various minimum hydropeaking flow releases (from 9 to 21 m3/s) on outmigration production. We found that the number of age-1 outmigrants of both species decreased with increasing minimum flow release of the hydropeaking scenarios. The number of age-2 trout outmigrants did not change considerably with increasing the minimum release, but decreased sharply at the highest flow. The most age-2 salmon outmigrants were produced by flow scenarios with minimum releases of 15 and 18 m3/s. The model predicts, therefore, varying species- and life stage-specific effects of flow regulation. Moreover, increased flow caused juveniles to stay in the river longer and outmigrate at larger size, which exposes them to simulated predation longer but could increase post-outmigration survival. By providing insights into mechanisms driving population dynamics, IBMs can help promote the sustainability of high-conservation-value fish species.

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  • 14.
    Hajiesmaeili, Mahboobeh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Addo, Louis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Steven F., Railsback
    California State Polytechnic University, USA.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Individual-based modelling of hydropeaking effects on brown trout and Atlantic salmon in a regulated river2023In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, no 3, p. 522-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed an individual-based model (IBM) to understand the effects of hydropeaking on growth, survival and distribution of age 0+ to 1+ juveniles for high-conservation value populations of native brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (S. salar) in River Gullspång, Sweden. We parameterized and applied inSTREAM (7.2-SD) and calibrated the model by comparing predicted versus observed growth under the current hydropeaking regime (n= > 1,200 model fish for 365 days). Our objective was to model growth, survival and distribution under flow scenarios with and without hydropeaking. We observed that hydropeaking generally resulted in modest (~10%) negative effects on growth and survival of both species. Survival was more affected than was growth, smaller fish more affected than larger fish.  On-peak (high) hydropeaking flows resulted in less profitable feeding conditions (less growth) and higher predation (lower survival). Thus, inSTREAM 7.2-SD appears to capture ecologically-relevant behavioral patterns under hydropeaking, e.g., habitat selection, in response to rapid flow changes. Understanding such patterns for large rivers via manipulative field studies, even if possible, would be time-consuming and costly. Our study demonstrates the potential of IBMs as powerful tools for testing research questions and assessing and prioritizing alternative management strategies in regulated rivers. 

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  • 15.
    Hansson, Mattias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lind, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Vernby, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The suitability of Hester–Dendy macroinvertebrate samplers in fluctuating flows2021In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 859-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable methods for assessing the ecological status of degraded rivers are essential for evaluating restoration efforts in lotic habitats. Several methods are based on biological indicators, such as benthic macroinvertebrates. The Hester–Dendy multi‐plate sampler is a commonly used tool for sampling macroinvertebrates, but its performance under different environmental conditions is not well understood. In a laboratory experiment, we assessed if fluctuating and increasing water velocity influences the performance of Hester–Dendy samplers, by studying colonization of the samplers in relation to a pre‐determined composition of benthic macroinvertebrates. Biodiversity (Shannon‐Wiener index) of colonizing macroinvertebrates was higher in a constant than in a fluctuating flow treatment, but there was no effect on the number of colonizing individuals. The results suggest a potential bias in the interpretation of biodiversity data from sites with sub‐daily flow changes, for example, downstream of hydropeaking power plants.

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  • 16.
    Harbicht, Andrew
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nyqvist, D.
    Politecnico di Torino, ITA.
    Virmaja, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Carlsson, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Aldven, D.
    Vattenfall Research and Development, Älvkarleby Laboratory.
    Nilsson, P. A.
    Lunds universitet.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Guiding migrating salmonid smolts: Experimentally assessing the performance of angled and inclined screens with varying gap widths2022In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 174, p. 1-8, article id 106438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of longitudinal connectivity in regulated rivers, both up- and downstream, has been detrimental for biodiversity worldwide. While progress has been made regarding upstream fish passage solutions, many questions remain unanswered regarding downstream passage alternatives. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Atlantic salmon (S. salar) smolts to experimentally assess the guidance efficiency and passage rates produced by several common screen-and-bypass fish guidance systems. Vertical screens with horizontally oriented bars extending across a turbine intake channel at a shallow angle (angled guidance screens), combined with a single, full-depth bypass entrance at their downstream end, were on average 20% more effective and produced passage rates that were 10 times higher than screens which extended perpendicularly across a turbine intake channel with vertically oriented bars that rose gradually towards the surface (inclined guidance screens) and with a bypass at the surface, on either side of the screen. Among inclined screens, gap width was negatively associated with guidance efficiencies and the smallest gap width (15 mm) exhibited a 41% greater guidance efficiency than the largest (30 mm). Among angled screens, performance was more closely linked to construction material as metal racks produced passage rates over three times faster than flexible Kevlar netting. Overall, passage through the guidance screens, and therefore into a tentative turbine intake area, was positively associated with gap width and was twice as prevalent among the inclined relative to angled guidance screens. Ultimately, an angled guidance screen with a 30 mm gap width produced the highest guidance efficiency and passage rates (a 30% improvement over the next best screen), while an inclined screen with a 30 mm gap width produced the lowest guidance efficiencies and passage rates. These results have implications for the suitability and performance of downstream fish passage solutions at both large- and small-scale hydropower plants where passage solutions are currently lacking or inadequate.

