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  • 1.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Landstedt, E.
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Umea, Sweden..
    Jackisch, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rajaleid, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Westerlund, H.
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Growing through asphalt: What counteracts the long-term negative health impact of youth adversity?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Umeå Univ, Norrland Univ Hosp, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Prevailing over Adversity: Factors Counteracting the Long-Term Negative Health Influences of Social and Material Disadvantages in Youth2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 1842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. However, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n = 908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.

  • 3.
    Bean, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Pingel, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berg, Noora
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    A 4-way decomposition analysis of poor social relations and depressive symptoms over the life-course2017In: European Journal of Public Health, Volume 27, Issue Suppl 3, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bean, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Pingel, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Berg, Noora
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Poor peer relations in adolescence, social support in early adulthood, and depressive symptoms in later adulthood: evaluating mediation and interaction using four-way decomposition analysis2019In: Annals of Epidemiology, ISSN 1047-2797, E-ISSN 1873-2585, Vol. 29, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Supportive social relations are associated with good mental health, yet few studies have considered the prospective importance of adolescent peer relations for adult mental health and the potential mechanisms involved.

    Methods: Participants (n=941) were sourced from the Northern Swedish Cohort, a prospective study comprising school students aged 16 in 1981. Integrating life course epidemiology with four-way decomposition analysis, this paper considers the controlled direct effect of poor peer relations at age 16 on depressive symptoms at age 43, the pure indirect effect mediated by the availability of social support at age 30, and potential interactions between the exposure and the mediator.

    Results: After controlling for gender, baseline depressive symptoms and parental socioeconomic position, poor peer relations at age 16 were associated with depressive symptoms at age 43, largely irrespective of social support at age 30. Nonetheless, poor peer relations in adolescence were associated with poorer social support at age 30, and mediation accounted for a modest proportion (pure indirect effect 10%) of the association between poor peer relations and depressive symptoms at age 43.

    Conclusions: Policies to foster constructive peer relations for adolescents at school are encouraged; such policies may promote both the availability of social support and better mental health across the life course.

  • 5.
    Bean, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University.
    Berg, Noora
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Group activity participation at age 21 and depressive symptoms during boom and recession in Sweden:: a 20-year follow-up2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organized group activities (e.g. sports or arts clubs) have long been noted as important developmental settings for youth, yet previous studies on the relationships between participation and mental health outcomes have focused on short-term effects among school-aged adolescents. The subsequent period of life, emerging adulthood, has been largely overlooked despite being another important life stage where individuals face new existential challenges and may benefit from group activity participation. The potential for macroeconomic conditions to modify these relationships has also not been considered.

    Methods: Participants (n = 1654) comprise two cohorts, born in either 1965 (n = 968) or 1973 (n = 686), from the same middle-sized industrial town in Northern Sweden. Both cohorts completed detailed questionnaires at age 21 (macroeconomic boom for Cohort 65, recession for Cohort 73) and approximately 20 years follow-up (age 43 for Cohort 65, age 39 for Cohort 73). General linear models were used to assess concurrent and prospective associations between regular group activity participation and depressive symptoms, as well as the potential interaction with boom/recession.

    Results: After controlling for sociodemographic factors, regular group activity participation at age 21 was associated with lower depressive symptoms, both concurrently and at follow-up. Those exposed to recession at age 21 reported higher depressive symptoms at the time but there was no interaction between cohort (boom/recession) and group activity participation.

    Conclusions: Regular group activity participation during emerging adulthood is associated with lower depressive symptoms uniformly in times of boom and recession. Beneficial effects of such participation may contribute to better mental health over 20 years.

  • 6.
    Bean, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Berg, Noora
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Lifestyle and rehabilitation in long term illness.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Youth participation in Active Labour Market Programs (ALMPs) during boom/recession and mental health: a 20-year follow-up2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Berg, Noora
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kiviruusu, Olli
    National Insitute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bean, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Huurre, Taina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lintonen, Tomi
    Finnish Foundation for Alcohol studies, Helsinki, Finland.; University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Social relationships in adolescence and heavy episodic drinking from youth to midlife in Finland and Sweden: examining the role of individual, contextual and temporal factors2018In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, article id 1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Applying the Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) model of the bioecological theory, this study considers whether proximal processes between the individual and the microsystem (social relationships within family, peer group and school) during adolescence are associated with heavy episodic drinking (HED), from youth to midlife, and whether the macro level context (country) plays a role in these associations.

    Methods

    Participants of two prospective cohort studies from Finland and Sweden, recruited in 1983/1981 at age 16 (n = 2194/1080), were followed-up until their forties using postal questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between social relationships at age 16 and HED (at least monthly intoxication or having six or more units of alcohol in one occasion) at ages 22/21, 32/30 and 42/43. Additive interactions between microsystem settings, as well as between settings and country, were also considered.

    Results

    Consistent with the PPCT model, we found individual, contextual and temporal aspects to be associated with drinking habits. Higher levels of poor family relationships were associated with an increased likelihood of HED (ages 22/21 and 32/30) in both Finnish women and men and Swedish men. Higher levels of peer contact were associated with an increased likelihood of HED in both Finnish women (ages 32 and 42) and men (ages 22 and 32), and Swedish men (age 21). In contrast with the other groups, poorer relationships with classmates were associated with an increased likelihood of HED (age 30) for Swedish women only. For women, the combined effect of having both daily peer contact and living in Finland for HED at age 42/43 was statistically distinguishable from a pure additive effect.

    Conclusions

    Micro and to a lesser extent macro level contexts are associated with heavy episodic drinking well into adulthood. The most relevant processes in the adolescent microsystem occur in family and peer settings. However, long-lasting protective or risk-raising effects between different settings and later HED were not found. Promoting good relationships across different contexts during adolescence may reduce the incidence of HED in adulthood.

  • 8.
    Berg, Noora
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kiviruusu, Olli
    Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Huurre, Taina
    Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.;Department of Health and Social Welfare, City of Vantaa, Vantaa, Finland.
    Lintonen, Tomi
    Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Helsinki, Finland.;Faculty of Social Sciences, Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Faculty of Social Sciences, Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Associations between unemployment and heavy episodic drinking from adolescence to midlife in Sweden and Finland2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 258-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Unemployment and alcohol use have often been found to correlate and to act as risk factors for each other. However, only few studies have examined these associations at longitudinal settings extending over several life phases. Moreover, previous studies have mostly used total consumption or medical diagnoses as the indicator, whereas subclinical measures of harmful alcohol use, such as heavy episodic drinking (HED), have been used rarely. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between HED and unemployment from adolescence to midlife in two Nordic countries.

    Methods

    Participants of separate cohort studies from Sweden and Finland were recruited at age 16 in 1981/1983 and followed up at ages 21/22, 30/32 and 43/42, (n = 1080/2194), respectively. Cross-lagged autoregressive models were used to determine associations between HED and unemployment.

    Results

    In the Swedish cohort, HED at ages 16 and 30 in men and HED at age 21 in women were associated with subsequent unemployment. In the Finnish cohort, we found corresponding associations at age 16 in women and at age 22 in men. However, the gender differences were not statistically significant. The associations from unemployment to HED were non-significant in both genders, in both cohorts and at all ages.

    Conclusions

    Our results suggest that heavy drinkers are more likely to experience unemployment in subsequent years. The associations from HED to unemployment seem to exist through the life course from adolescence to midlife. More emphasis should be put on reducing alcohol related harms in order to improve labour-market outcomes.

