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  • 1.
    Addo, Louis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hajiesmaeili, Mahboobeh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Growth and mortality of sympatric Atlantic salmon and brown trout fry in fluctuating and stable flows2023In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, no 2, p. 282-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-daily fluctuations in streamflow may have adverse effects on the biota downstream of dams in hydropeaking-regulated rivers. Although the stranding of salmonid fry is one documented effect of hydropeaking, little is known about the species-specific behavioural and subsequent growth effects of sub-daily flow fluctuations. We investigated the effects of sub-daily flow fluctuation on growth, mortality and behaviour of sympatric Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) fry (29–34 mm) in a laboratory experiment. The fluctuating flow treatment negatively affected growth and increased mortality for trout but not for salmon. The level of aggressive behaviour was similar in the fluctuating- and stable-flow treatments. Within the fluctuating flow treatment, there was a trend that more fishes were visibly active above the substrate during low than high flow. These findings suggest that hydropeaking-induced flow fluctuations may affect fry of different salmonid species in different ways and that brown trout fry may be more vulnerable to hydropeaking effects than Atlantic salmon fry. It can therefore be important to consider the possibility of divergent reactions by different fish species under hydropeaking situations and to incorporate species-specific strategies to conserve culturally and economically relevant riverine fish species.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Comparing mail-in, interview and tournament catch rates for a recreational salmonid fisheryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Su, Z.
    Michigan Department of Natural Resources and University of Michigan.
    Andersson, M
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Recreational trolling effort and catch of Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Vänern, the EU's largest lake2020In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 227, article id 105548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreational fishing has grown substantially worldwide; for some recreational fisheries both catch and economic value now exceeds that of commercial fisheries. Monitoring of recreational fisheries effort and catch is therefore important for sustainable fisheries management. We developed and implemented an angler survey to estimate effort and catch for the recreational trolling fishery for landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) in Lake Vänern, Sweden. Major challenges were the large spatial scale and dispersed fishing effort, a lack of revenue from fishing licence sales, and a lack of catch reporting requirements. We developed a complemented roving/mail-in survey to estimate effort and catch during the main fishing periods, spring and fall, 2014. Instantaneous counts from major access sites were used for effort estimates, and mail-in surveys were used for catch rates. Our results show that Vänern supports a salmon and trout fishery of some 28.7 ± 3.3 tonnes per year. Fishing effort was higher in the spring than in the fall, and there were seasonal differences in catch rates for trout but not for salmon. Estimates show that the recreational trolling fishery now harvests more salmon and trout annually than do the commercial and subsistence fisheries combined. This highlights the importance of continuing an angler survey program for Vänern as a key element for sustainable fisheries management, and can serve as a model for other recreational fisheries at large spatial scales.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Su, Zhenming
    Andersson, Magnus
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Estimating effort and catch of a recreational trolling fishery in one of Europe’s largest lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5. Armstrong, Janet L.
    et al.
    Myers, Katherine W.
    Beauchamp, David A.
    Davis, Nancy D.
    Walker, Robert V.
    Boldt, Jennifer L.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Haldorson, Lewis J.
    Moss, Jamal H.
    Interannual and Spatial Feeding Patterns of Hatchery and Wild Juvenile Pink Salmon in the Gulf of Alaska in Years of Low and High Survival2008In: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 2008; 137: 1299-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve understanding of the mechanisms affecting growth and survival, we evaluated the summer diets and feeding patterns (prey composition, energy density, and stomach fullness) of hatchery and wild juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in Prince William Sound (PWS) and the northern coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA). Our study (19992004) included 2 years of low (3%), mid (5%), and high (89%) survival of PWS hatchery pink salmon. Because variations in diet should affect growth and ultimately survival, we expected that the variations in diet, growth, and survival would be correlated. During August in the CGOA, pteropod-dominated diets and higher gut fullness corresponded to high survival (59%), and copepod-dominated diets and lower gut fullness corresponded to low survival (3%). Within years, no significant differences were found in diet composition or gut fullness between hatchery and wild fish or among the four PWS hatchery stocks. Diets varied by water mass (habitat) as juveniles moved from PWS to more saline habitats in the CGOA. In July, when juveniles were most abundant in PWS, their diets were dominated by pteropods and hyperiid amphipods. The diets of fish that moved to inner-shelf (i.e., the least-saline) habitat in the CGOA in July were dominated by larvaceans in low-survival years and pteropods in high-survival years. Diet quality was higher in CGOA habitats than in PWS in July. In August, fish moved to the more productive, more saline water masses in the CGOA, where large copepods and pteropods were dominant prey and diet quality was better than in PWS. Our results indicate that spatial variation in the diets of juvenile pink salmon in July and the timing of migration to the CGOA play a critical role in marine growth and survival

  • 6.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Lans, L
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Olsson, I
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Schmitz, M
    Vandrande fisk i Klarälven2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum, Uppsala universitet.
    Lax och öring i Klarälven - möjligheter för vild fisk och kvalité på odlad fisk: Slutrapport 2008-20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Data från 1800-talet visar att fångsterna av lax och öring i både älv och sjö varit mycket högre än idag. Storskaliga dämmen, kraftigt fiske i Dejeforsen, nio kraftverk i den svenska delen av Klarälvens huvudfåra, och användandet av älven för timmerflottning har bidragit till detta. Efter att utsättning av kompensationsodlad fisk startade ökade fångsten igen, även om den fortfarande är låg.

    Fältundersökningar av vild laxsmolt visade att 16 % av smolten klarade sig hela vägen förbi de åtta kraftverken mellan Edebäck och Forshaga. Under studien var vattenföringen, och därmed spillet, lågt, vilket troligen bidragit till de höga förlusterna. Normalt spills det inte under hela smoltvandringsperioden, vilket är olyckligt.

    Lax och öring uppfödda under normala odlingsförhållanden är oftast större och fetare än vild fisk. Vi födde upp lax med olika fodertyper och fodermängder. Mängden föda påverkade laxens tillväxt och smoltmognad, och lax som fått fettfattigt foder var mest ”naturlik”. Den klarade också vandringen bäst, 80 % tog sig till Vänern medan 55 % av laxen som fått normalt eller lite foder. Bara 20 % av tidigt könsmogna hanar tog sig till Vänern.

    Rapporten avslutas med implikationer och förslag till åtgärder och fortsatta studier.