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  • 17.
    Hart, Paul BJ
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eriksson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lans, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rees, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Familiarity with a partner facilitates the movementof drift foraging juvenile grayling (Thymallus thymallus) into a new habitatarea2014In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 515-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preferring one social partner over another can enhance fitness. This paper reports that juvenile grayling were significantly more likely to enter and forage in new, upstream habitats when paired with familiar versus unfamiliar social partners. Fish paired with unfamiliar partners or when alone were more reluctant to enter the new area. The entry times for both fish in a familiar pair were significantly correlated, but uncorrelated for unfamiliar fish. These differences between familiars and unfamiliars were consistent over a 2-week period. Fish with familiar partners spent more time within three body lengths of each other than did those with unfamiliars. The results are discussed in relation to optimality models of drift foraging, which do not included sociality. It is suggested that the social dimension creates a more dynamic foraging response to variable environmental conditions and could have consequences for growth.

  • 18.
    Motyka, Roman
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lind, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Growth and behaviour of juvenile European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in sandy and stony bottom substrates2023In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 640-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how the physical habitat influences growth and behaviour is essential for developing effective habitat restoration programmes of threatened and endangered fish species. In our study, we compared the growth and behaviour of juvenile European eel during 13 weeks in aquaria with either sand (0.8-2 mm) or pebbles (25-40 mm) as bottom substrate. In aquaria with the pebble substrate, eel grew significantly faster than in aquaria with sand (specific growth rate 0.15 vs. 0.11% day(-1)). Moreover, growth rates varied more for individuals inhabiting aquaria with sand than in those with pebbles (coefficient of variation 1.26 vs. 0.67). Habitat-dependent growth rates may partly be explained by the observed differences in behavioural patterns. In aquaria with sand, eel left the substrate more often and moved close to the bottom or freely in water column. In aquaria with pebbles, eel remained hidden in the substrate to a high degree, also during feeding. These results may be important for prioritising connectivity- and habitat-restoring measures and for optimization of restocking programmes.

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  • 19.
    Motyka, Roman
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Aldvén, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Carlsson, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eissenhauer, Felix
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Harbicht, Andrew
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada.
    Karathanou, Eirini
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Knieps, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lind, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Downstream passage performance of silver eel at an angled rack: effects of behavior and morphology2024In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European eel is critically endangered due to heavy impact of anthropogenic factors, such as habitat fragmentation, overexploitation and climate change. During downstream migration, silver eels may encounter hydropower plants, which often result in delay or mortality from impingement on trash-racks or turbine passage. These problems can be mitigated with downstream passage solutions, such as angled racks that guide downstream-migrating eels to safe passage routes. The importance of bar spacing and phenotypic diversity for passage performance is, however, largely unknown. In this study, we investigated how morphological parameters (body mass, eye and fin indices) and behavioral score (open field test) influenced passage rate at an experimental intake equipped with a bypass and angled racks with either 15 or 30 mm bar spacing. Both racks were efficient in guiding eels into a bypass. There was a strong positive effect of body mass and a weak positive effect of open field test score on passage rate. Other factors such as eye and fin indices played a minor role. These results demonstrate the performance of angled racks with bypasses and form a useful starting point for further research regarding the relationships between individual variation in behavior, morphology and passage solutions for silver eels.

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  • 20.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Pettersson, Ivi J.
    Lund University.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University.
    Degerman, Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elghagen, Jonas
    Elghagen Fiskevard.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Substrate-size choice in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) elvers is not altered by piscivore chemical cues2020In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 1534-1537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla Linnaeus 1758 is critically endangered with recruitment estimated at 5-10% of historical levels. Enhancing survival of recruits is pivotal for conservation, and restoration should consider habitat choice of elvers ascending river systems. We experimentally show that newly ascended elvers choose small pebble habitat over finer and larger substrates, regardless of the presence or absence of piscivore chemical cues, indicating no predator-induced change in substrate choice. Enriching habitats with this substrate fraction should enhance eel recruitment as well as biodiversity at large.

  • 21.
    Nygvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Havforskningsinstituttet, Norway..
    Hedenberg, Filippa
    Student, Karlstads universitet.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    von Proschwitz, Ted
    Göteborg Museum Natur Historiska.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Tracking the movement of PIT-tagged terrestrial slugs (Arion vulgaris) in forest and garden habitats using mobile antennas2020In: Journal of molluscan studies, ISSN 0260-1230, E-ISSN 1464-3766, Vol. 86, p. 79-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Ritchey, Gabriella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Dispersal movements of non-native and native terrestrial slugs in an urban environment2023In: Invertebrate biology., ISSN 1077-8306, E-ISSN 1744-7410, Vol. 142, no 4, article id e12415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal movement varies from undirected dispersal to directed migration. Movement rates may have implications for conservation and resource management, as well as pest control, and they play a key role in invasion success. In slugs, long-distance dispersal is typically passive, whereas active movement is critical for local dispersal and determines access to resources such as food and shelter. Telemetry has recently been used to study individual slug movements in the wild, whereas movement in arena tests has explored mechanisms of interspecific competition and invasiveness in slugs. Studies that relate the performance of individual slugs in arena tests to their post-release behavior in nature are lacking. We measured individual short-term movement speed of commonly occurring native and non-native slugs of the genera Arion and Limax in arena tests and tracked their post-release dispersal movements in a garden by PIT telemetry. We demonstrate clear differences in movement behavior among the species, but non-native slugs did not display higher movement rates than their native congeners. In the arena test, slugs of the genus Limax displayed a higher short-term speed than slugs of the genus Arion, whereas in the field, individuals of Limax maximus showed lower dispersal rates compared to the other slug species. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between short-term speed in the arena test and movement in the field among individuals of L. cinereoniger, indicating the possible existence of behavioral syndromes in slugs, which may link movement ecology, animal personality, and the invasion ecology of pest species.