  • 9.
    Berg, Noora
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Kiviruusu, Olli
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Huurre, Taina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Lintonen, Tomi
    Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Research.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. University of Tampere.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Unemployment and heavy episodic drinking from adolescence to midlife in Sweden and Finland2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no suppl. 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Epidemiol & Global Hlth Unit, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    Health inequalities between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden: a decomposition analysis of social determinants for mental health2018In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Even though population health is strongly influenced by employment and working conditions, public health research has to a lesser extent explored the social determinants of health inequalities between people in different positions on the labour market, and whether these social determinants vary across the life course. This study analyses mental health inequalities between unemployed and employed in three age groups (youth, adulthood and mid-life), and identifies the extent to which social determinants explain the mental health gap between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden. Methods: The Health on Equal Terms survey of 2014 was used, with self-reported employment (unemployed or employed) as exposure and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) as mental health outcome. The social determinants of health inequalities were grouped into four dimensions: socioeconomic status, economic resources, social network and trust in institutional systems. The non-linear Oaxaca decomposition analysis was applied, stratified by gender and age groups. Results: Mental health inequality was found in all age groups among women and men (difference in GHQ varying between 0.12 and 0.20). The decomposition analysis showed that the social determinants included in the model accounted for 43-51% of the inequalities among youths, 42-98% of the inequalities among adults and 60-65% among middle-aged. The main contributing factors were shown to vary between age groups: cash margin (among youths and middle-aged men), financial strain (among adults and middle-aged women), income (among men in adulthood), along with trust in others (all age groups), practical support (young women) and social support (middle-aged men); stressing how the social determinants of health inequalities vary across the life course. Conclusions: The health gap between employed and unemployed was explained by the difference in access to economic and social resources, and to a smaller extent in the trust in the institutional systems. Findings from this study corroborate that much of the mental health inequality in the Swedish labour market is socially and politically produced and potentially avoidable. Greater attention from researchers, policy makers on unemployment and public health should be devoted to the social and economic deprivation of unemployment from a life course perspective to prevent mental health inequality.

  • 11.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    The impact of economic recession on the association between youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood: a difference-in-difference analysis from Sweden2016In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, article id 230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The impact of macroeconomic conditions on health has been extensively explored, as well as the relationship between individual unemployment and health. There are, however, few studies taking both aspects into account and even fewer studies looking at the relationship in a life course perspective. In this study the aim was to assess the role of macroeconomic conditions, such as national unemployment level, for the long-term relationship between individual unemployment and functional somatic symptoms (FSS), by analysing data from two longitudinal cohorts representing different periods of unemployment level in Sweden.

    Methods: A difference-in-difference (DiD) analysis was applied, looking at the difference over time between recession and pre-recession periods for unemployed youths (age 21 to 25) on FSS in adulthood. FSS was constructed as an index of ten self-reported items of somatic ill-health. Covariates for socioeconomics, previous health status and social environment were included.

    Results: An association was found in the difference of adult FSS between unemployed and employed youths in the pre-recession and recession periods, remaining in the adjusted model for the pre-recession period. The DiD analysis between unemployed youths showed that men had significantly lower adult FSS during the recession compared to men in the pre-recession time.

    Conclusions: Adulthood FSS showed to be significantly lower among unemployed youths, in particular among men, during recession compared to pre-recession times. Since this is a fairly unexplored research field, more research is needed to explore the role of macroeconomic conditions for various health outcomes, long-term implications and gender differences.

  • 12.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood: results from the Northern Swedish cohort2015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 796-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about the possible long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. Research indicates that unemployment may lead to socioeconomic downward mobility and mental health problems, but we still lack knowledge of the long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. This article examines the potential long-term association between youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood. 

    Methods: The ‘Northern Swedish cohort’ was used with data from five data collections, from 1981 (age 16) until 2007 (age 42). Youth unemployment was measured as months in unemployment between age 16 and 21, and health outcome as functional somatic symptoms (an index of 10 items of self-reported symptoms). Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between months in youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms at age 21 and age 42, stratified for women and men and adjusted for potential confounders, such as time spent in education at age 21 and later unemployment between age 21 and 42. 

    Results: Youth unemployment was significantly related to functional somatic symptoms at age 21 for men after controlling for confounders, but not for women. Among men, the association remained for functional somatic symptoms at age 42, after controlling for confounders. 

    Conclusions: Adolescence seems to be a sensitive period during which unemployment could have remaining health effects in adulthood, at least for men, though assumptions of causality are tentative and more research is needed.

  • 13.
    Byhamre, Marja Lisa
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Family Med, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umea, Sweden..
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Skelleftea Res Unit, Umea, Sweden..
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Nutr Res, Umea, Sweden..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Family Med, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Snus use during the life-course and risk of the metabolic syndrome and its components2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 733-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between life-course exposure to snus and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood.

    Design and method: Tobacco habits at baseline (age 16) and three follow-ups (ages 21, 30 and 43) were assessed among 880 participants in a population-based cohort in Northern Sweden. Presence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 was ascertained using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Odds ratios and CIs for risk of the metabolic syndrome and its components by snus use at 16, 21, 30 and 43 years were calculated using logistic regression. Cumulative snus use was defined as number of life periods (1-4) with current snus use.

    Results: At age 43, 164 participants (18.6%) were current snus users. We found no association between exclusive snus use at the ages of 16, 21, 30 and 43 years and the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years. Snus use (among non-smokers) was associated with raised triglycerides and high blood pressure in crude analysis, but not in multivariable models. There was no association between cumulative snus use and risk of the metabolic syndrome. Cumulative snus use was associated with central obesity, raised triglycerides and impaired fasting glucose/diabetes mellitus type 2 in crude analyses, but not after adjustments.

    Conclusions: The health consequences of snus exposure from adolescence to mid-adulthood do not seem to include increased risk of the metabolic syndrome or its components. The cardio-metabolic risk of dual exposure to snus and cigarettes may warrant further attention.

  • 14. Delfabbro, Paul
    et al.
    Stevenson, J
    Malvaso, C
    Duong, D
    Winefield, Anthony
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Who is doing well: Age 15 predictors of psychological and physical health in young adulthoodIn: Australian psychologist, ISSN 0005-0067, E-ISSN 1742-9544Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    et al.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Psychol, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Stevenson, Jeremy
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Psychol, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Malvaso, Catia
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Psychol, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Duong, David
    Univ South Australia, Sch Psychol Social Work & Social Policy, Magill, Australia.
    Winefield, Helen
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Psychol, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Winefield, Anthony
    Univ South Australia, Sch Psychol Social Work & Social Policy, Magill, Australia.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Who is doing well: Age 15 predictors of psychological and physical health in young adulthood2019In: Australian psychologist, ISSN 0005-0067, E-ISSN 1742-9544, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 114-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    According to Diener (1984), wellbeing is a multi-faceted concept reflecting satisfaction with life, good physical health, and fewer negative psychological symptoms. Using data from a 10-year longitudinal study of school leavers (n = 390), we examine whether people aged 25 can be differentiated into clusters based on indicators of wellbeing, then whether membership in the healthy as opposed to the less healthy cluster can be predicted by age 15 variables.

    Method

    Tested predictor variables at age 15 captured the major influences in Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory (1979) including individual, family, and social influences. Young adults (age 25) were differentiated into two clusters based on indicators of mental health and subjective wellbeing.

