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  • 1. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Are gay men and lesbians discriminated against in the hiring process?2013In: Southern Economic Journal, ISSN 0038-4038, E-ISSN 2325-8012, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 565-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against the gay male applicant and the lesbian applicant varied across different occupations and appears to be concentrated in the private sector. The results also show that the gay male applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations, whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Theoretical implications are discussed

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS).
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för nationalekonomi och statistik (NS).
    Are gay men and lesbians discriminated against in the hiring process?2013In: Southern Economic Journal, ISSN 0038-4038, E-ISSN 2325-8012, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 565-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against the gay male applicant and the lesbian applicant varied across different occupations and appears to be concentrated in the private sector. The results also show that the gay male applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations, whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Theoretical implications are discussed

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden;Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 249-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 4. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: Evidence from Swedish register data2013In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 83-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore annual earnings as well as full-time monthlyearnings differentials resulting from sexual orientation. We observe that gay malesare at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals regardless of whichearnings measure we use. This earnings disadvantage is found to be larger when wecompare gay and heterosexual males who are working full-time. In addition, thedisadvantage is larger in the private than in the public sector. Lesbians, however,earn more than heterosexual females. This earnings advantage is considerablysmaller when we study full-time monthly rather than annual earnings but an earningsadvantage for lesbians at the top of the earnings distribution is documentedregardless of which earnings measure we use. In addition, lesbians are doing betterthan female heterosexuals in the public sector. To sum up, the results indicate thatgay males face obstacles on the labor market that hinder them from reaching toplevelpositions and high earnings. The earnings advantage observed for lesbians islikely to stem from the fact that lesbians devote more time to market work thanheterosexual females.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Are homosexuals discriminated against in the hiring process?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4,000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against gays and lesbian varies across different occupations and appears only in the private sector. The results also seem to suggest a new dimension of traditional gender roles; the gay applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Thus, the results suggest that gays to some extent face the same obstacles on the labor market as heterosexual women.

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  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Are lesbians discriminated against in the rental housing market? Evidence from a correspondence testing experiment2008In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 234-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment, conducted over the Internet, studying possible discrimination against lesbians in the rental housing market in Sweden. We let two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one lesbian, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the Internet. We then investigated whether there were differences between the couples in the number of received call-backs, invitations to further contact, and invitations to immediate showings. Our findings show no indication of differential treatment of lesbians by landlords. A discussion relating to earlier findings is provided.

     

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Can discrimination in the housing market be reduced by increasing the information about the applicants?2010In: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 79-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    We investigate how increasing the information about applicantsaffects discrimination in the rental housing market. We letfour fictitious applicants, two with typical Arab/Muslim namesand two with typical Swedish names, use application letterscontaining different amounts of information to apply for apartmentsover the Internet in Sweden. The Arab/Muslim applicants receivedfewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants.All of the applicants gained by providing more information aboutthemselves, but the amount of discrimination against the Arab/Muslimapplicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing theamount of information about the applicants will not reduce discrimination

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Diskriminering mot -icke-heterosexuella i anställningssituationen2011Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Does age matter for employability? A field experiment on ageism in the Swedish labour market2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 403-406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Earnings differentials due to sexual orientation: A look at some possible explanations2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented earnings differentials due to sexual orientation. In this paper we take a closer look at such differentials and the explanations for them. By studying yearly earnings as well as full-time monthly earnings, we are able to observe the extent to which the earnings disadvantage that is often observed for homosexual males and the earnings advantage often observed for homosexual females remain when we control for factors such as their number of hours worked. Our results suggest that male homosexuals are also at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals after controlling for number of hours worked. This disadvantage is larger at the top than at the bottom of the earnings distribution. However, for females the earnings differential is considerably smaller when we study full-time monthly earnings than when we study yearly earnings. Thus, the results indicate that male homosexuals face obstacles on the labour market that hinder them from reaching top-level positions and high earnings levels; the earnings advantage often observed for homosexual females in previous research is more likely to stem from the fact that female homosexuals devote more time to market labour than heterosexual females do.