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  • 23.
    Piccolo, John
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Durtsche, Richard D.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Future rivers, dams and ecocentrism.2019In: The Ecological Citizen, ISSN 2515-1967, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 173-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the authors look at the subject of ecocentrism and future rivers, focusing mainly on the effects of hydroelectric production. Although rivers also have been dammed for irrigation and flood control in addition to hydroelectricity, the production of ‘carbon-free’ energy has recently been touted as a major solution to climate change. The trade-off between clean energy and the negative impacts of hydropower offers much food for thought for ecocentric theory – how much biodiversity loss are we justified in allowing now, for example, to avert complete ecosystem collapse in the future if we continue to rely on fossil fuel? The authors intend this article to be a starting point for discussion of rivers and ecocentrism in general, and they conclude with some specific suggestions regarding rivers and hydropower.

  • 24.
    Piccolo, John
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Foraging Behaviour of Brown Trout: A Model Species For Linking Individual Ecology to Population Dynamics?2017In: Brown Trout: Biology, Ecology and Management / [ed] Javier Lobón-Cerviá and Nuria Sanz, John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 1, p. 369-382Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Piccolo, John
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Experimental Data for Drift-Foraging Models: What's New and What's Next2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating net energy intake (NEI) of is a key requirement in a new suite of models being developed to assess habitat quality for stream fish.  To estimate NEI, habitat quality models use a drift-foraging sub-model, typically based on Hughes and Dill's (1990, CJFAS) well-known model.  The Hughes and Dill model estimates the energetic costs and benefits of a fish's position in the stream based upon swimming costs and prey capture success. The model includes a number of unrealistic assumptions about prey detection and capture, and swimming costs, however, some of which might be addressed through lab or field experiments. Here we present the results of some recent experiments on the effects of water depth and velocity, and cold temperatures, on the foraging success of juvenile salmonids. We demonstrate that prey capture success is reduced by both faster velocities and colder temperatures, and that swimming costs appear to play a minor role in estimating NEI.  We also report on the effects of fish species and size. In general, much experimental work remains to be done in the area of drift foraging theory, however, and we will discuss ongoing research and future needs.

  • 26.
    Rock, Sebastian L.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of parasitic freshwater mussels on their host fishes: a review2022In: Parasitology, ISSN 0031-1820, E-ISSN 1469-8161, Vol. 149, no 14, p. 1958-1975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater mussels in the order Unionida are highly adapted to parasitize fish for the primary purpose of dispersal. The parasitic larval stage affixes itself to the gills or fins of the host where it becomes encysted in the tissue, eventually excysting to develop into a free-living adult. Research on the parasitic interactions between unionids and their host fishes has garnered attention recently due to the increase in worldwide preservation efforts surrounding this highly endangered and ecologically significant order. With the exception of heavy infestation events, these mussels cause minor effects to their hosts, typically only observable effect in combination with other stressors. Moreover, the range of effect intensities on the host varies greatly with the species involved in the interaction, an effect that may arise from different evolutionary strategies between long- and short-infesting mussels; a distinction not typically made in conservation practices. Lower growth and reduced osmotic potential in infested hosts are commonly observed and correlated to infestation load. These effects are typically also associated with increases in metabolic rate and behaviour indicative of stress. Host fish seem to compensate for this through a combination of rapid wound healing in the parasitized areas and higher ventilation rates. The findings are heavily biased towards Margaritifera margaritifera, a unique mussel not well suited for cross-species generalizations. Furthermore, the small body of molecular and genetic studies should be expanded as many conclusions are drawn from studies on the ultimate effects of glochidiosis rather than proximate studies on the underlying mechanisms.

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  • 27.
    Schiavon, A.
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany; Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Comoglio, C.
    Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy.
    Candiotto, A.
    Freelance Ichthyologist, Predosa, Italy.
    Spairani, M.
    FLUME S.R.L, Loc. Alpe Ronc 1, 11010, Gignod (Aosta), Italy.
    Hölker, F.
    Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany; Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy.
    River Runs Dry: Movement Patterns of Telestes muticellus (Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) in an Intermittent River Stretch2024In: Advances in Hydraulic Research / [ed] Monika B. Kalinowska; Magdalena M. Mrokowska; Paweł M. Rowiński, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2024, Vol. Part F2923, p. 341-351Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermittent flow is a natural phenomenon in many stream systems worldwide. At the same time, droughts are an increasing threat to ecosystems as a consequence of climate change and water diversion. Severe droughts can change once suitable habitats into ecological traps that cannot support fish communities. Although individual fish movements can allow populations affected by drought to persist, the knowledge about individual fish movement between intermittent and perennial stretches remains limited. Here we present Italian riffle dace (Telestes muticellus) movement patterns (n = 17) in an intermittent and a neighbouring perennial stream stretch before and after a severe summer drought. Fish initially resident in the intermittent section had similar summer survival as fish from the perennial section. The majority of fish from the intermittent river stretch survived the drought by upstream movements to perennially watered reaches (87.5%). Fish from the intermittent stretch showed an average upstream movement of about 100 m, whereas fish from the perennial stretch remained relatively stationary within the stream. Our result highlights the ability of Italian riffle dace to cope with drought by a directed migration to river reaches with the perennial flow. It also underscores the need to preserve longitudinal river connectivity in the face of increasing water scarcity and associated intermittent flows.