    Results

    Poorer health, self-image, family functioning, and peer relations at age 15 predicted poorer overall wellbeing at age 25.

    Conclusions

    Results underscore the potential value of psychological support for adolescents within the school environment and the early identification of individuals at risk of problems which may persist into adulthood.

  • 16.
    Elwer, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Alex, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health2012In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 11, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in) equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences.

    Methods: All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups.

    Results: We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in) equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender.

    Conclusion: The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in) equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men.

  • 17.
    Elwér, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Bolin, Malin
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 1, p. e53246-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n=715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants’ workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health outcomes for women and men.

  • 18.
    Elwér, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Workplace gender composition and psychological distress: the importance of the psychosocial work environment2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, p. 241-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health consequences of the gender segregated labour market have previously been demonstrated in the light of gender composition of occupations and workplaces, with somewhat mixed results. Associations between the gender composition and health status have been suggested to be shaped by the psychosocial work environment. The present study aims to analyse how workplace gender composition is related to psychological distress and to explore the importance of the psychosocial work environment for psychological distress at workplaces with different gender compositions.

    Methods: The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort with a registered workplace in 2007 when the participants were 42 years old (N = 795). Questionnaire data were supplemented with register data on the gender composition of the participants' workplaces divided into three groups: workplaces with more women, mixed workplaces, and workplaces with more men. Associations between psychological distress and gender composition were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic position, previous psychological distress, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Logistic regression analyses (including interaction terms for gender composition and each work environment factor) were also used to assess differential associations between psychosocial work factor and psychological distress according to gender composition.

    Results: Working at workplaces with a mixed gender composition was related to a higher likelihood of psychological distress compared to workplaces with more men, after adjustments for socioeconomic position, psychological distress at age 21, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Psychosocial work environment factors did not explain the association between gender composition and psychological distress.

    Conclusions: The association between gender composition and psychological distress cannot be explained by differences in the perception of the psychosocial work environment and thus the work environment hypothesis is not supported. Workplaces with a mixed gender composition needs further research attention to explain the negative development of psychological distress during working life for both women and men at these workplaces.

  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Theorell, Tores
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Do peer relations in adolescence influence health in adulthood?: Peer problems in the school setting and the metabolic syndrome in middle-age2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 6, p. e39385-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the importance of social relations for health has been demonstrated in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, few studies have examined the prospective importance of peer relations for adult health. The aim of this study was to examine whether peer problems in the school setting in adolescence relates to the metabolic syndrome in middle-age. Participants came from the Northern Swedish Cohort, a 27-year cohort study of school leavers (effective n = 881, 82% of the original cohort). A score of peer problems was operationalized through form teachers' assessment of each student's isolation and popularity among school peers at age 16 years, and the metabolic syndrome was measured by clinical measures at age 43 according to established criteria. Additional information on health, health behaviors, achievement and social circumstances were collected from teacher interviews, school records, clinical measurements and self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression was used as the main statistical method. Results showed a dose-response relationship between peer problems in adolescence and metabolic syndrome in middle-age, corresponding to 36% higher odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 for each SD higher peer problems score at age 16. The association remained significant after adjustment for health, health behaviors, school adjustment or family circumstances in adolescence, and for psychological distress, health behaviors or social circumstances in adulthood. In analyses stratified by sex, the results were significant only in women after adjustment for covariates. Peer problems were significantly related to all individual components of the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that unsuccessful adaption to the school peer group can have enduring consequences for metabolic health.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Theorell, Töres
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Fetal and life course origins of serum lipids in mid-adulthood: results from a prospective cohort study2010In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10, no 484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background During the past two decades, the hypothesis of fetal origins of adult disease has received considerable attention. However, critique has also been raised regarding the failure to take the explanatory role of accumulation of other exposures into consideration, despite the wealth of evidence that social circumstances during the life course impact on health in adulthood. The aim of the present prospective cohort study was to examine the contributions of birth weight and life course exposures (cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage and adversity) to dyslipidemia and serum lipids in mid-adulthood.

    Methods A cohort (effective n = 824, 77%) was prospectively examined with respect to self-reported socioeconomic status as well as stressors (e.g., financial strain, low decision latitude, separation, death or illness of a close one, unemployment) at the ages of 16, 21, 30 and 43 years; summarized in cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage and cumulative adversity. Information on birth weight was collected from birth records. Participants were assessed for serum lipids (total cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides), apolipoproteins (A1 and B) and height and weight (for the calculation of body mass index, BMI) at age 43. Current health behavior (alcohol consumption, smoking and snuff use) was reported at age 43.

    Results Cumulative life course exposures were related to several outcomes; mainly explained by cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage in the total sample (independently of current health behaviors but attenuated by current BMI) and also by cumulative adversity in women (partly explained by current health behavior but not by BMI). Birth weight was related only to triglycerides in women, independently of life course exposures, health behaviors and BMI. No significant association of either exposure was observed in men.

    Conclusions Social circumstances during the life course seem to be of greater importance than birth weight for dyslipidemia and serum lipid levels in adulthood.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Theorell, Töres
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Social and material adversity from adolescence to adulthood and allostatic load in middle-aged women and men: results from the Northern Swedish cohort2012In: Annals of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 0883-6612, E-ISSN 1532-4796, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 117-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background  Little is known about the theoretically assumed association between adversity exposure over the life course and allostatic load in adulthood.

    Purpose  This study aims to examine whether social and material adversity over the life course is related to allostatic load in mid-adulthood.

    Methods  A 27-year prospective Swedish cohort (N = 822; 77% response rate) reported exposure to social and material adversities at age 16, 21, 30 and 43 years. At age 43, allostatic load was operationalized based on 12 biological parameters.

    Results  Social adversity accumulated over the life course was related to allostatic load in both women and men, independently of cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage. Moreover, social adversity in adolescence (in women) and young adulthood (in men) was related to allostatic load, independently of cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage and also of later adversity exposure during adulthood.

    Conclusion  Exposure to adversities involving relational threats impacts on allostatic load in adulthood and operates according to life course models of cumulative risk and a sensitive period around the transition into adulthood.

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Theorell, Töres
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Residential Selection across the Life Course: Adolescent Contextual and Individual Determinants of Neighborhood Disadvantage in Mid-Adulthood2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, p. e80241-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Numerous cross-sectional studies have examined neighborhood effects on health. Residential selection in adulthood has been stressed as an important cause of selection bias but has received little empirical attention, particularly its determinants from the earlier life course. The present study aims to examine whether neighborhood, family, school, health behaviors and health in adolescence are related to socioeconomic disadvantage of one's neighborhood of residence in adulthood.

    METHODS: Based on the prospective Northern Swedish Cohort (analytical N = 971, 90.6% retention rate), information was collected at age 16 years concerning family circumstances, school adjustment, health behaviors and mental and physical health. Neighborhood register data was linked to the cohort and used to operationalize aggregated measures of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) at age 16 and 42. Data was analyzed with linear mixed models, with ND in adulthood regressed on adolescent predictors and neighborhood of residence in adolescence as the level-2 unit.