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  • 11.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers2009In: Economics Bulletin, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 3050-3058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment regarding ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers. We let two fictitious prospective buyers, one with a typical Swedish name and one with a typical Arab/Muslim name, respond to advertisements of small business transfers on the Internet in Sweden. We then recorded the number contacts achieved by each fictitious buyer with sellers. We found that sellers discriminated against the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name in the sense that the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name obtained fewer contacts with sellers than did the buyer with a Swedish name.

  • 12.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Homosexuella diskrimineras i traditionella yrken2011In: Svenska Dagbladet (Opinion), ISSN 1101-2412, no 20 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Inter- and intra-household earnings differentials among homosexual and heterosexual couples2011In: British Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0007-1080, E-ISSN 1467-8543, Vol. 49, no s2, p. s258-s278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less. The largest earnings inequalities between spouses are found among gay males followed by heterosexuals. Studying sexual orientation and earnings is complex, and household earnings have to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn.

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. More than 1,000 participants were asked to read one out of eight possible fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships and subsequently respond to a questionnaire. Sexual orientation, victims’ and batterers’ gender, and severity of the violence varied across the different scenarios. The clearest result of this study was that participants perceived domestic violence to be significantly more serious when a man battered his wife than in any other case (i.e., when a woman battered her husband, when a gay man battered his husband, or when a lesbian woman battered her wife). In all types of relationships, participants matched their perceptions of domestic violence to the level of severity of the violence and participants with more negative attitudes toward women perceived domestic violence as less serious. Female participants were more concerned about lesbian domestic violence than male participants. Attitudes toward gays and lesbians mattered little for the perceptions of domestic violence.

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  • 15.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sexual orientation and occupational rank2011In: Economics Bulletin, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 2422-2433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sexual prejudice and labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians2012Report (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. More than 1,000 participants were asked to read one out of eight possible fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships and subsequently respond to a questionnaire. Sexual orientation, victims’ and batterers’ gender, and severity of the violence varied across the different scenarios. The clearest result of this study was that participants perceived domestic violence to be significantly more serious when a man battered his wife than in any other case (i.e., when a woman battered her husband, when a gay man battered his husband, or when a lesbian woman battered her wife). In all types of relationships, participants matched their perceptions of domestic violence to the level of severity of the violence and participants with more negative attitudes toward women perceived domestic violence as less serious. Female participants were more concerned about lesbian domestic violence than male participants. Attitudes toward gays and lesbians mattered little for the perceptions of domestic violence.

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    fulltext
  • 18.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Are people fuzzy about who they work with?: An experimental test of Becker’s coworker discrimination hypothesis2021In: The Social Science Journal, ISSN 0362-3319, E-ISSN 1873-5355, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 477-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used an experiment to investigate whether people’s decisions over employment opportunities are affected by the ethnicity and sex of their potential future coworkers. University students (N = 1,406) were asked to state the lowest hourly wage rate at which they would be willing to accept a job on a campus food truck, where they would work alongside the food truck owner. The ethnicity and sex of the food truck owners were randomized across participants. Results showed no signs of coworker prejudice in terms of the probability of being interested in the job and reservation wage.

  • 19.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Bostadssökande invandrare nobbas åtta gånger av tio2007In: Dagens Nyheter: DN Debatt, Vol. 11, no 76, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Customer and Worker Discrimination against Gay and Lesbian Business Owners: A Web-Based Experiment among Students in Sweden2022In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 69, no 9, p. 1621-1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined customer and worker discrimination against gay and lesbian business owners using a web-based experiment conducted at a Swedish university campus. Participants (N = 1,406) were presented with a prospective restaurant establishment on the campus. They then stated whether they would be positive to such an establishment, whether they would be interested in working at the restaurant, and what their reservation wage would be if they were interested in the job. Owners’ sexual orientation was randomized across participants. Results showed that participants were less positive to a restaurant opening if the owners were lesbians, and they were less interested in an available job if the owners were gay. The participants had higher reservation wages if the owners were lesbians. In fact, the participants increased their wage demands when the number of women among the owners increased. Our study underlines that gay and lesbian people face various inequalities in society.