  • 28.
    Schiavon, Alfredo
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Germany; freie Universität Berlin, Germany .
    Comoglio, Claudio
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Candiotto, Alessandro
    Ittiologo libero professionista, Predosa, Italy.
    Spairani, Michele
    FLUME S.R.L, Italy.
    Hölker, Franz
    Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Germany; freie Universität Berlin, Germany .
    Tarena, Fabio
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Navigating the drought: upstream migration of a small-sized Cypriniformes (Telestes muticellus) in response to drying in a partially intermittent mountain stream2024In: Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, E-ISSN 1961-9502, no 425, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    River flow intermittence is a natural phenomenon intensified by human activities, such as water abstraction and the effects of climate change. A growing number of rivers are predicted to experience intermittent flows, which may impact the diversity and abundance of freshwater species. Dry riverbeds directly diminish the availability of habitats for freshwater organisms, and suitable environments can turn into ecological traps with reduced survival rates, posing a significant threat to population persistence. Even though fish movements can enable drought-affected populations to persist, little is known about individual fish movement between intermittent and perennial reaches. Here, we study the movement of individual PIT-tagged Italian riffle dace (Telestes muticellus) in an intermittent and perennial river reach before, during and after two severe drying events. A high proportion of fish from the intermittent reach survived the drying riverbed through directed upstream migration. This was manifested in fish living in the intermittent reach of the river displaying significantly higher linear ranges, and net travelled distances during the monitoring period than fish in the perennial reach, which remained resident with limited linear range and net distances travelled. This finding underscores the importance of conserving longitudinal river connectivity in the face of increased water scarcity and intermittent flow patterns.

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  • 29.
    Tamario, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Sweden;Hokkaido Univ, Japan.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Sweden;Lund University, Sweden.
    Degerman, Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Coastal river connectivity and the distribution of ascending juvenile European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.): Implications for conservation strategies regarding fish-passage solutions2019In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 612-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many diadromous fish populations are declining and at risk of collapse. Lack of river connectivity is a major contributor to these declines, as free migration routes between marine and freshwater habitats are crucial for life-history completion. For the conservation and ultimately recovery of such species, it is imperative that remedial measures aimed at increasing connectivity are effective. This study investigated the distribution patterns of ascending juvenile European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) in rivers in south-western Sweden, with a focus on the effects of barriers and measures that aim to reduce the impact of barriers, i.e. fish-passage solutions (FPSs). Eel occurrence data were spatially and temporally integrated with the national databases of dams and FPSs in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to evaluate their effect on ascending eel distribution. The types of barriers assessed were: (i) dams with nature-like fishways; (ii) dams with eel ramps; (iii) dams with technical fishways; and (iv) dams without FPSs. Dams fitted with eel ramps or technical fishways, as well as dams without FPSs, produced a significant negative effect on the probability of eel occurrence upstream. This negative effect was not found for dams fitted with nature-like fishways, indicating that these solutions may function better than the other FPS types in this study. The probability of eel occurrence decreased with distance from the sea and increased with area sampled, number of electrofishing runs, water temperature, and with the size of the bottom substrate. We suggest that future conservation strategies for improving the natural immigration of juvenile eels should include optimizing FPS function (e.g. placement and design), the continued maintenance of FPSs, the construction of nature-like fishways, and preferably the removal of dams, which will also benefit the downstream migration of maturing eels as well as restoring other ecosystem services.

  • 30.
    Tamario, Carl
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.;Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Degerman, Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Coastal river connectivity and the distribution of ascending juvenile European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.): Implications for conservation strategies regarding fish-passage solutions2019In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 612-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many diadromous fish populations are declining and at risk of collapse. Lack of river connectivity is a major contributor to these declines, as free migration routes between marine and freshwater habitats are crucial for life-history completion. For the conservation and ultimately recovery of such species, it is imperative that remedial measures aimed at increasing connectivity are effective. This study investigated the distribution patterns of ascending juvenile European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) in rivers in south-western Sweden, with a focus on the effects of barriers and measures that aim to reduce the impact of barriers, i.e. fish-passage solutions (FPSs). Eel occurrence data were spatially and temporally integrated with the national databases of dams and FPSs in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to evaluate their effect on ascending eel distribution. The types of barriers assessed were: (i) dams with nature-like fishways; (ii) dams with eel ramps; (iii) dams with technical fishways; and (iv) dams without FPSs. Dams fitted with eel ramps or technical fishways, as well as dams without FPSs, produced a significant negative effect on the probability of eel occurrence upstream. This negative effect was not found for dams fitted with nature-like fishways, indicating that these solutions may function better than the other FPS types in this study. The probability of eel occurrence decreased with distance from the sea and increased with area sampled, number of electrofishing runs, water temperature, and with the size of the bottom substrate. We suggest that future conservation strategies for improving the natural immigration of juvenile eels should include optimizing FPS function (e.g. placement and design), the continued maintenance of FPSs, the construction of nature-like fishways, and preferably the removal of dams, which will also benefit the downstream migration of maturing eels as well as restoring other ecosystem services.