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    Lax och öring i Klarälven
  • 8.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lax och öring i Klarälven - möjligheter för vild fisk och kvalité på utsatt fisk: Rapport av aktiviteter och uppnådda resultat under 2009-20102010Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Lax och öring i Klarälven - möjligheter för vild fisk och kvalité på utsatt fisk: Rapport av aktiviteter och uppnådda resultat under 2010-20112011Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Lax och öring i Klarälven: möjligheter för vild fisk och kvalité på utsatt fisk2009Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Länstyrelsen i Västra Göralands län.
    Hart, Paul
    University of Leicester.
    Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Lake Vänern: A proposal for a co-management system2014In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, ISSN 1463-4988, E-ISSN 1539-4077, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 365-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-management is of increasing interest for fisheries management. We explore possibilities for, and barriers to, developing a co-management system, using threatened populations of landlocked Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout as examples. Good management of natural resources requires not only knowledge about the resource but also suitable tools to collect information and make decisions. In large ecosystems this can be difficult because many actors are involved, and various societal borders and traditions become barriers. Vänern is the largest lake in the EU and it holds several distinct populations of large-bodied landlocked Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout. The lake is used for commercial, subsistence, and sport fishing as well as for other recreational activities, and in Klarälven, the largest river entering Vänern, sport fishing is popular. These salmonid populations were at critically low levels during the 1960s, but a stocking program since then has maintained the fishery, and at least one wild stock appears to be recovering since being protected in 1993. Ecosystem users all have different needs: in the lake, sport fishermen say that catches of hatchery fish have declined, and commercial fishermen have focused on other species. In the river, wild salmon may be recovering: sport fishing is popular and an ongoing project investigates the possibilities for salmon to be able to circumvent hydro-electrical plants and reach historical Norwegian spawning areas. Not only do we lack information about the salmonids’ different life stages, we also lack a suitable socio-political organization to find sustainable solutions to the different needs of diverse user groups. We argue that a co-management system that enfranchises user groups in the Vänern-Klarälven ecosystem will improve sustainable management of wild and hatchery fish.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Raising brown trout (Salmo trutta) with less food - effects on smolt development and fin damage2013In: Aquaculture Research, ISSN 1355-557X, E-ISSN 1365-2109, Vol. 44, p. 1002-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Landlocked migrating salmonids in large regulated systems2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Boldt, Jennifer L.
    et al.
    Haldorson, Lewis J.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Armstrong, Jan
    Beauchamp, Dave
    Davis, Nancy
    Myers, Kate
    Walker, Trey
    Relationships of Growth, Condition and Feeding to the Survival of Juvenile Pink Salmon in the Coastal Gulf of Alaska2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15. Bryant, M.D.
    et al.
    Gomi, T.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Headwater Streams in Southeast Alaska: Why Do We Care?2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Headwater streams may comprise more than 70% of the area of a watershed and until recently, they have been largely over-looked by managers and ecologists in Southeast Alaska and elsewhere. However, their importance in shaping downstream processes is

    becoming more widely recognized. Recently, a series of studies were completed in Southeast Alaska that examined the physical and biological features of headwater streams. We review and synthesize these studies to define headwater stream characteristics in Southeast Alaska, describe some processes that occur in these streams, and discuss their importance to watersheds. Alterations in large wood abundance and

    distribution have predictable effects on sediment storage and transport in headwater streams. Legacy wood remaining in streams more than 25 yrs after logging was an important structural component. Invertebrate populations captured in drift samples are

    diverse, and more than 60 % of the taxa were aquatic. Downstream transport of invertebrate drift from reaches without fish may be an important to juvenile fish residing in the lower reaches. Drift density is inversely related to stream discharge, so small

    streams may provide better foraging and growth potential. Resident and anadromous fish live and spawn in headwater reaches with gradients > 10 % and occupied small step pools formed by large woody debris. Dolly Varden were the dominant species in higher gradient reaches, but juvenile coho were also present. Steelhead were seasonal residents. Headwater streams link hill slope processes to watersheds and can have important consequences for salmonid populations throughout a watershed

  • 16. Bryant, M.D.
    et al.
    Gomi, T.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Structures Linking Physical and Biological Processes in Headwater Streams of the Maybeso Watershed, Southeast Alaska2007In: Forest Science 53:371-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We focus on headwater streams originating in the mountainous terrain of northern temperate rain forests. These streams rapidly descend from gradients greater than 20% to less than 5% in U-shaped glacial valleys. We use a set of studies on headwater streams in southeast Alaska to define headwater stream catchments, link physical and biological processes, and describe their significance within watersheds. We separate headwater stream systems into four units that have distinct hydrologic and geomorphic processes that link terrestrial processes to aquatic systems. Headwater streams collect, process, and transport material downstream. Physical and biological processes in headwater streams are complex and closely tied to terrestrial processes. Steps and step pools formed by large wood are keystone structures that link physical processes to biological processes and increase channel complexity. Large and coarse wood debris dams form in-channel step structures and act as valves that regulate the downstream flow of material. A large amount of inorganic and organic sediment is stored in step structures, which may be biological hotspots in headwater streams. Step pools formed by large woody debris are critical habitat for Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (0. mykiss), and cutthroat trout (0. clarkii) in reaches with gradients from less than 4% to those greater than 10%. Landslides and debris flows are the dominant channel-altering processes in headwater streams and remove the step profile. Management activities that increase the number and frequency of channel disturbance events in headwater streams can have important and long-term consequences throughout a watershed

  • 17. Cafaro, Philip
    et al.
    Butler, Tom
    Crist, Eileen
    Cryer, Paul
    Dinerstein, Eric
    Kopnina, Helen
    Noss, Reed
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Taylor, Bron
    Vynne, Carly
    Washington, Haydn
    If we want a whole Earth, Nature Needs Half: a response to Buscher et al.2017In: Oryx, ISSN 0030-6053, E-ISSN 1365-3008, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 400-400Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Griffioen, Ben
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Winter, Erwin
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fish Migration River Monitoring Plan2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish have problems passing the Afsluitdijk Dam that separates the Wadden Sea from Lake IJsselmeer. To re-establish the connectivity and thereby allow fish to pass there is an initiative to build a fishway, the Fish Migration River (FMR), at the Konwerderzand sluice complex. This report proposes a monitoring program to evaluate the functionality of the FMR, but also to monitor passage possibilities through the existing sluices. The goals of the monitoring plan are to estimate 1) The overall passage past the Afsluitdijk dam to and from Lake IJsselmeer, 2) The attraction efficiency, 3) The passage efficiency, and 4) The use of the FMR as habitat and for acclimatization for the transition into freshwater.