  • 21.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Customer discrimination in the fast food market?: experimental evidence from a Swedish university campus2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies customer discrimination against fictive male and female food truck owners with Arabic names on a Swedish University campus using a web-based experiment. Students at a Swedish university campus were asked to participate in a market survey and state if they think it is a good idea to have a food truck establishment on the campus. Further, they were also asked about their own beliefs, and their beliefs about others’ willingness to pay for a baguette and a kebab sold by the food truck on the campus. Four names—one male Swede, one female Swede, one male Arab, and one female Arab—were randomly assigned to the food truck. We found no evidence of customer discrimination against food truck owners with Arabic names. In fact, the respondents were slightly more positive to a food truck establishment run by an Arabic male than by a Swedish male. We conclude that our results are representative in an environment with relatively young and highly educated customers and that customer discrimination may vary across different markets. More research in this area is needed.

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  • 22.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Customer discrimination in the fast food market?: Experimental evidence from a Swedish University campus2020In: Migration Letters, ISSN 1741-8984, E-ISSN 1741-8992, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 813-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a study that examined customer discrimination against fictitious male and female food truck owners with Arabic-sounding names on a Swedish university campus. In a web-based experiment, students (N = 1,406) were asked, in a market survey setting, whether they thought it was a good idea that a food truck was establishing on their campus and of their willingness to pay for a typical food truck meal. Four names-male and female Swedish-sounding names and male and female Arabic-sounding names-were randomly assigned to food trucks. We found no evidence of customer discrimination against food truck owners with Arabic-sounding names. Participants were slightly more positive to a food truck establishment run by a male with an Arabic-sounding name than a male with a Swedish-sounding name.Keywords

  • 23.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Detecting discrimination against homosexuals: Evidence from a field experiment on the Internet2009In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 76, no 303, p. 588-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment studying discrimination against homosexuals on the housing market. The study is conducted on the rental housing market in Sweden using the internet as a research platform. Two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one male homosexual, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the internet. Our findings show that homosexual males are discriminated against on the Swedish housing market, since the homosexual couple gets far fewer call-backs and fewer invitations to further contacts and to showings of apartments than the heterosexual couple.

  • 24.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market: A field experiment on the Internet2008In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment on discrimination in the housing market, using the Internet as a research platform. The procedure involved our creating three fictitious persons with distinctive sounding ethnic and gender names. These individuals applied for vacant rental apartments in Sweden that were advertised by landlords on the Internet. Our findings show that the Arabic/Muslim male received far fewer call backs, enquiries, and showings than the Swedish male. Our observations also indicate that the Swedish female met with less difficulty in terms of finding an apartment than the Swedish male. Thus, based on our findings, we conclude that ethnic, as well as gender discrimination exists in the Swedish rental housing market.

  • 25.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Diskriminerar kunder utrikes födda företagare? Resultat från ett webb-baserat experiment2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 25-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar resultat från ett experiment utfört på ett universitetscampus.Deltagarna fick se bilder av olika food-trucks och svara på om de tyckte det varen god idé att en food-truck etablerade sig på campusområdet samt ange sinbetalningsvilja för olika varor. Deltagarna i experimentet var mer positivatill en etablering av en food-truck ägd av en man med arabiskt namn än till enetablering av en food-truck ägd av en man med svenskt namn. Resultaten är avintresse för integrationspolitiken, då de visar att egenföretagare med ursprung iMellanöstern inte diskrimineras i en bransch där de ofta är verksamma.

  • 26.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Diskrimineras homosexuella? Några erfarenheter från svensk ekonomisk forskning2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 31-40Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Diskriminering på bostadsmarknaden: Effekten av att heta Mohammed2007In: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 35, no 34-41Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in contacts with public authorities: a correspondence test among Swedish municipalities2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a field experiment conducted in order to explore the existence of ethnic discrimination in contact with public authorities. Two fictitious parents, one with a Swedish-sounding name and one with an Arabic-sounding name, sent email inquiries to all Swedish municipalities asking for information about preschool admission for their children. Results show that the parents were treated differently by the municipalities since the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received significantly more responses that answered the question in the inquiry than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name. Also, the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received more warm answers than the individual with the Arabic soundingname in the sense that the answer from the municipality started with a personal salutation. We conclude that ethnic discrimination is prevalent in public sector contacts and that this discrimination has implications for the integration of immigrants and their children.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in contacts with public authorities: a correspondence test among Swedish municipalities2020In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 27, no 17, p. 1391-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a field experiment conducted in order to explore the existence of ethnic discrimination in contact with public authorities. Two fictitious parents, one with a Swedish-sounding name and one with an Arabic-sounding name, sent email inquiries to all Swedish municipalities asking for information about preschool admission for their children. Results show that the parents were treated differently by the municipalities since the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received significantly more responses that answered the question in the inquiry than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name. Also, the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received more warm answers than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name in the sense that the answer from the municipality started with a personal salutation. We conclude that ethnic discrimination is prevalent in public sector contacts and that this discrimination has implications for the integration of immigrants and their children.