  • 31.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Hokkaido University, Japan.
    Brown trout in ice-covered streams: effects of surface ice on anti-predator behavior and habitat use2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Brown trout responses to ice cover2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Degerman, Erik
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Freshwater Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Orebro, Sweden.
    Tamario, Carl
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Freshwater Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, € Orebro, Sweden.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Climbing the ladder: an evaluation of three different anguillid eel climbing substrata and placement of upstream passage solutions at migration barriers2019In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 452-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation programmes for endangered, long-lived and migratory species often have to target multiple life stages. The bottlenecks associated with the survival of juvenile anguillid eels migrating into inland waters, the survival and growth of the freshwater life stage, as well as the recruitment and survival of silver eels, migrating back to the ocean to spawn, must be resolved. In this study, we focus on the efficiency of passage solutions for upstream migrating juveniles. Such solutions can consist of inclined ramps lined with wetted climbing substrata. We evaluated different commonly used substrata in a controlled experiment, recorded eel behaviour at the entrance of the ramp with infrared videography and validated the experimental results at a hydropower dam, where we also investigated the effects of ramp placement on performance. In the experiment on eel substratum selection, 40 % of the eels passed in lanes with studded substratum, whereas only 21 and 5 % passed using open weave and bristle substrata, respectively. Video analysis revealed that the studded substratum attracted more approaches and initiated climbs than the other substrata, but once a climb had been initiated, passage success rates did not differ between substrata. Eels using the studded substratum climbed 26 % faster than those using the bristle substratum and almost four times as fast as those climbing in the open weave. The superior performance of the studded substratum was supported by data from the field validation. Moreover, ramps positioned by the bank with low water velocities caught the most eels, but proximity to the dam had no effect on performance. To strengthen the European eel population, more juveniles need to reach their freshwater feeding grounds. A critical step to achieve this increase is to equip upstream passage solutions with suitable substrata and to optimize ramp placement at migration obstacles.

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  • 34.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Overwintering behaviour of stocked brown trout: effects of the rearing environment and river habitat complexity2017In: 50th Anniversary Symposium of the Fisheries Society of the British Isles, Exeter, UK, 3-7 July, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In channelized and structurally simple temperature streams and rivers, adverse winter conditions may challenge the ability of riverine fishes to adapt in terms of their behaviour and physiology. Access to shelter is a key habitat factor that may influence overwinter survival chances and, consequently, population dynamics. In many river restoration projects, structural elements are added to the river to increase the complexity of the physical environment. When this habitat enhancement is combined with a stocking programme, the stocked fish mayadopt different behavioural strategies to cope with the winter season depending both onthe rearing environment in the hatchery and the level of habitat complexity in the river. In this study, young-of-the-year brown trout were reared in either barren or structurally enhanced tanks, and the effects of the rearing environment on resting ventilation rate (proxy for resting metabolic rate) and score in an open field test (proxy for activity) were assessed. In side channels of a Swedish regulatedriver, trout were then released at untreated control sites or at sites that were structurally enhanced by adding whole trees to the water. Throughout winter, trout were tracked on a weekly basis, and their movements as influenced by the river habitat complexity and the previous hatchery environment were analysed. The rearing environment affected resting metabolicrates and activity, which resulted in different behavioural overwintering strategies, and adding trees to the side channels increased apparent survival. These results have implications for managing river restoration projects and further studies of stream fish winter ecology.

  • 35.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Salmonid behaviour under winter conditions2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Winter conditions are believed to play an important role in the population dynamics of northern temperate stream fish, challenging the ability of fish to physiologically and behaviourally adapt. Climate change is predicted to increase both mean temperature and temperature fluctuations, especially during winter, leading to dynamic environmental conditions in terms of river ice production and flow. Therefore, knowledge about the winter ecology of stream fish is important for predicting and mitigating anthropogenic impacts on fish production in boreal streams. Stream salmonids are relatively active throughout winter, and behavioural responses to different winter conditions may be critical for survival. Yet, relatively little is known about overwintering behaviour of salmonids, particularly in streams with ice. In this doctoral thesis, I report the results from experimental field and laboratory studies on the behavioural ecology of juvenile salmonids under winter conditions. My results from the field show that salmonids grow more and use a broader range of habitats in the presence of surface ice than in its absence. Results from the laboratory experiments show that the presence of surface ice increases food intake rates, reduces stress and affects social interactions. These laboratory results may explain the positive effects of ice cover on growth that was found in the field experiment. Moreover, I show that drift-feeding ability is reduced at low temperatures, and that nocturnal drift foraging under winter conditions has a low efficiency.