    We present an overview of previous and ongoing monitoring in the area to establish the current state of knowledge. The report also includes a presentation of available and suitable methods for a future monitoring program considering the broad spectra of target fish species, and their abundances. The proposed program includes a description of study design and available techniques and cost-estimates of the monitoring program.

    The proposed program will target ten species: European eel (aal), flounder (bot), three-spined stickleback (dreidoornige stekelbaars), twait shad (fint), North Sea houting (houting), river lamprey (rieverprik), smelt (spiering), Atlantic salmon (zalm), brown trout (forel) and sea lamprey (zeeprik). The monitoring program includes plans for how to capture, tag and track the study fish using the most suitable tagging techniques. Furthermore, the most optimal sites for installation of automatic data detection stations are identified.

    The total cost for the proposed project is 3.5 M€ and covers both investments in equipment and costs for personnel. However, if costs for investments in techniques such as RFId-stations and fish counters are excluded, the total cost is reduced to 1 M€ for a program running two years before and four years after the completion of the FMR. The program is considered sufficient to evaluate the FMR at Kornwerederzand from the most important perspectives: the overall passage efficiency and the use of the FMR as habitat.

    It should be noted that this report is the first step towards a full-scale monitoring program, giving insight into possible methods, study design and associated costs. The next important step will be to develop the program in more detail and to start the initial phase of the monitoring project. We predict that such activities will identify the need for, and the relevance of, a more extensive monitoring program to study the effects of the FMR on a population level and on a large geographical scale.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Fish_Migration_River_Monitoring_Plan
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    presentationsbild
  • 19.
    Cooke, Steven J.
    et al.
    Carleton University, CAN.
    Frempong-Manso, Acacia
    Carleton University, CAN.
    Piczak, Morgan L.
    Carleton University, CAN.
    Karathanou, Eirini
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GRC.
    Clavijo, Cristhian
    Vida Silvestre Uruguay, URY.
    Ajagbe, Stephen O.
    Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, NGA.
    Akeredolu, Excellence
    University of Lagos, NGA.
    Strauch, Ayron M.
    University of Hawaii, USA.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    A freshwater perspective on the United Nations decade for ecosystem restoration2022In: Conservation Science and Practice, ISSN 2578-4854, Vol. 4, no 11, article id e12787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, ecosystems have suffered from anthropogenic stressors as we enter the sixth mass extinction within the Anthropocene. In response, the UN has declared 2020-2030 the Decade for Ecosystem Restoration, aiming to mitigate ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss. Freshwater ecosystems are disproportionately impacted relative to marine or terrestrial systems and ecological restoration is needed to preserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. Paradoxically, freshwater is among Earth's most vital ecosystem services. Here we identify meaningful considerations from a freshwater perspective that will lead to progression toward the restoration of freshwater ecosystems: work across terrestrial and freshwater boundaries during restoration, emulate nature, think and act on a watershed scale, design for environmental heterogeneity, mitigate threats alongside restoration, identify bright spots, think long term (a decade is not long enough), and embrace social-ecological systems thinking. Further, we reflect upon the three implementation pathways identified by the UN to translate these considerations into practice in hopes of "bending the curve" for freshwater biodiversity and ecosystems. Pathway 1, building a global movement, could create a network to share experiences and knowledge promoting vicarious learning, ultimately leading to more effective restoration. Pathway 2, generating political support, will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem protection and restoration by demonstrating the value of freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity. Pathway 3, building technical capacity, aims to improve the current and often ineffective restoration toolbox by incorporating evidence syntheses (i.e., appraisal of evidence base) and Indigenous ways of knowing (i.e., two eyed seeing). Given that freshwater ecosystems are in dire need of repair, it is our hope that these considerations and implementation pathways will contribute to an actionable and productive Decade for Ecosystem Restoration.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Cooke, Steven J.
    et al.
    Carleton University, CAN.
    Lynch, Abigail J.
    The USGS National and Regional Climate Adaptation Science Centers (CASCs), USA.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olden, Julian D.
    University of Washington, USA.;Swedish Univerisity of Agricultural Science.
    Reid, Andrea J.
    Carleton University, CAN.
    Ormerod, Steve J.
    Cardiff University, GBR.
    Stewardship and management of freshwater ecosystems: From Leopold's land ethic to a freshwater ethic2021In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 31, p. 1499-1511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. In 1949, Aldo Leopold formalized the concept of the 'land ethic', in what emerged as a foundational and transformational way of thinking about natural resource management, biodiversity conservation, and stewardship in terrestrial systems. Yet, the land ethic has inherent linkages to aquatic ecosystems; Leopold himself conducted research on rivers and lakes, and freshwater ecosystems figured widely in his writing. 2. We reflect on the land ethic and other aspects of Leopold's scholarship to identify key messages that provide insight into the stewardship and management of freshwater ecosystems around the globe. We also frame what we call the 'freshwater ethic' around Leopold's legacy. Although Leopold could not have envisaged the stressors affecting modern aquatic ecosystems, his core principles remain salient. These apply not only to ecosystem protection, but also to the ethics of modern conservation economics, sustainability, and the protection of natural capital, in which lakes, rivers, and wetlands now figure prominently. 3. We identify key 'Aldo-inspired' recommendations for protecting and restoring freshwater ecosystems in the Anthropocene that emanate directly from his writings (e.g. adopt an ecosystem approach, identify win-win-win scenarios, recognize the irreplaceability of wild waters, and strive for freshwater optimism). 4. In an epoch where links between people and nature are becoming more explicit in environmental management, policy, and governance, we suggest that Aldo Leopold's work illustrates how inspirational, seminal thinkers have offered leadership in this domain. We contend that today there is still much that can be learned from Leopold, especially by the next generation of environmental practitioners, to ensure the effective stewardship of our aquatic ecosystems. 5. We submit that the adoption of a freshwater ethic in parallel with Leopold's land ethic will enhance the stewardship of the world's increasingly threatened fresh waters by raising the profile of the plight of fresh waters and identifying enduring actions that, if embraced, will help conserve and restore biodiversity.