    RESULTS: Neighborhood disadvantage in adulthood was clustered by neighborhood of residence in adolescence (ICC = 8.6%). The clustering was completely explained by ND in adolescence. Of the adolescent predictors, ND (b = .14 (95% credible interval = .07-.22)), final school marks (b = -.18 (-.26--.10)), socioeconomic disadvantage (b = .07 (.01-.14)), and, with borderline significance, school peer problems (b = .07 (-.00-.13)), were independently related to adulthood ND in the final adjusted model. In sex-stratified analyses, the most important predictors were school marks (b = -.21 (-.32--.09)) in women, and neighborhood of residence (ICC = 15.5%) and ND (b = .20 (.09-.31)) in men.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that factors from adolescence - which also may impact on adult health - could influence the neighborhood context in which one will live in adulthood. This indicates that residential selection bias in neighborhood effects on health research may have its sources in early life.

  • 23.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hovelius, Birgitta
    Johansson, Eva
    Risberg, Gunilla
    Feministiska perspektiv inom medicin och vård1998In: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, Vol. 75, no 1-2, p. 2-3Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Annandale, Ellen
    A Conceptual Muddle: An Empirical Analysis of the Use of 'Sex' and 'Gender' in 'Gender-Specific Medicine' Journals2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, p. e34193-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: At the same time as there is increasing awareness in medicine of the risks of exaggerating differences between men and women, there is a growing professional movement of 'gender-specific medicine' which is directed towards analysing 'sex' and 'gender' differences. The aim of this article is to empirically explore how the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' are used in the new field of 'gender-specific medicine', as reflected in two medical journals which are foundational to this relatively new field. Method and Principal Findings: The data consist of all articles from the first issue of each journal in 2004 and an issue published three years later (n = 43). In addition, all editorials over this period were included (n = 61). Quantitative and qualitative content analyses were undertaken by the authors. Less than half of the 104 papers used the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender'. Less than 1 in 10 papers attempted any definition of the concepts. Overall, the given definitions were simple, unspecific and created dualisms between men and women. Almost all papers which used the two concepts did so interchangeably, with any possible interplay between 'sex' and gender' referred to only in six of the papers. Conclusion: The use of the concepts of 'sex' and gender' in 'gender-specific medicine' is conceptually muddled. The simple, dualistic and individualised use of these concepts increases the risk of essentialism and reductivist thinking. It therefore highlights the need to clarify the use of the terms 'sex' and 'gender' in medical research and to develop more effective ways of conceptualising the interplay between 'sex' and 'gender' in relation to different diseases.

  • 25.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Experiences of barriers and facilitators to weight-loss in a diet intervention: a qualitative study of women in Northern Sweden2014In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 14, p. 59-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of research about the experiences of participating in weight-reducing interventions. The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to weight-loss experienced by participants in a diet intervention for middle-aged to older women in the general population in Northern Sweden.

    METHOD: In the intervention the women were randomised to eat either a Palaeolithic-type diet or a diet according to Nordic Nutrition recommendations for 24 months. A strategic selection was made of women from the two intervention groups as well as from the drop-outs in relation to social class, civil status and age. Thematic structured interviews were performed with twelve women and analysed with qualitative content analyses.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the women in the dietary intervention experienced two main barriers - struggling with self (related to difficulties in changing food habits, health problems, lack of self-control and insecurity) and struggling with implementing the diet (related to social relations and project-related difficulties) - and two main facilitators- striving for self-determination (related to having clear goals) and receiving support (from family/friends as well as from the project) - for weight-loss. There was a greater emphasis on barriers than on facilitators.

    CONCLUSION: It is important to also include drop-outs from diet interventions in order to fully understand barriers to weight-loss. A gender-relational approach can bring new insights into understanding experiences of barriers to weight-loss.

  • 26.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    It´s no surprise! Men are not hit more than women by the health consequences of unemployment in the Northern Swedish Cohort2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 187-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Research often fails to ascertain whether men and women are equally hit by the health consequences of unemployment. The aim of this study was to analyze whether men’s self-reported health and health behaviour were hit more by unemployment than women’s in a follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Methods: A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a middle-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1,006) participated during the whole period. A sample was made of participants in the labour force and living in Sweden (n = 916). Register data were used to assess the length of unemployment from age 40 to 42, while questionnaire data were used for the other variables.

    Results: In multivariate logistic regression analyses significant relations between unemployment and mental health/smoking were found among both women and men, even after control for unemployment at the time of the investigation and indicators of health-related selection. Significant relations between unemployment and alcohol consumption were found among women, while few visits to a dentist was significant among men.

    Conclusions: Men are not hit more by the health consequences of unemployment in a Swedish context, with a high participation rate of women in the labour market. The public health relevance is that the study indicates the need to take gendered contexts into account in public health research.

  • 27.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Haukenes, Inger
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Fjellman Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Fysioterapi.
    Lehti, Arja
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Fysioterapi.
    Evengard, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Low-Educated Women with Chronic Pain Were Less Often Selected to Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Programs2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e97134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a lack of research about a potential education-related bias in assessment of patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to analyze whether low-educated men and women with chronic pain were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation than those with high education. Methods: The population consisted of consecutive patients (n = 595 women, 266 men) referred during a three-year period from mainly primary health care centers for a multidisciplinary team assessment at a pain rehabilitation clinic at a university hospital in Northern Sweden. Patient data were collected from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation National Pain Register. The outcome variable was being selected by the multidisciplinary team assessment to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. The independent variables were: sex, age, born outside Sweden, education, pain severity as well as the hospital, anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Results: Low-educated women were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs than high-educated women (OR 0.55, CI 0.30-0.98), even after control for age, being born outside Sweden, pain intensity and HADS. No significant findings were found when comparing the results between high-and low-educated men. Conclusion: Our findings can be interpreted as possible discrimination against low-educated women with chronic pain in hospital referrals to pain rehabilitation. There is a need for more gender-theoretical research emphasizing the importance of taking several power dimensions into account when analyzing possible bias in health care.

  • 28.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Sect Social Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    How gender theories are used in contemporary public health research2018In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Public health research often focuses on gender differences within certain diagnoses, but so far research has failed to explain these differences in a satisfactory way. Theoretical development could be one prerequisite for moving beyond categorical thinking. The aim of this paper was to analyse how gender theories have been used in public health research in relation to various methodological approaches. Method: Six special issues of gender research with public health relevance (comprising 33 papers in total) were identified from a search of PubMed and Web of Science, spanning a 10-year period. The papers were analysed inductively through posing questions to the text. Results: Gender theories were used in eight different ways: 1. to test hypotheses, 2. integrate theories, 3. develop gender concepts and models, 4. interpret findings, 5. understand health problems, 6. illustrate the validity of other theories, 7. integrated into a gender blind theory, as well as to 8. critique of other gender theories. The strategies applied seemed independent of the health aspects of the papers. However, the methodologies were of importance, indicating that both theoretical papers and papers using qualitative methodologies used almost all available strategies, while papers using quantitative empirical research used a limited number of strategies. Conclusions: This study contributes to identifying how gender theories are used in contemporary public health research, which can help researchers move beyond a categorical understanding of gender in health research.