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  • 36.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Stress responses of juvenile brown trout under winter conditions in a laboratory stream2017In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 802, no 1, p. 131-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Winter can be a challenging period for fish in northern temperate rivers and streams, particularly in those that are channelized, structurally simple or regulated by, for instance, hydropower. In these systems, dynamic sub-surface ice formation commonly occurs and stable periods with ice cover may be short. Under these adverse conditions, access to shelters has been shown to be an important factor that influences overwinter survival, and exclusion from shelters by anchor ice may cause stress. Here, stress responses of juvenile brown trout under simulated winter conditions in an artificial stream were studied. Trout were subjected to three treatments in which the trout (1) were excluded from an instream wood shelter, simulating the effects of anchor ice, (2) had access to the shelter or (3) had surface ice cover in addition to the shelter. There was a positive correlation between ventilation frequency and plasma cortisol concentration. Trout without access to shelter had 30% higher ventilation frequency than trout with instream shelter and surface ice, but no differences in cortisol concentration or stress colour were found between the treatments. River regulation that reduces surface ice and increases anchor ice formation may lead to increased stress and consequently reduce overwinter survival rates.

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  • 37.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Structural complexity in the hatchery rearing environment affects activity, resting metabolic rate and post‐release behaviour in brown trout Salmo trutta2019In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 638-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of structural enrichment in the hatchery rearing environment of brown trout Salmo trutta was linked to post‐release performance. Enrichment resulted in reduced swimming activity scored in an open field test and reduced movement in a natural river after release. Also, enrichment increased resting metabolic rates, which correlated positively with overwinter growth.

  • 38.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Winter behaviour of stream salmonids: effects of temperature, light, and ice cover2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal streams, stream salmonids typically face low water temperatures and variable ice conditions during winter, and thus stream salmonids are expected to use different behavioural strategies to cope with these environmental conditions. The studies presented in this thesis explore how temperature, light intensity, and surface ice affect salmonid behaviour, with focus on drift-feeding and ventilation rates. The first paper reports results from a laboratory study designed to measure prey capture probabilities and reaction distances of drift-feeding Atlantic salmon, brown trout, and European grayling at light intensities simulating daylight and moonlight at seven temperatures ranging from 2 to 11°C. There was a positive relationship between water temperature and prey capture probability for all three species at both light levels, but the temperature-dependence did not scale according to the Metabolic Theory of Ecology. Reaction distance was also positively related to temperature for the three species, which may explain the temperature effects on prey capture probability. The results from this study should be of interest for those working with energetic-based drift-foraging models. In the second paper, the effects of ice cover on the diel behaviour and ventilation rate of brown trout were studied in a laboratory stream. Ice cover is believed to afford protection against endothermic predators, and thus the need for vigilance should be reduced under ice cover. This hypothesis was tested by observing ventilation rates at night, dawn, and during the day in the presence and absence of real, light-permeable surface ice. Further, trout were offered drifting prey during the day to test if ice cover increased daytime foraging activity. Ice cover reduced ventilation rates at dawn and during the day, but not at night. Moreover, trout made more daytime foraging attempts in the presence of ice cover than in its absence. These results suggest that ice cover affects the behaviour of brown trout and presumably has a positive effect on winter survival. Global warming, by reducing the extent or duration of surface ice, may therefore have negative consequences for many lotic fish populations in boreal streams.

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  • 39.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Aldvén, David
    Vattenfall Research and Development, Älvkarleby Laboratory, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Vattenfall Research and Development, Älvkarleby Laboratory Älvkarleby Sweden; Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Umeå Sweden.
    Aziz, Khadija
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Blixt, Marco
    Fortum, Sweden.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lund Bjørnås, Kristine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Ivan
    Skåne Administrative County Board, Malmö, Sweden.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Department of Environmental and Life Sciences River Ecology and Management Research Group RivEM Karlstad University Karlstad Sweden.
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Tielman, Johan
    Uniper/Sydkraft Hydropower, AB Laholm, Sweden.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Department of Environmental and Life Sciences River Ecology and Management Research Group RivEM Karlstad University Karlstad Sweden.
    Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Understanding river management through the ecosystem services lens2022In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 478-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Known as the “king of fishes”, the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, Salmonidae) is an iconic freshwater species whose contribution to human wellbeing has long been recognized, as have widespread declines in its abundance, partly due to river regulation. To understand how salmon conservation has been addressed within the ecosystem services (ES) framework, we synthesized the peer-reviewed literature on ES provided by salmon in regulated rivers. We developed a search string to capture allusions to provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural ES and assessed the results to identify knowledge gaps. The effects of hydropower on fisheries catches and on modelled populations were shown is several publications. Overall, few studies focused explicitly on ES from salmon and hydropower; this is surprising given the considerable body of literature on salmon in regulated rivers. Wild salmon as a food source and other provisioning services are less important today than historically. Because predators such as salmon are important for facilitating biodiversity by cycling nutrients and controlling food webs, there is a scope of work for future assessments of these regulating and supporting services. Few papers explicitly addressed cultural ES, despite the salmon’s longstanding iconic status; this is a knowledge gap for future ES assessments in relation to hydropower. The influence of ES assessments for policy makers is growing through the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the post-2020 biodiversity strategy. Explicitly addressing ES poses an opportunity for river managers to raise awareness of aquatic conservation efforts and well-informed decision-making for sustaining ES.