  • 21.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Petersson, Tina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hojesjo, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Naslund, Joacim
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wengstrom, Niklas
    Göteborgs universitet; Swedish Anglers Assoc, Gothenburg,.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Heavy loads of parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera L.) larvae impair foraging, activity and dominance performance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)2018In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The life cycle of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) includes a parasitic larval phase (glochidia) on the gills of a salmonid host. Glochidia encystment has been shown to affect both swimming ability and prey capture success of brown trout (Salmo trutta), which suggests possible fitness consequences for host fish. To further investigate the relationship between glochidia encystment and behavioural parameters in brown trout, pairs (n = 14) of wild-caught trout (infested vs. uninfested) were allowed to drift feed in large stream aquaria and foraging success, activity, agonistic behaviour and fish coloration were observed. No differences were found between infested and uninfested fish except for in coloration, where infested fish were significantly darker than uninfested fish. Glochidia load per fish varied from one to several hundred glochidia, however, and high loads had significant effects on foraging, activity and behaviour. Trout with high glochidia loads captured less prey, were less active and showed more subordinate behaviour than did fish with lower loads. Heavy glochidia loads therefore may negatively influence host fitness due to reduced competitive ability. These findings have implications not only for management of mussel populations in the streams, but also for captive breeding programmes which perhaps should avoid high infestation rates. Thus, low levels of infestation on host fish which do not affect trout behaviour but maintains mussel populations may be optimal in these cases.

  • 22. Fisher, J.
    et al.
    Trudel, M.
    Ammann, A.
    Orsi, J.A.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bucher, C.
    Casillas, E.
    Harding, J.A.
    MacFarlane, R.B.
    Brodeur, R.D.
    Comparisons of the coastal distributions and abundances of juvenile Pacific salmon from Central California to the Northern Gulf of Alaska2007In: American Fisheries Society Symposium 57:31-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Frank, Beatrice M.
    et al.
    Belgium.
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Baret, Philippe V.
    Belgium.
    A review of ecological models for brown trout: towards a new demogenetic model2011In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 167-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological models for stream fish range in scale from individual fish to entire populations. They have been used to assess habitat quality and to predict the demographic and genetic responses to management or disturbance. In this paper, we conduct the first comprehensive review and synthesis of the vast body of modelling literature on the brown trout, Salmo trutta L., with the aim of developing the framework for a demogenetic model, i.e., a model integrating both population dynamics and genetics. We use a bibliometric literature review to identify two main categories of models: population ecology (including population dynamics and population genetics) and population distribution (including habitat–hydraulic and spatial distribution). We assess how these models have previously been applied to stream fish, particularly brown trout, and how recent models have begun to integrate them to address two key management and conservation questions: (i) How can we predict fish population responses to management intervention? and (ii) How is the genetic structure of fish populations influenced by landscape characteristics? Because salmonid populations tend to show watershed scale variation in both demographic and genetic traits, we propose that models combining demographic, genetic and spatial data are promising tools for improving their management and conservation. We conclude with a framework for an individual-based, spatially explicit demogenetic model that we will apply to stream-dwelling brown trout populations in the near future.

  • 24.
    Gallo-Cajiao, Eduardo
    et al.
    University of Washington, USA.
    Dolšak, Nives
    University of Washington, USA.
    Prakash, Aseem
    University of Washington, USA.
    Mundkur, Taej
    Wetlands International, NLD.
    Harris, Paul G.
    Education University of Hong Kong, CHN.
    Mitchell, Ronald B.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Davidson, Nick
    Charles Sturt University, AUS.
    Hansen, Birgita
    Federation University, AUS.
    Woodworth, Bradley K.
    Fuller, Richard A.
    The University of Queensland, AUS.
    Price, Melissa
    University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, USA.
    Petkov, Nicky
    Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds, BGR.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Morrison, Tiffany H.
    James Cook University, AUS.
    Watson, James E. M.
    The University of Queensland, AUS.
    Chowdhury, Sayam U.
    University of Cambridge, GBR.
    Zöckler, Christoph
    Manfred Hermsen Foundation, DEU.
    Widerberg, Oscar
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, NLD.
    Yong, Ding Li
    BirdLife International (Asia), Tanglin International Centre, SGP.
    Klich, Daniel
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, POL.
    Smagol, Vitality
    Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, UKR.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Biggs, Duan
    Northern Arizona University, USA.
    Implications of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine for the governance of biodiversity conservation2023In: Frontiers in Conservation Science, E-ISSN 2673-611X, Vol. 4, article id 989019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining peace and conserving biodiversity hinge on an international system of cooperation codified in institutions, but Russia’s invasion of Ukraine brings recent progress to a crossroads. Against this backdrop, we address some implications of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine for the governance of biodiversity conservation both within and beyond Russia. The Russian invasion of Ukraine threatens the governance system for biodiversity conservation, as it pertains to Russia and beyond, due to three interacting factors: (i) isolation of Russia from the international system, (ii) halt and delay of international cooperation, and (iii) changes in international and domestic policy priorities. We recommend making the existing international system of governance for conserving biodiversity more resilient and adaptable, while aligning security agendas with biodiversity conservation goals. 

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  • 25.
    Hagelin, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Spawning migration of wild and supplementary stocked landlocked atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar)2016In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 383-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Upstream migration by adult salmonids is impeded by dams in many regulated rivers, as is the case for landlocked Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in the River Klarälven, Sweden. There, the salmon cannot reach the spawning grounds due to the presence of eight dams. Hence, hatchery-reared smolts are released downstream of the dams, and upstream migrating spawners are caught in a trap at the lowermost dam before transported by truck to the spawning grounds past the dams. To identify the spawning grounds and compare the behavior of wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon during upstream migration and spawning, 34 wild and 28 hatchery-reared, radio-tagged Atlantic salmon were followed during their spawning migration from August to October 2011. Half (50%) of the hatchery fish, but only 11,8% of the wild fish ended up as fallbacks, i.e. they migrated past the first downstream power station, and did not spawn. A significantly higher proportion (21.4%) of hatchery- reared salmon moved in an erratic way, with several up and down stream movements, when compared to the wild salmon (5.9%). When looking at the salmon that stayed in the river (exc. fallbacks), wild individuals exhibited a holding behavior (little or no movements before presumed spawning) more often (86.7%) than the reared ones (50%). The wild salmon also held position (and presumably spawned) for longer time (25.4 days) than the reared salmon (16.1 days). Reared salmon held position, on average, 10 km further upstream than wild salmon, passing the presumed best-quality spawning habitat. The migration speed (average 17.4 km/day) between two logger stations did not differ between wild and reared fish or between sexes. Our results suggest that the reproductive success of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon is relatively low and their capacity as supplementary spawners to the wild population in the Klarälven, is probably small.