  • 29.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Cohort Profile: The Northern Swedish Cohort2012In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1545-1552Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Korhonen, J.
    Uppsala University.
    Blomqvist, I.
    Uppsala University.
    Hägglöf, B.
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden..
    Increase of internalised mental health symptoms over the last 33 years among adolescents2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Socialmedicin.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Socialmedicin.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Fysioterapi.
    Health and masculinities shaped by agency within structures among young unemployed men in a northern Swedish context2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1-18, article id e0124785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our paper was to explore expressions of life choices and life chances (aspects of agency within structures) related to power and experiences of health among early unemployed adolescent young men during the transition period to adulthood. These expressions of agency within structure were interpreted in the light of Cockerham’s Health Lifestyles Theory. Furthermore, social constructions of masculinities were addressed in our analysis.

    Repeated interviews with ten young men in a cohort of school leavers were analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Cockerham’s model was useful for interpreting our findings and we found disposition to act to be a crucial theoretical tool to capture the will and intentions of participants in relation to health. We developed the model in the following ways: structure and socialization were visualized as surrounding the whole model. Analyses of what enhances or restricts power are important. In addition to practices of health lifestyles, we added experiences of health as outcome as well as emotional aspects in disposition to act. We interpret our findings as constructions of masculinities within certain structures, in relation to choices, habitus and practices.

    Qualitative research could contribute to develop the understanding of the agency within structure relationships. Future studies need to pay attention to experiences of health among young people at the margin of the labor market in various milieus – and to analyze these in relation to gender constructions and within the frame-work of agency within structure.

  • 32.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Umeå universitet, Socialmedicin.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Kirves, Kaisa
    Nygren, Karina
    Umeå universitet, Socialmedicin.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Umeå universitet, Socialmedicin.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå universitet, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Addressing challenges of validity and internal consistency of mental health measures in a 27- year longitudinal cohort study–the Northern Swedish Cohort study2016In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 16, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:There are inherent methodological challenges in the measurement of mental health problems in longitudinal research. There is constant development in definitions, taxonomies and demands concerning the properties of mental health measurements. The aim of this paper was to construct composite measures of mental health problems (according to today’s standard) from single questionnaire items devised in the early 1980s, and to evaluate their internal consistency and factorial invariance across the life course using the Northern Swedish Cohort.Methods:All pupils in the last year of compulsory school in Luleå in 1981 (n= 1083) form a prospective cohort study where the participants have been followed with questionnaires from the age of 16 (in 1981) until the age of43 (in 2008). We created and tested the following composite measures from self-reports at each follow-up:depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, functional somatic symptoms, modified GHQ and positive health. Validity and internal consistency were tested by confirmatory factor analysis, including tests of factorial invariance over time.Results:As an overall assessment, the results showed that the composite measures (based on more than 30-year-old single item questions) are likely to have acceptable factorial invariance as well as internal consistency over time.Conclusions:Testing the properties of the mental health measures used in older studies according to the standards of today is of great importance in longitudinal research. Our study demonstrates that composite measures of mental health problems can be constructed from single items which are more than 30 years old and that these measures seem to have the same factorial structure and internal consistency across a significant part of the life course. Thus, it can be possible to overcome some specific inherent methodological challenges in using historical data in longitudinal research.

  • 33.
    Hammarström, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Socialmedicin.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Sjukgymnastik.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Lehti, Arja
    Umeå universitet, Professionell utveckling.
    Haukenes, Inger
    Department of Public Mental Health, Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health; Research Unit for General Practice, Uni Research Health, Kalfarveien 31, Bergen, Norway.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Fysioterapi.
    Developing a Tool for Increasing the Awareness about Gendered and Intersectional Processes in the Clinical Assessment of Patients: A Study of Pain Rehabilitation2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, article id e0152735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: There is a need for tools addressing gender inequality in the everyday clinical work in health care. The aim of our paper was to develop a tool for increasing the awareness of gendered and intersectional processes in clinical assessment of patients, based on a study of pain rehabilitation.

    METHODS: In the overarching project named "Equal care in rehabilitation" we used multiple methods (both quantitative and qualitative) in five sub studies. With a novel approach we used Grounded Theory in order to synthesize the results from our sub studies, in order to develop the gender equality tool. The gender equality tool described and developed in this article is thus based on results from sub studies about the processes of assessment and selection of patients in pain rehabilitation. Inspired by some questions in earlier tools, we posed open ended questions and inductively searched for findings and concepts relating to gendered and social selection processes in pain rehabilitation, in each of our sub studies. Through this process, the actual gender equality tool was developed as 15 questions about the process of assessing and selecting patients to pain rehabilitation. As a more comprehensive way of understanding the tool, we performed a final step of the GT analyses. Here we synthesized the results of the tool into a comprehensive model with two dimensions in relation to several possible discrimination axes.

    RESULTS: The process of assessing and selecting patients was visualized as a funnel, a top down process governed by gendered attitudes, rules and structures. We found that the clinicians judged inner and outer characteristics and status of patients in a gendered and intersectional way in the process of clinical decision-making which thus can be regarded as (potentially) biased with regard to gender, socio-economic status, ethnicity and age.

    IMPLICATIONS: The clinical implications of our tool are that the tool can be included in the systematic routine of clinical assessment of patients for both awareness raising and as a base for avoiding gender bias in clinical decision-making. The tool could also be used in team education for health professionals as an instrument for critical reflection on gender bias.

    CONCLUSIONS: Thus, tools for clinical assessment can be developed from empirical studies in various clinical settings. However, such a micro-level approach must be understood from a broader societal perspective including gender relations on both the macro- and the meso-level.

  • 34.
    Harryson, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Aléx, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    "I have surly passed a limit, it is simply too much": women's and men's experiences of stress and wellbeing when living within a process of housework resignation2016In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, article id 224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Gender inequality within paid and unpaid work exposes women and men to different environments and responsibilities. These gender patterns shape living conditions for women and men, either negatively or positively, by affecting the prospect of good health. Most public health studies of gender and housework are quantitative, and knowledge about the relationship between housework experiences and health for women and men is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the housework experiences and practices of women and men and their experiences of stress and perceived wellbeing from a gender perspective.

    METHODS: We conducted thematic interviews with four women and four men living in Sweden, and performed an analysis using the Grounded Theory method.

    FINDINGS: We found that stereotypical gender practices in housework influenced experiences of stress and perceived wellbeing among women and men. Despite proposing gender equality in housework as a means of improving wellbeing, inequality was amplified by the way women and men handle the gendered division of housework. We call this recurring theme "The process of housework resignation", which also constitute the core category in our analysis. "The process of housework resignation" was theorised from the categories "Gender practices in housework", "Experiencing stress and wellbeing" and "Managing daily life".

    CONCLUSIONS: Stereotypical gender practices in housework can increase experiences of stress among women and men. Challenging stereotypical masculinities can be a key for breaking the process of resignation in housework and for facilitating improved health among both women and men in heterosexual couple relationships within a Swedish context.

  • 35.
    Harryson, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Domestic work and psychological distress: what is the importance of relative socioeconomic position and gender inequality in the couple relationship?2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 6, p. e38484-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position.

    Methods: In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men). The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis.

    Results: Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position') were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men.

    Conclusions: This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.