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  • 40.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Alvdén, David
    Vattenfall Research and Development.
    Brouziotis, Antonis Apostolos
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Carlsson, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Karathanou, Eirini
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lund Bjørnås, Kristine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lundqvist, Gustav
    Vattenfall Research and Development.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Social behaviour of European grayling before and after flow peaks in restored and unrestored habitats2020In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 1646-1655-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost‐effective implementation of fish‐friendly hydropower flow operation and habitat restoration measures require an understanding of their effects on fitness‐related behaviours of stream fish. Here, we investigated how changes in flow and bottom structure influence the social behaviour of European grayling, using large experimental flumes (700 L s−1), with and without added boulders (i.e., restored and unrestored habitat). Grayling increased their distance to nearest neighbour at the start of flow ramping up and after a flow peak compared to stable base flow. At the start of ramping up the flow, grayling made less position changes (movements >1 m) than at stable base flow and after a flow peak. In the unrestored habitat, the proportion of time grayling spent actively swimming was lower before a flow peak than it was both at the start of ramping up the flow and after the peak, an effect not found in the restored habitat. In addition, we compared two static flows, and habitat restoration mediated their effect on distance to nearest neighbour. Grayling in the restored habitat were positioned closer to each other in the low (~10 cm s−1) than in the intermediate static flow (~40 cm s−1), whereas in the unrestored habitat, grayling showed the opposite pattern. Moreover, grayling reduced their number of position changes in the intermediate static flow, which was reflected by a reduction in active swimming. Stomach analysis after the trials revealed that foraging success was higher in variable than in the stable flow treatment. These results show that flow magnitude, flow changes and instream structure play important roles in the behaviour of stream fishes.

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  • 41.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Enefalk, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Fortum generation.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Jonsson, Bror
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Norsk institutt for naturforskning, Oslo.
    Ice cover alters the behavior and stress level of brown trout Salmo trutta2015In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 820-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface ice in rivers and lakes buffers the thermal environment and provides overhead cover, protecting aquatic animals from terrestrial predators. We tested if surface ice influenced the behavior (swimming activity, aggressive encounters, and number of food items eaten) and stress level (coloration of eyes and body) of stream-living brown trout Salmo trutta at temperatures of 3–4 °C in indoor experimental flumes. We hypothesized that an individual’s resting metabolic rate (RMR, as measured by resting ventilation rate) would affect winter behavior. Therefore, groups of 4 trout, consisting of individuals with high, low, or mixed (2 individuals each) RMR, were exposed to experimental conditions with or without ice cover. Ice cover reduced stress responses, as evaluated by body coloration. Also, trout in low RMR groups had a paler body color than those in both mixed and high RMR groups. Trout increased their swimming activity under ice cover, with the highest activity found in high RMR groups. Ice cover increased the number of aggressive encounters but did not influence the number of drifting food items taken by each group. In mixed RMR groups, however, single individuals were better able to monopolize food than in the other groups. As the presence of surface ice increases the activity level and reduces stress in stream-living trout, ice cover should influence their energy budgets and production. The results should be viewed in light of ongoing global warming that reduces the duration of ice cover, especially at high latitudes and altitudes.

  • 42.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Effects of ice cover on the behaviour and growth of brown trout2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Effects of ice cover on the diel behaviour and ventilation rate of juvenile brown trout2013In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 2325-2332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Winter ice conditions in boreal streams are highly variable, and behavioural responses by fish to river ice may affect overwinter survival rates. One type of ice, surface ice, stabilises water temperatures, reduces instream light levels and may provide overhead cover.
    2. Because surface ice is believed to afford protection against endothermic predators, we predicted that metabolic costs associated with vigilance would be lower under surface ice than in areas lacking surface ice. This potentially favourable effect of ice cover was tested by observing ventilation rates of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a laboratory stream at dawn, during the day and at night in the presence and absence of real, light-permeable surface ice. Further, we offered trout drifting prey during daylight to test whether ice cover increased daytime foraging activity.
    3. Ice cover reduced ventilation rates during the day, but not at night or dawn. Moreover, fish made more daytime foraging attempts in the presence of ice cover than in its absence.
    4. We suggest that the most plausible explanation for these results is that fish experience a reduced perceived predation risk under surface ice.
  • 44.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Ice cover affects the growth of a stream-dwelling fish2016In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 181, no 1, p. 299-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection provided by shelter is important for survival and affects the time and energy budgets of animals. It has been suggested that in fresh waters at high latitudes and altitudes, surface ice during winter functions as overhead cover for fish, reducing the predation risk from terrestrial piscivores. We simulated ice cover by suspending plastic sheeting over five 30-m-long stream sections in a boreal forest stream and examined its effects on the growth and habitat use of brown trout (Salmo trutta) during winter. Trout that spent the winter under the artificial ice cover grew more than those in the control (uncovered) sections. Moreover, tracking of trout tagged with passive integrated transponders showed that in the absence of the artificial ice cover, habitat use during the day was restricted to the stream edges, often under undercut banks, whereas under the simulated ice cover condition, trout used the entire width of the stream. These results indicate that the presence of surface ice cover may improve the energetic status and broaden habitat use of stream fish during winter. It is therefore likely that reductions in the duration and extent of ice cover due to climate change will alter time and energy budgets, with potentially negative effects on fish production.