  • 26.
    Hajiesmaeili, Mahboobeh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Addo, Louis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Gammelkroppa Lax AB, Sweden.
    Railsback, Steven F.
    Humboldt State University, United States.
    Syrjänen, Jukka
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Kala- ja vesistötutkimus Vesi-Visio, Finland.
    Blixt, Marco
    Fortum Sverige AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sustaining high-value salmonid populations in regulated rivers: Insights from individual-based modelling of brown trout and Atlantic salmon2024In: Global Ecology and Conservation, ISSN 2351-9894, Vol. 51, article id e02887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To combat climate change, societal pressure to develop fossil-free hydroelectricity is growing. There is a great need, however, for environmental assessment tools that can predict the effects of streamflow regulation on biodiversity in hydropower-regulated rivers. Ecological modelling lets practitioners: 1) set broad bounds on population-level responses of key species and 2) identify knowledge gaps and prioritize research needs. Individual-based models (IBMs) are powerful tools for assessing relative benefits of alternative management actions, and therefore help to develop more sustainable hydropower solutions. We applied the inSALMO 7.3-SD IBM for populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (S. salar) in the lower Gullspång River, Sweden. We simulated the effects of various minimum hydropeaking flow releases (from 9 to 21 m3/s) on outmigration production. We found that the number of age-1 outmigrants of both species decreased with increasing minimum flow release of the hydropeaking scenarios. The number of age-2 trout outmigrants did not change considerably with increasing the minimum release, but decreased sharply at the highest flow. The most age-2 salmon outmigrants were produced by flow scenarios with minimum releases of 15 and 18 m3/s. The model predicts, therefore, varying species- and life stage-specific effects of flow regulation. Moreover, increased flow caused juveniles to stay in the river longer and outmigrate at larger size, which exposes them to simulated predation longer but could increase post-outmigration survival. By providing insights into mechanisms driving population dynamics, IBMs can help promote the sustainability of high-conservation-value fish species.

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  • 27.
    Hajiesmaeili, Mahboobeh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Addo, Louis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Steven F., Railsback
    California State Polytechnic University, USA.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Individual-based modelling of hydropeaking effects on brown trout and Atlantic salmon in a regulated river2023In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, no 3, p. 522-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed an individual-based model (IBM) to understand the effects of hydropeaking on growth, survival and distribution of age 0+ to 1+ juveniles for high-conservation value populations of native brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (S. salar) in River Gullspång, Sweden. We parameterized and applied inSTREAM (7.2-SD) and calibrated the model by comparing predicted versus observed growth under the current hydropeaking regime (n= > 1,200 model fish for 365 days). Our objective was to model growth, survival and distribution under flow scenarios with and without hydropeaking. We observed that hydropeaking generally resulted in modest (~10%) negative effects on growth and survival of both species. Survival was more affected than was growth, smaller fish more affected than larger fish.  On-peak (high) hydropeaking flows resulted in less profitable feeding conditions (less growth) and higher predation (lower survival). Thus, inSTREAM 7.2-SD appears to capture ecologically-relevant behavioral patterns under hydropeaking, e.g., habitat selection, in response to rapid flow changes. Understanding such patterns for large rivers via manipulative field studies, even if possible, would be time-consuming and costly. Our study demonstrates the potential of IBMs as powerful tools for testing research questions and assessing and prioritizing alternative management strategies in regulated rivers. 

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  • 28. Haldorson, L.
    et al.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Boldt, J
    Effects of marine habitats on growth, condition and survival of juvenile pink salmon in the coastal Gulf of Alaska2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Juvenile pink salmon are produced from four hatcheries in Prince William Sound (PWS). During their first summer at sea they occur in PWS, the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC) and in shelf water seaward of the ACC front. In July, fish are in PWS and in ACC water, but rarely in shelf water. By August, they also occur in shelf water. In August, fish size differed among habitats. In 2002 and 2003 fish in shelf water were larger than those in the ACC or PWS; whereas in 2001 fish in shelf water were smaller than in ACC or PWS. Habitat-related size differences were usually found in all hatchery cohorts. Fish condition varied in a similar way. Fish in shelf water were in better condition than ACC fish in 2002 and 2003, but were in poorer condition in 2001. Habitat use, size and condition patterns may have been related to feeding and zooplankton availability. The habitat differences we observed in fish size and condition may have important implications for marine survival. There are indications that juvenile salmon reaching a critical size by the start of their first winter at sea have higher over-winter survival. If the critical size hypothesis holds for pink salmon, larger individuals in August may be more likely to return as adults in the following summer. Our observations are consistent with this hypothesis - hatchery fish that were released in 2001 had very low survival, whereas those released in 2002 had exceptionally high survival. These observations suggest that conditions in shelf water during late summer affect overall survival of juvenile pink salmon.

  • 29. Haldorson, Lewis J.
    et al.
    Adkison, Milo
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Boldt, Jennifer L.
    Miller, Sara
    Habitat Effects on Condition and Growth of Juvenile Pink Salmon in the Northern Gulf of Alaska2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30. Haldorson, Lewis J.
    et al.
    Adkison, Milo
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Boldt, Jennifer L.
    Miller, Sara
    US GLOBEC Northeast Pacific Pink Salmon Annual Report2006Report (Other academic)
  • 31. Haldorson, Lewis J.
    et al.
    Boldt, Jennifer L.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Armstrong, Janet
    Beaucamp, David
    Myers, Katherine
    Growth, condition and survival of juvenile pink salmon in the coastal Gulf of Alaska: marine habitat is important2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hart, Paul BJ
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eriksson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lans, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rees, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Familiarity with a partner facilitates the movementof drift foraging juvenile grayling (Thymallus thymallus) into a new habitatarea2014In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 515-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preferring one social partner over another can enhance fitness. This paper reports that juvenile grayling were significantly more likely to enter and forage in new, upstream habitats when paired with familiar versus unfamiliar social partners. Fish paired with unfamiliar partners or when alone were more reluctant to enter the new area. The entry times for both fish in a familiar pair were significantly correlated, but uncorrelated for unfamiliar fish. These differences between familiars and unfamiliars were consistent over a 2-week period. Fish with familiar partners spent more time within three body lengths of each other than did those with unfamiliars. The results are discussed in relation to optimality models of drift foraging, which do not included sociality. It is suggested that the social dimension creates a more dynamic foraging response to variable environmental conditions and could have consequences for growth.