  • 36.
    Janlert, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Which theory is best? Explanatory models of the relationship between unemployment and health2009In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 9, no 235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A number of different models have been used in order to explain the links between unemployment and ill-health. The objective of this study was to test different proposed models in an empirical setting. METHODS: A cohort of school-leavers consisting of more than 1000 persons was followed for 14 years up to the age of 30. They have repeatedly been asked questions that could be used to operationalise different proposed models as well as health outcomes. Seven different models explaining the health effect of unemployment were identified: an economic deprivation model, a lack of control model as well as a locus of control model, a stress model, a social support model, a work involvement model and a model of latent functions. Health outcomes used were somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, self-perceived health and nervous problems. Statistical tests included bivariate correlations and logistic regression. RESULTS: Most of the models correlated fairly well with unemployment measures. The capacity of the models to explain the connection between unemployment and ill-health varied, however. The model of latent functions was most successful, followed by the economic deprivation model. The social support and the control models were also fairly good. The work involvement scale and the stress model demonstrated the smallest explanatory power. CONCLUSION: Studies comparing different explanatory models in the field are rare. Few models apply a multidisciplinary approach. In view of the findings, it should be possible to develop multidisciplinary and better models to explain the links between unemployment and health in more detail.

  • 37.
    Jonsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umeå, Sweden.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umeå, Sweden.
    Are neighbourhood inequalities in adult health explained by socio-economic and psychosocial determinants in adolescence and the subsequent life course in northern Sweden?: A decomposition analysis2018In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 52, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explains neighbourhood deprivation inequalities in adult health for a northern Swedish cohort by examining the contribution of socio-economic and psychosocial determinants from adolescence (age 16), young adulthood (age 21) and midlife (age 42) to the disparity. Self-reported information from 873 participants was drawn from questionnaires, with complementary neighbourhood register data. The concentration index was used to estimate the inequality while decomposition analyses were run to attribute the disparity to its underlying determinants. The results suggest that socio-economic and psychosocial factors in midlife explain a substantial part, but also that the inequality can originate from conditions in adolescence and young adulthood.

  • 38.
    Jonsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, S-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umea Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, S-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umea Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, S-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Intragenerational social mobility and functional somatic symptoms in a northern Swedish context: analyses of diagonal reference models2017In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research indicate that social class mobility could be potentially important for health, but whether this is due to the movement itself or a result of people having been integrated in different class contexts is, to date, difficult to infer. In addition, although several theories suggest that transitions between classes in the social hierarchy can be stressful experiences, few studies have empirically examined whether such movements may have health effects, over and above the implications of "being" in these classes. In an attempt to investigate whether intragenerational social mobility is associated with functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood, the current study tests three partially contrasting theories. Method: The dissociative theory suggests that mobility in general and upward mobility in particular may be linked to psychological distress, while the falling from grace theory indicates that downward mobility is especially stressful. In contrast, the acculturation theory holds that the health implications of social mobility is not due to the movement itself but attributed to the class contexts in which people find themselves. Diagonal Reference Models were used on a sample of 924 individuals who in 1981 graduated from 9th grade in the municipality of Lulea, Sweden. Social mobility was operationalized as change in occupational class between age 30 and 42 (measured in 1995 and 2007). The health outcome was functional somatic symptoms at age 42, defined as a clustering self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties during the last 12 months. Results: Overall mobility was not associated with higher levels of functional somatic symptoms compared to being immobile (p = 0.653). After controlling for prior and current class, sex, parental social position, general health, civil status, education and unemployment, the association between downward mobility was borderline significant (p = 0.055) while upward mobility was associated with lower levels of functional somatic symptoms (p = 0.03). Conclusion: The current study did not find unanimous support for any of the theories. Nevertheless, it sheds light on the possibility that upward mobility may be beneficial to reduce stress-related health problems in mid-life over and above the exposure to prior and current class, while downward mobility can be of less importance for middle-age health complaints.

  • 39.
    Jonsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Stromsten, Lotta M. J.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Life Course Pathways of Adversities Linking Adolescent Socioeconomic Circumstances and Functional Somatic Symptoms in Mid-Adulthood: A Path Analysis Study2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0155963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While research examining the health impact of early socioeconomic conditions suggests that effects may exist independently of or jointly with adult socioeconomic position, studies exploring other potential pathways are few. Following a chain of risk life course model, this prospective study seeks to examine whether pathways of occupational class as well as material and social adversities across the life course link socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescent to functional somatic symptoms in mid-adulthood. Applying path analysis, a multiple mediator model was assessed using prospective data collected during 26 years through the Northern Swedish Cohort. The sample contained 987 individuals residing in the municipality of Lulea, Sweden, who participated in questionnaire surveys at age 16, 21, 30 and 42. Socioeconomic conditions (high/low) in adolescence (age 16) were operationalized using the occupation of the parents, while occupational class in adulthood (manual/nonmanual) was measured using the participant's own occupation at age 21 and 30. The adversity measurements were constructed as separate age specific parcels at age 21 and 30. Social adversity included items pertaining to stressful life events that could potentially harm salient relationships, while material adversity was operationalized using items concerning unfavorable financial and material circumstances. Functional somatic symptoms at age 42 was a summary measure of self-reported physical symptoms, palpitation and sleeping difficulties that had occurred during the last 12 months. An association between socioeconomic conditions at age 16 and functional somatic symptoms at age 42 (r = 0.068) which was partially explained by people's own occupational class at age 21 and then material as well as social adversity at age 30 was revealed. Rather than proposing a direct and independent health effect of the socioeconomic conditions of the family, the present study suggests that growing up in an unfavorable socioeconomic environment might be a source for a chain of adverse material and social living situations, which in turn affects adult health.

  • 40.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clincial Med Epidemiol & Global, Umea, Sweden..
    Brydsten, Anna
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clincial Med Epidemiol & Global, Umea, Sweden..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clincial Med Epidemiol & Global, Umea, Sweden..
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies CHESS, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The role of social position and depressive symptoms in adolescence for life-course trajectories of education and work: a cohort study2016In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, article id 1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While a vast amount of studies confirm the social reproduction of class and status from one generation to the next, less is known about the role of health in the child generation for these processes. Research has shown that particularly mental distress in adolescence is important for future life chances. This study aimed to examine the importance of parental socioeconomic position and depressive symptoms in youth for life-course trajectories of education and labour market attachment among men and women. Methods: Based on four waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 1,001), consisting of individuals born in 1965, three steps of gender-separate analyses were undertaken. First, the individual trajectories of education and labour market attachment from age 18 to 42 were mapped through sequence analysis. Second, cluster analysis was used to identify typical trajectories. Third, two indicators of parental socioeconomic position - occupational class and employment status - and depressive symptoms at age 16 were used in multinomial regression analyses to predict adult life-course trajectories. Results: Four typical trajectories were identified for men, of which three were characterised by stable employment and various lengths of education, and the fourth reflected a more unstable situation. Among women, five trajectories emerged, characterised by more instability compared to men. Low parental occupational class and unemployment were significantly associated with a higher risk of ending up in less advantaged trajectories for men while, for women, this was only the case for occupational class. Youth levels of depressive symptoms did not significantly differ across the trajectories. Conclusions: This study found support for the intergenerational reproduction of social position, particularly when measured in terms of parental occupational class. Youth depressive symptoms did not show clear differences across types of trajectories, subsequently impeding such symptoms to trigger any selection processes. While this could be a consequence of the specific framework of the current study, it may also suggest that depressive symptoms in youth are not a root cause for the more complex processes through which how social position develops across life. The possible impact of welfare and labour market policies is discussed.