  • 45.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Prey capture rates of two species of salmonids (Salmo trutta and Thymallus thymallus) in an artificial stream: effects of temperature on their functional response2014In: Marine and Freshwater Behaviour & Physiology, ISSN 1023-6244, E-ISSN 1029-0362, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The foraging success of predators depends on how their consumption of prey is affected by prey density under different environmental settings. Here, we measured prey capture rates of drift-feeding juvenile brown trout and European grayling at different prey densities in an artificial stream channel at 5 and 11 °C. Capture rates were lower at 5 than at 11 °C, and the difference was most pronounced at high prey densities. At high prey densities, we also observed that European grayling had higher capture rates than brown trout. Type III functional response curves, i.e. sigmoidal relationships between capture rates and prey densities, fitted the data better than type I (linear) and II (hyperbolic) curves for all four combinations of temperatures and species. These results may explain the dominance of grayling in stream habitats with low water velocities and results such as these may be of use when developing foraging-based food web models of lotic ecosystems that include drift-feeding salmonids.

  • 46.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Winter Behavior of Brown Trout: The Presence of Ice Cover Influences Activity, Stress and Growth2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predation on fish by mammals and birds may be high during winter in boreal streams, and juvenile salmonids respond by reducing their daytime activity to minimize exposure. Surface ice may offer protection from terrestrial predators, and salmonids under ice cover should spend less time on anti-predator behaviors and increase their activity. Using brown trout as a test species, these predictions were tested in laboratory and field experiments.

    In an artificial laboratory stream, the presence of ice cover reduced stress and increased swimming activity, foraging and aggression. The effect of ice cover on activity was greatest for trout with high resting metabolic rates, suggesting that individual intraspecific differences in metabolism may influence the strategies used to cope with different winter conditions. In a boreal forest stream, we simulated ice by suspending plastic sheeting over five 30-m-long stretches, and trout that spent winter under this simulated ice cover grew better than trout in control stretches. These results may explain why salmonid production is high in rivers with long periods of stable ice cover and should be viewed in light of ongoing global warming.

  • 47.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Carlsson, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Teemu, Collin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Huusko, Ari
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Kainuu Fisheries Research Station, Paltamo, Finland.
    Jörgen, Johnsson
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Gammelkroppa Lax, Filipstad.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Institute of Marine Research in Norway, Bergen, Norway.
    Wood addition in the hatchery and river environments affectspost-releaseperformance of overwintering brown trout2018In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Habitat structural complexity affects the behaviour and physiology of individuals,and responses to the environment can be immediate or influence performancelater in life through delayed effects.

    2. Here, we investigated how structural enrichment, both pre-release in the hatcheryrearing environment and post-release in the wild, influenced winter growthand site fidelity of brown trout stocked into side channels of a regulated river.

    3. Experiencing structural enrichment in the rearing environment during 3 months inautumn had no pre-release effect on growth, but a delayed positive effect afterrelease during the subsequent winter. Moreover, trout recaptured in wood-treatedsections of the side channels had grown more than trout recaptured in controlsections. Wood enrichment in the side channels also increased overwinter sitefidelity.

    4. These results show that adding structure during a relatively short period may altergrowth trajectories, and adding wood to side channels is a cost-effective methodto enhance winter habitat carrying capacity for juvenile salmonids in regulatedrivers.

  • 48.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy.
    Effects of fragmentation per se on slug movement2021In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 112, article id 103771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To predict the effects of habitat alterations on animal populations we need insight into how the habitat configuration influences local scale movements. This relationship may be particularly important for effective management of pest species. We tracked 80 PIT-tagged Spanish slugs (Arion vulgaris) in 16 × 16 m arenas with manipulated habitat fragmentation. The arenas had habitat patches consisting of high grass residing within a matrix of short grass, and the arenas with a high degree of fragmentation had 12 large (2 × 2 m), 13 medium-sized (1 × 1 m) and 12 small (0.5 × 0.5 m) patches, whereas the arenas with low fragmentation had four 4 × 4 m patches, resulting in equal amounts of total habitat patch area in the two treatments. The measured mean distance moved per day was 3.8 m, and between 0 and 25% of the slugs left the arenas each day. Fragmentation treatment had no effect on these two measurements. In the treatment with patches of different sizes, slugs distributed themselves among the patch size classes according to the total amount of habitat area for each habitat patch class, whereas patch edge did not explain the distribution pattern. All in all, fragmentation per se seems to play a minor role in the local movement and distribution of Spanish slugs.

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  • 49.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Elghagen, Jonas
    Elghagen Fiskevård.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Department of Biology - Aquatic Ecology, Lund University.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Evaluation of a novel mobile floating trap for collecting migrating juvenile eels, Anguilla anguilla, in rivers2017In: Fisheries Management and Ecology, ISSN 0969-997X, E-ISSN 1365-2400, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 512-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the situation for the threatened European eel in regulated rivers, better methods need to be developed that more efficiently collect and transport juvenile eels past dams. In this study, a novel mobile, floating eel trap is described, and the results from an evaluation of the trap in two Swedish regulated rivers are presented. The mobile trap was designed to reduce the length of the climbing distance while maximizing the width of the entrance. The mobile trap caught more juvenile eels than a stationary eel ladder, serving as control. Furthermore, the mobility of the floating trap enables adaptive placement and thus offers managers the possibility to search for the spatial optimum for trapping efficiency.

  • 50.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    The role of temperature in the drift-feeding behaviour of juvenile stream salmonids2012Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 62
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