  • 33.
    Hoppenreijs, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Marker, Jeffery
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Maliao, Ronald J.
    University of Debrecen, Hungary; Community Resiliency and Environmental Education Development (CREED) Foundation, Philippines.
    Hansen, Henry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Juhász, Erika
    Centre for Ecological Research, Hungary.
    Lõhmus, Asko
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Altanov, Vassil Y.
    Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany.
    Horká, Petra
    Charles University, Czech Republic.
    Larsen, Annegret
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Malm-Renöfält, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Runnel, Kadri
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Magurran, Anne E.
    University of St Andrews, United Kingdom.
    Three major steps toward the conservation of freshwater and riparian biodiversity2024In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, article id e14226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater ecosystems and their bordering wetlands and riparian zones are vital for human society and biological diversity. Yet, they are among the most degraded ecosystems, where sharp declines in biodiversity are driven by human activities, such as hydropower development, agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. Because freshwater ecosystems are characterized by strongly reciprocal linkages with surrounding landscapes, human activities that encroach on or degrade riparian zones ultimately lead to declines in freshwater–riparian ecosystem functioning. We synthesized results of a symposium on freshwater, riparian, and wetland processes and interactions and analyzed some of the major problems associated with improving freshwater and riparian research and management. Three distinct barriers are the lack of involvement of local people in conservation research and management, absence of adequate measurement of biodiversity in freshwater and riparian ecosystems, and separate legislation and policy on riparian and freshwater management. Based on our findings, we argue that freshwater and riparian research and conservation efforts should be integrated more explicitly. Best practices for overcoming the 3 major barriers to improved conservation include more and sustainable use of traditional and other forms of local ecological knowledge, choosing appropriate metrics for ecological research and monitoring of restoration efforts, and mirroring the close links between riparian and freshwater ecosystems in legislation and policy. Integrating these 3 angles in conservation science and practice will provide substantial benefits in addressing the freshwater biodiversity crisis.

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  • 34.
    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R.
    et al.
    Swansea University, GBR.
    Mantel, Sukhmani K.
    Rhodes University, ZAF.
    Barber-James, Helen M.
    Albany Museum, ZAF; Rhodes University, ZAF.
    Celi, Jorge
    Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, ECU.
    Olden, Julian D.
    University of Washington, USA.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hermoso, Virgilio
    Centre Tecnologic Forestal de Catalunya, ESP.
    Perceptions of a curriculum vitae clinic for conservation science students2019In: Conservation Science and Practice, ISSN 2578-4854, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 1-7, article id e37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We led a curriculum vitae (CV) clinic aimed at student participants attending the 28th International Congress for Conservation Biology (ICCB 2017) in Cartagena, Colombia. The CV Clinic was a pilot program consisting of resources to assist with developing an effective CV and involving preconference and at-conference reviews of student attendees' CVs. Here, we explore our experiences in organizing the CV Clinic as well as nonparticipant and participant perceptions of the clinic. We used an online standardized interview form to gather qualitative data on nonparticipant and participant perceptions of the CV Clinic, and to explore how such a CV Clinic program could best align with student needs. Most respondents who submitted their CV for review ahead of ICCB 2017 (n = 9) found the template and guidance useful. Half of the respondents who did not participate in the CV Clinic perceived the clinic as duplicating services provided by their academic institutions. Both participant and nonparticipant respondents perceived value in such a CV Clinic, but also believed that adjustments could be made to make the CV review part of a broader professional development program lead by Society for Conservation Biology (SCB). Key lessons learned from the CV Clinic include the need to: (a) document and evaluate professional development initiatives within SCB; (b) better understand and account for the diversity of student needs before program creation; and (c) pilot and evaluate appropriateness of different locations, frequency, and duration of professional development programs.

  • 35.
    Kopnina, Helen
    et al.
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Washington, Haydn
    The University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Taylor, Bron
    University of Florida, USA; Ludwig Maximillian University of Munich, Germany.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Anthropocentrism: More than just a misunderstood problem2018In: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, ISSN 1187-7863, E-ISSN 1573-322X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 109-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropocentrism, in its original connotation in environmental ethics, is the belief that value is human-centred and that all other beings are means to human ends. Environmentally -concerned authors have argued that anthropocentrism is ethically wrong and at the root of ecological crises. Some environmental ethicists argue, however, that critics of anthropocentrism are misguided or even misanthropic. They contend: first that criticism of anthropocentrism can be counterproductive and misleading by failing to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate human interests. Second, that humans differ greatly in their environmental impacts, and consequently, addressing human inequalities should be a precondition for environmental protection. Third, since ecosystems constitute the "life-support system" for humans, anthropocentrism can and should be a powerful motivation for environmental protection. Fourth, human self-love is not only natural but helpful as a starting point for loving others, including nonhumans. Herein we analyze such arguments, agreeing with parts of them while advancing four counter-arguments. First, redefining the term anthropocentrism seems to be an attempt to ignore behavior in which humans focus on themselves at the risk of the planet. Second, if addressing human inequalities is a precondition for environmental protection, biodiversity protection will remain out of the scope of ethical consideration for an indefinite period of time. Third, anthropocentric motivations can only make a positive contribution to the environment in situations where humans are conscious of a direct benefit to themselves. Fourth, 'self-love' alone is an inadequate basis for environmental concern and action. We also explore the question of agency, shared responsibility, and a fair attribution of blame for our environmental predicaments.

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  • 36.
    Lafage, Denis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sadler, J. P.
    University of Birmingham.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Local and landscape drivers of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies in riparian ecosystems: A worldwide meta-analysis2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 1-12, article id e02697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-boundary fluxes of organisms and matter, termed “subsidies,” are now recognized to be reciprocal and of roughly equal importance for both aquatic and terrestrial systems, even if terrestrial input to aquatic ecosystems has received most attention. The magnitude of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies is well documented, but the drivers behind these subsidies and their utilization by terrestrial consumers are characteristically local-scale studies, limiting the inferences that can be drawn for broader geographic scales. We therefore built and analyzed a database of stable isotope data extracted from 21 studies worldwide, to identify both landscape-scale (catchment) and local-scale (100-m riparian zone) variables that may affect the diet of terrestrial predators in riparian ecosystems. Our meta-analysis revealed a greater magnitude of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies (>50%) than previously reported, albeit with large geographic and inter-annual variations. Moreover, we demonstrated a large effect of landscape-scale factors on aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies, particularly anthropogenic land use and tree cover. Local human population was the only relevant factor at the local scale. We also found that studies on landscape-scale and anthropogenic land use effects on aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies are strongly under-represented in the ecological literature, which limits the general inferences that can currently be drawn about landscape effects. We suggest that landscape-scale studies could improve our understanding of how land use and environmental change might influence future patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem function.