  • 41.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umea, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Psychol, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Wade, Tracey
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Psychol, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Associations between adolescent risk for restrictive disordered eating and long-term outcomes related to somatic symptoms, body mass index, and poor well-being2018In: British Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-107X, E-ISSN 2044-8287, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 496-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveTo date, no longitudinal, community-based studies have examined the association between disordered eating emerging in adolescence and long-term physical well-being. This study sought to explore the longitudinal associations between risk for restrictive disordered eating (DE-R; those not presenting with binge-purge symptoms) in adolescence and trajectories of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) and body mass index (BMI), and several indicators of poor physical well-being across early- to mid-adulthood, including medication, number of doctor visits, and sick leave. DesignData were obtained from the Northern Swedish Cohort Study (N=1,001), a prospective longitudinal study including four time points from age 16 to 42years. MethodsA cumulative measure of DE-R risk was computed. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify subpopulation trajectories of FSS and BMI. The three-step method for auxiliary variables and logistic regressions were used to assess associations between DE-R and the trajectory classes as well as indicators of poorphysical well-being. ResultsThree trajectories were identified for FSS. A gender by BMI interaction led to a classification of four BMI trajectories in men, but three in women. The presence of DE-R risk in adolescence increased odds of unfavourable FSS development, increasing BMI in women, and continually low BMI in men. Indicators of poor physical well-being at ages 21, 30, and 42years were associated with DE-R risk in adolescence. ConclusionsData spanning nearly three decades suggest that physical well-being impairment is related to DE-R risk measured earlier in life, underscoring the urgency for targeted, gender-sensitive preventive interventions for teenagers. What is already known on this subject? Disordered eating is linked to poor physical and mental well-being and quality of life. No longitudinal studies have examined long-term physical well-being consequences of adolescent disordered eating risk. What does this study add? Non-purging disordered eating symptoms in adolescence predict adverse physical well-being outcomes in middle-aged men and women. Targeted interventions and preventative work during adolescence are needed.

  • 42.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health. Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Changing housework, changing health?: A longitudinal analysis of how changes in housework are associated with functional somatic symptoms2016In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 75, article id 31781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of this study was to analyse how changes in housework over the course of adulthood are related to somatic health in Swedish men and women.

    Methods. Data were drawn from 2 waves of the Northern Swedish Cohort Study, response rate 94.3%, N1,001. A subsample of cohabiting individuals was selected (n328 women, 300 men). Outcome variable was functional somatic symptoms (FSS) at age 42. Associations were assessed in multivariate general linear models with adjustment for confounders and somatic health at age 30.

    Results. Housework is primarily performed by women, and women’s responsibility for and performance of housework increased from ages 30 to 42. These changes were associated with elevated levels of FSS at age 42 in women. Men reported considerably lower responsibility for and performed less housework compared with women, the load of housework for men does not change substantially from ages 30 to 42 and no associations with FSS were identified.

    Conclusions. The gendered division of housework means that women are particularly exposed to a heavy workload. Women’s responsibility for and performance of housework increase between ages 30 and 42 and this threatens to be embodied in the form FSS. We conclude that housework should be considered an important source of stress in addition to that from waged work and that a deeper understanding of the links between housework and health requires a gender theoretical analysis.

  • 43.
    Leino-Arjas, Päivi
    et al.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mekuria, Gashaw
    Univ Tampere, Sch Informat Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Nummi, Tapio
    Univ Tampere, Sch Informat Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Trajectories of musculoskeletal pain from adolescence to middle age: the role of early depressive symptoms, a 27-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort2018In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 159, no 1, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression and musculoskeletal pain are associated, but long-term follow-up studies are rare. We aimed to examine the relationship of early depressive symptoms with developmental patterns of musculoskeletal pain from adolescence to middle age. Adolescents ending compulsory school (age 16) in Lulea, Northern Sweden, in 1981 (n = 1083) were studied and followed up in 1986, 1995, and 2008 (age 43) for musculoskeletal pain. Attrition was very low. Indicators for any and severe pain were based on pain in the neck-shoulders, low back, and the extremities. Latent class growth analyses were performed on 563 men and 503 women. Associations of a depressive symptoms score (DSS, range 0.0-2.0) at age 16 with pain trajectory membership were assessed by logistic and multinomial regression, adjusting for parental socioeconomic status, social adversities, smoking, exercise, body mass index, and alcohol consumption at age 16. For any pain, 3 trajectories emerged: high-stable (women 71%, men 61%), moderate (11%, 17%), and low-increasing (18%, 22%). With the low-increasing trajectory as reference, for each 0.1-point increase in the DSS, the odds ratio of belonging to the high-stable trajectory was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.41) in women and 1.23 (1.10-1.37) in men. For severe pain, 2 trajectories were found: moderate-increasing (women 19%, men 9%) and low-stable. For each 0.1-point increase in the DSS, the odds ratio of membership in the moderate-increasing trajectory was 1.14 (1.04-1.25) in women and 1.17 (1.04-1.31) in men in the fully adjusted model. Thus, depressive symptoms at baseline are strongly associated with pain trajectory membership.

  • 44.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University.
    Alm, Erika
    Umeå University.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umeå University.
    ‘I carry it with me’ – (Un)safe spaces and perceived health among people with trans experiences living in SwedenIn: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Gender Studies, Umea, Sweden.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umea Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden.
    Alm, Erika
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Cultural Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Harryson, Lisa
    Umea Univ, Dept Social Work, Umea, Sweden.
    (Un)safe spaces, affective labour and perceived health among people with trans experiences living in Sweden2019In: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 914-928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of safe space has been connected to ill health among people with trans experiences. This study analyses trans people's experiences of being in public, semi-public and community spaces using the analytical concept of safety/unsafety in relation to perceived health. The analytic framework draws on the concepts of cisgenderism, orientation, lines and comfort. The material analysed consisted of 18 individual interviews with people with trans experiences, which were analysed using constructivist thematic analysis. The analysis resulted in the identification of three themes: straightening devices creating limited living space, orienting oneself in (cis)gendered spaces and creating safer (?) community spaces for healing. Experiences of unsafety ranged from incidents and fear of different kinds of violence in public and semi-public spaces to the lack of a transpolitically informed agenda in, for example, feminist spaces. Safer spaces helped participants to feel a sense of belonging, to share their experiences and to heal. Experiences of unsafety and discomfort are important as they will help us to understand the health situations of people with trans experiences. It is important to facilitate the creation of safer spaces to improve the health of members of this group.

  • 46.
    Lundmani, Berit
    et al.
    Umea Univ, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umea Univ, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umea Univ, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Use of the model of Inner Strength for analysing reflective interviews in a group of healthy middle-aged adults2019In: Safety, ISSN 0036-3375, E-ISSN 2050-3121, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Inner Strength has been described as a human resource that promotes well-being linked to health. The aim of this study was to explore how Inner Strength and its four dimensions are manifested in interviews in a group of middle-aged healthy women and men. Methods: Retrospective reflective interviews with middle-aged healthy women (n = 5) and men (n = 4) selected from a population study were content analysed deductively. Results: The following themes and their constituents were found in the respective dimensions of the Model of Inner Strength. Firmness: having a drive to act, being purposeful, having trust in one's competence, and having a positive view of life. Connectedness: being in community, receiving and giving support, and, receiving and giving care. Creativity: changing unsatisfactory life situations, seeing new opportunities, and realizing dreams. Stretchability: balancing between options, and extending oneself. Conclusions: Expressions that were interpreted as belonging to Inner Strength could be referred the different dimensions of Inner Strength. The Model of Inner Strength is suitable for analysing Inner Strength among middle-aged men and women. The findings indicate that Inner Strength can be identified in human beings' narratives if asked for.