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  • 37.
    Lampert, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Goulson, Dave
    University of Sussex, United Kingdom.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sustaining insect biodiversity through Action Competence — An educational framework for transformational change2023In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 283, article id 110094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insect decline, i.e. the rapid loss of insect biodiversity and species abundance, is an imminent crisis that mirrors the global loss of biodiversity and biological annihilation. Conservation scientists have therefore called for effective public education on how to mitigate insect decline. In this paper, we develop the framework “Action Competence for Insect Conservation (ACIC)” as a tool for improving education and citizen action for insect biodiversity conservation. The ACIC is an educational framework to develop peoples' abilities to take actions that sustain insect biodiversity, connecting insect conservation science with social science. This framework is applicable in various contexts and settings in both formal (e.g. schools, universities) and informal (e.g. outreach) education. It can be used to design and improve educational approaches, develop social interventions for insect conservation more generally, and develop instruments to assess such interventions. ACIC builds on the educational concept of Action Competence that goes beyond traditional education, which has focused on theoretical knowledge. Instead, the ACIC aims to foster peoples' action-oriented knowledge, confidence in their actions and willingness to take action. This explicit focus on actions contributes to overcoming gaps between knowledge and action implementation. The ACIC covers not only actions in private greenspaces, but also highlights the importance of actions that address other people in the community along with relevant stakeholders. We believe that the ACIC framework can contribute to identifying and developing effective intervention approaches, which have the potential to support transformational change in sustaining insect biodiversity. 

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  • 38.
    Lund Bjørnås, Kristine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Railsback, Steven F.
    Humboldt State University, Germany.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Modeling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) population responses and interactions under increased minimum flow in a regulated river2021In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 162, article id 106182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Describing and understanding the relationship between streamflow and ecological processes is a classic problem in stream ecology and river management. We applied the individual-based model inSTREAM to describe the relationship between the dynamic river habitat and emergent population responses in sympatric landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and lake-migrating brown trout (Salmo trutta). This application explicitly describes the environmental conditions in the Gullspang Rapids, a residual flow stretch in the hydropower-regulated Gullspang River, Sweden (Svenskt elfiskeregister - SERS, 2019) etween September 2008 and September 2018. We simulated three static minimum flow scenarios and three variable natural flow regimes, contrasting highly artificial conditions with more natural dynamics. Our main response variable was the number of large (>= 12 cm) out-migrants of salmon and trout, a proxy for successful population recruitment. The baseline model predicted an average production of 455 salmon and 532 trout out-migrants per year during 2008-2018 in this 11,700 m(2) spawning and rearing area. The only alternative scenario producing more out-migrants was when the minimum flow was raised by a factor of three, as this led to a modest increase in trout out-migrants. Interestingly, none of the flow alternatives produced more salmon out-migrants than the baseline model, suggesting a competitive disadvantage originating from spawning later than trout. Density-dependent population regulation, a well-known phenomenon in salmonids, was reproduced by the model. Both intra- and interspecific competition was evident. While the number of out-migrants varied with flow regime, sensitivity analyses showed that other model input, specifically velocity shelter availability and stream temperature, were just as important. Increased availability of velocity shelters (in-stream structures that reduces the swimming speed of drift-feeding fish) was the only environmental factor that increased production of both salmon and trout in silico. We conclude that in this system, flow restoration based on simplistic flow scenarios will have limited effect, unless complemented by an increase of instream structural complexity.

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  • 39.
    Lund Bjørnås, Kristine
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Railsback, Steven F.
    Humboldt State University, USA.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Modifying and parameterizing the individual-based model inSTREAM for Atlantic salmon and brown trout in the regulated Gullspång River, Sweden2023In: MethodsX, ISSN 1258-780X, E-ISSN 2215-0161, article id 102243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We modified, parameterized, and applied the individual-based model inSTREAM version 6.1 for lake-migrating populations of landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) in a residual flow stretch of the hydropower-regulated Gullspång River, Sweden. This model description is structured according to the TRACE model description framework. Our aim was to model responses in salmonid recruitment to alternative scenarios of flow release and other environmental alterations. The main response variable was the number of large out-migrating juvenile fish per year, with the assumption that individuals are more inclined to out-migrate the larger they get, and that migration is an obligatory strategy. Population and species-specific parameters were set based on local electrofishing surveys, redd surveys, physical habitat surveys, broodstock data as well as scientific literature. • Simulations were set to run over 10 years, with sub-daily time steps, in this spatially and temporally explicit model. • Model calibration and validation of fish growth was done using data on juvenile fish from electrofishing. • The results were found to be sensitive to parameter values for aggregated fish, i.e., “superindividuals” and for the high temperature limit to spawning. 

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  • 40. Malick, Michael J.
    et al.
    Haldorson, Lewis J.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Boldt, Jennifer L.
    Growth and survival in relation to body size of juvenile pink salmon in the northern Gulf of Alaska2011In: Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science, E-ISSN 1942-5120, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 261-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abundance of anadromous salmon is partially determined by size-selective mortality during the early marine life phase. Consequently, identifying the growth patterns of juvenile salmon during this life phase is important in understanding the dynamics of salmon populations. We examined patterns of early marine growth in juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha released by four hatcheries in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, and explored how these patterns related to marine survival. Since larger individuals are thought to experience reduced mortality, we partitioned the data into weight-based quartiles and compared growth rates (% body weight/d) of all fish, the largest fish (top 25%), and the smallest fish (bottom 25%). Sampling occurred during summer 1997–2004 in PWS, the inshore Gulf of Alaska (GOA), and the offshore GOA. Growth rates varied significantly among years and sampling locations; however, the growth rate patterns were markedly similar among size-groups and hatcheries. Growth rates tended to be high in 1997, 2002, and 2004 and lower in 1998, 2001, and 2003. Fish sampled in the offshore GOA typically had faster growth rates than those sampled elsewhere, although this was less pronounced for the largest fish. For all size-groups, the relationship between survival and growth rate was strongest for fish captured in the offshore GOA and weakest for those captured in PWS, indicating that the likelihood of survival is greater for juveniles that migrate offshore earlier. The strength of the growth rate–survival relationship for pink salmon captured in the offshore GOA was similar among all size-groups, suggesting that once fish migrate offshore they are less vulnerable to size-selective predation.

  • 41. Malick, M.J
    et al.
    Haldorson, L
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Characterizing Habitat Specific Size, Condition, and Growth of Juvenile Pink Salmon in the Northern Gulf of Alaska2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry A
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Uppsala university.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Multiplicative loss of landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. smolts during downstream migration through multiple dams2013In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1306-1317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively little is known about the downstream migration of landlocked stocks of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. smolts, as earlier migration studies have generally focused on upstream migration. However, in watersheds with many hydroelectric plants (HEPs), multiplicative loss of downstream-migrating salmon smolts can be high, contributing to population declines or extirpations. Here we report the results from a study of wild landlocked Atlantic salmon smolts in the River Klaralven. Salmon smolts, tagged with acoustic transmitters, were released at different locations and followed as they passed 37 receivers along a 180-km-long river segment, including eight dams as well as free-flowing control stretches. We found that 16% of the smolts successfully migrated along the entire river segment. Most losses occurred during HEP passages, with 76% of the smolts being lost during these passages, which contrasts with the 8% smolt loss along unregulated control stretches. Migration speed was 83% slower along regulated stretches than along unregulated stretches. The observed lower migration speed at regulated stretches was dependent on fish size, with large fish moving slower than small fish. Discharge affected migration speed but not losses. As previously shown for anadromous populations, our study of landlocked salmon demonstrates similar negative effects of multiple passages of HEPs by downstream-migrating smolts. On the basis of this and previous migration studies, we advocate using a holistic approach in the management and conservation of migratory fish in regulated rivers, which includes safe passage for both upstream- and downstream-migrating fish. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 43.
    Obregón, C.
    et al.
    Estuaries & Wetlands Conservation Programmes, Conservation Programmes Department, Zoological Society of London, Regents Park, London.
    Lyndon, A. R.
    Centre for Marine Biodiversity and Biotechnology, Institute of Life and Earth Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, John Muir Building, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Barker, J.
    Estuaries & Wetlands Conservation Programmes, Conservation Programmes Department, Zoological Society of London, Regents Park, London, United Kingdo.
    Christiansen, H.
    Laboratory of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Genomics, Department of Biology, KU Leuven.
    Godley, B. J.
    Centre for Ecology and Conservation, Daphne du Maurier Building, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter,.
    Kurland, S.
    Populations genetics, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Potts, R.
    Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter.
    Short, R.
    Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, United Kingdom.
    Tebb, A.
    Sussex Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority, Shoreham-by-Sea, West Sussex, United Kingdom.
    Mariani, S.
    School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Peel Building, Salford, United Kingdom.
    Valuing and understanding fish populations in the Anthropocene: Key questions to address2018In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 828-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the values of fish populations and fisheries has primarily focused on bio-economic aspects; a more nuanced and multidimensional perspective is mostly neglected. Although a range of social aspects is increasingly being considered in fisheries research, there is still no clear understanding as to how to include these additional values within management policies nor is there a cogent appreciation of the major knowledge gaps that should be tackled by future research. This paper results from a workshop held during the 50th anniversary symposium of the Fisheries Society of the British Isles at the University of Exeter, UK, in July 2017. Here, we aim to highlight the current knowledge gaps on the values of fish populations and fisheries thus directing future research. To this end, we present eight questions that are deeply relevant to understanding the values of fish populations and fisheries. These can be applied to all habitats and fisheries, including freshwater, estuarine and marine.

  • 44. Orlikowska, Ewa H.
    et al.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    A biological risk assessment for an Atlantic salmon colonization in Alaska2007Report (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Book Review: For the Love of Rivers: A Scientist's Journey Author: Kurt D. Fausch, Oregon State University Press, 2015, ISBN 978‐0‐87071‐770‐3 (pbk), B&W Illustrations. Figures. Maps. Notes, 288 pages.2016In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 1236-1237Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Can the net energy intake hypothesis be used to explain microhabitat segregation by sympatric juvenile coho salmon and steelhead trout?2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Juvenile coho and steelhead are found sympatrically in steams thoughout the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. Empirical evidence shows that the species segregate microhabitat, with coho typically occupying pools and steelhead occupying riffles or runs. Although most biologists could probably accurately predict what section of stream might be considered coho or steelhead habitat, most would be at a loss to explain why. In an attempt to test one possible explanation, i.e., that each species maximizes its net energy intake at its respective preferred water velocity, I conducted stream tank experiments to assess the influence of water velocity on prey capture probability and net energy intake. Because steelhead are typically found in faster water velocities than are coho, I hypothesized that steelhead would maximize their net energy intake at a faster velocity. Five fish of each species were tested individually at each of six water velocities spanning the observed velocity range for both species. Feeding trials were videotaped with two cameras to facilitate 3-D analyses of the fishs prey capture area. These analyses provide an accurate measure of the temporal and spatial dynamics of prey capture maneuvers, and allow me to develop prey capture probability- and net energy intake-contours for each species at the different water velocities. The results of these and similar experiments on the effects of water depth will be used to develop and field-test habitat selection models for coho and steelhead that integrate physical habitat features with the bioenergetic costs and benefits for each species

  • 47.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Celebrating Aldo Leopold's land ethic at 702020In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1586-1588Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 48.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Conservation genomics: coming to a salmonid near you2016In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 2735-2740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the examples on hereditary and environmental factors affecting salmonid populations, this paper demonstrates that ecologists have long appreciated the importance of local adaptation and intraspecific diversity for salmonid conservation. Conservationists, however, need to embrace the genomics revolution and use new insights to improve salmonid management. At the same time, researchers must be forthcoming with the uses and limitations of genomics, and conservation must move forward in the face of scientific uncertainty.

  • 49.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Depth, velocity, and foraging success in two sympatric stream salmonids: implications for habitat selection and segregation2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Ecology, local adaptation, and conservation of salmon and trout2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract

    The new International Research School for Applied Ecology will focus on research that is relevant to natural resource management. In this presentation I will discuss how ecological research has informed management of salmon and trout, and ways in which I hope it will continue to do so. Salmonids show great plasticity in life history traits such as age and growth, and tremendous intra-specific diversity. This diversity is of great practical value because salmonids are highly-prized commercial, sport, and subsistence fish. Due largely to human activities such as fishing, resource extraction, and development, many native salmonid populations have declined, and much diversity has already been lost. Conservation of the remaining salmonid biodiversity will require enlightened management, informed by sound ecological science. Because salmonids home to their natal streams to spawn, populations tend to become reproductively isolated, leading to adaptations to local environmental conditions. I give examples of local adaptation in salmonids, and discuss why this mandates the need for life history-based management informed by ecological research. The principles I discuss probably apply more or less to other aquatic and terrestrial taxa as well, and they should be of use in demonstrating the important link between ecology and conservation

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