  • 47.
    Mansdotter, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    The importance of childhood and adulthood aspects of gendered life for adult mental ill-health symptoms: a 27-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, p. 493-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increasing gender equality during the 20th century, mainly in the Nordic countries, represents a major social change. A well-established theory is that this may affect the mental health patterns of women and men. This study aimed at examining associations between childhood and adulthood gendered life on mental ill-health symptoms.

    Methods: A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a medium-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1007) participated during the whole period. Gendered life was divided into three stages according to whether they were traditional or non-traditional (the latter includes equal): childhood (mother's paid work position), adulthood at age 30 (ideology and childcare), and adulthood at age 42 (partnership and childcare). Mental ill-health was measured by self-reported anxious symptoms ("frequent nervousness") and depressive symptoms ("frequent sadness") at age 42. The statistical method was logistic regression analysis, finally adjusted for earlier mental ill-health symptoms and social confounding factors.

    Results: Generally, parents' gendered life was not decisive for a person's own gendered life, and adulthood gender position ruled out the impact of childhood gender experience on self-reported mental ill-health. For women, non-traditional gender ideology at age 30 was associated with decreased risk of anxious symptoms (76% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood). For men, non-traditional childcare at age 42 was associated with decreased risk of depressive symptoms (84% for traditional childhood, 78% for non-traditional childhood). A contradictory indication was that non-traditional women in childcare at age 30 had a threefold increased risk of anxious symptoms at age 42, but only when having experienced a traditional childhood.

    Conclusion: Adulthood gender equality is generally good for self-reported mental health regardless of whether one opposes or continues one's gendered history. However, the childcare findings indicate a differentiated picture; men seem to benefit in depressive symptoms from embracing this traditionally female duty, while women suffer anxious symptoms from departing from it, if their mother did not.

  • 48. Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
    et al.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Backheden, Magnus
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Determinants in adolescence for adult sickness absence in women and men: a 26-year follow-up of a prospective population based cohort (Northern Swedish cohort)2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, p. 75-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To date little is known regarding how factors measured in adolescence predict sickness absence in adulthood, and whether different patterns of factors exist for women and men that could contribute to an explanation of adult gender differences in sickness absence. Methods: All pupils in the last year of compulsory school in the municipality of Lulea with complete information from surveys (questionnaires) in 1981 and 1983 (compulsory and upper-secondary schooling; 16 and 18 years of age, N=719) were followed with register data on medically certified sickness absence (1993-2007). Generalised linear models were applied to calculate Risk Ratios with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) comparing annual mean numbers of sickness absence spells in exposed versus unexposed groups. Results: In the multivariate model, the following factors were found to be predictive of future sickness absence in women: participating in an upper secondary school program in 1983 dominated by women (> 60%): 1.41 (95% CI 1.00 - 1.97); sometimes sickness absence from school in 1981: 1.60 (95% CI 1.18 - 2.17) and low parental socioeconomic status in 1981: 2.20 (95% CI 1.44 - 3.38). In men, low school grades in 1981: 4.36 (95% CI 2.06 - 9.22) and fathers not in gainful employment in 1981: 2.36 (95% CI 1.53 - 3.66) were predictive. Conclusion: The findings suggest that sickness absence in adulthood is predicted by factors measured in adolescence. These predictors may differ for women and men. For women, early life absence and social environmental factors, for men low achievements at school and lack of employment of their father seem to be predictive.

  • 49.
    Norström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Epidemiol & Global Hlth, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden..
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Epidemiol & Global Hlth, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Is unemployment in young adulthood related to self-rated health later in life?: Results from the Northern Swedish cohort2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many studies have reported that unemployment has a negative effect on health. However, little is known about the long-term effect for those who become unemployed when they are young adults. Our aim was to examine how unemployment is related to long-term self-rated health among 30 year olds, with an emphasis on how health differs in relation to education level, marital status, previous health, occupation, and gender. Methods: In the Northern Swedish Cohort, 1083 teenagers (similar to 16 years old) were originally invited in 1981. Of these, 1001 participated in the follow-up surveys in 1995 and 2007. In our study, we included participants with either self-reported unemployment or activity in the labor force during the previous three years in the 1995 follow-up so long as they had no self-reported unemployment between the follow-up surveys. Labor market status was studied in relation to self-reported health in the 2007 follow-up. Information from the 1995 follow-up for education level, marital status, self-reported health, and occupation were part of the statistical analyses. Analyses were stratified for these variables and for gender. Analyses were performed with logistic regression, G-computation, and a method based on propensity scores. Results: Poor self-rated health in 2007 was reported among 43 of the 98 (44%) unemployed and 159 (30%) of the 522 employed subjects. Unemployment had a long-term negative effect on health (odds ratio with logistic regression 1.74 and absolute difference estimates of 0.11 (G-computation) and 0.10 (propensity score method)). At the group level, the most pronounced effects on health were seen in those with upper secondary school as their highest education level, those who were single, low-level white-collar workers, and women. Conclusions: Even among those becoming unemployed during young adulthood, unemployment is related to a negative long-term health effect. However, the effect varies among different groups of individuals. Increased emphasis on understanding the groups for whom unemployment is most strongly related to ill health is important for future research so that efforts can be put towards those with the biggest need. Still, our results can be used as the basis for deciding which groups should be prioritized for labor-market interventions.

  • 50.
    Nummi, Tapio
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Nat Sci, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Leino-Arjas, Paivi
    Ctr Expertise Hlth & Work Abil, Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Hammarström, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Public Health.
    Trajectories of a set of ten functional somatic symptoms from adolescence to middle age2017In: Archives of Public Health, ISSN 0778-7367, E-ISSN 2049-3258, Vol. 75, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Functional somatic symptoms (FSS), or symptoms without a clear medical explanation are a considerable challenge for health care systems. There is no general consensus as to which symptoms should be regarded functional. Few longitudinal studies on the development of FSS exist and these have mainly been based on the assumption that the factorial structure of a FSS scores variable remains invariant over time. When the analysis covers longer periods of the life course, this may be challenged. The aim of our study was to investigate how ten functional somatic symptoms (FSS) evolve when individuals are ageing. Methods: The data of the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 1001) from questionnaire surveys at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42, were analysed. Participation rates remained very high over the five surveys. The list of symptoms included backache, breathlessness, dizziness, fatigue, headache or migraine, nausea, overstrain, palpitations, sleeplessness and stomach ache. We used multivariate trajectory analysis (TA) with logistic broken-stick regression models to describe sub-groups in the data. In multivariate TA the joint development of the set of item variables can be investigated. There is no need to construct a special FSS summary score variable. Results: Four well separated trajectories were identified. In two groups, healing symptoms (25.4% of the sample) and low symptom load (32.2% of the sample), the symptom level stayed relatively low in adulthood. In the third group of high symptom load (17.2%) the probability of having symptoms was high for all FSS variables. In the fourth group of increasing symptoms (25.3%) the level of symptoms was first intermediate, but increased markedly with age. Conclusions: Instead of a single FSS score we were able to assign each individual to one of four trajectories described jointly by 10 separate symptoms. The profile of development, but not the probability level, was rather similar over the symptoms within the trajectories, with few exceptions. The results provide better understanding of the longitudinal development of the symptoms from the adolescence to the middle age.

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