  • 32.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in contacts with public authorities: a correspondence test among Swedish municipalities2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a field experiment conducted in order to explore the existence of ethnic discrimination in contact with public authorities. Two fictitious parents, one with a Swedish-sounding name and one with an Arabic-sounding name, sent email inquiries to all Swedish municipalities asking for information about preschool admission for their children. Results show that the parents were treated differently by the municipalities since the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received significantly more responses that answered the question in the inquiry than the individual with the Arabic-sounding name. Also, the individual with the Swedish-sounding name received more warm answers than the individual with the Arabic soundingname in the sense that the answer from the municipality started with a personal salutation. We conclude that ethnic discrimination is prevalent in public sector contacts and that this discrimination has implications for the integration of immigrants and their children.

  • 33.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Labor Market Discrimination: Method and Measurement2023In: Elgar Encyclopedia of Labour Studies / [ed] Tor Eriksson, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 106-109Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of methods for detecting labour market discrimination is characterized by a shift from observational data to different forms of experimental data. At the same time, there has been a shift from examining differences in treatment of groups of employees to differences in hiring.

    Observational data are associated with omitted variable problems. Field experiments in the form of audit and correspondence studies give better control of what is observed by both employers and the researcher. A limitation is that they can typically be employed only for certain types of (low-skill, early career) jobs and the initial (call-back) stage of the hiring process. Another is that employers’ beliefs cannot be controlled for. Natural and lab experiments can address some of these concerns. Most studies are not able to distinguish theories of between taste-based and statistical discrimination.

  • 34. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Personer med arabiska namn diskrimineras av kommuner"2019In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2019-03-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sexual orientation and earnings: A register data-based approach to identify homosexuals2010In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 835-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [nb]

    This paper examines earnings differentials between homo- and heterosexual individuals by identifying sexual orientation with the help of information from register data. Register data enable us to avoid the misclassifications of sexual orientation often mentioned as a potential bias in survey-based studies. The results show that gay men are at an earnings disadvantage as compared to male heterosexuals while the earnings differential between lesbians and heterosexual women is very small. Our results are in line with results from previous research but are more reliable since we use a more reliable measure of sexual orientation than previous research.

  • 36.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The effect of subtle religious representations on cooperation2011In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 900-910Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden;Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Två av tre klubbar välkomnade barn med typ-1 diabetes2023In: Altinget, no 2023-12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi vet sedan tidigare att exempelvis barn med typ-1 diabetes och ADHD-diagnos har sämre möjlighet än andra barn att välja skola. Hur ser situationen ut för dessa barn på andra områden? Det frågar sig professorerna Ali Ahmed och Mats Hammarstedt som presenterar en ny fältstudie.

  • 38.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden;Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS). Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Type 1 Diabetes and Youth Sports in Sweden: A Field Experiment on Discrimination2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated discrimination against children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) in Swedish sports clubs through a field experiment. Two fictitious fathers sent emails to 193 top-division clubs in football, floorball, ice hockey, and handball, one disclosing his son’s T1DM condition. The investigation focused on disparities in clubs’ responses and information provided. Results indicated no significant difference in positive or comprehensive responses between emails mentioning T1DM and those that did not, suggesting minimal bias at initial contact and an inclusive approach by the clubs towards children with T1DM.

  • 39.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings University, Sweden;Ratio, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utrikes födda fortsätter att diskrimineras2022In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000, no 20 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do schools discriminate against children with disabilities? A field experiment in Sweden2021In: Education Economics, ISSN 0964-5292, E-ISSN 1469-5782, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results of a field experiment in which fictitious parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) sent inquiries to schools in Sweden about admission of their children to the mandatory preschool class. Results show that inquiries concerning a child with no medical condition were more likely to receive an invitation for a visit and more likely to receive a promising placement response than inquiries concerning a child with ADHD and T1DM. Discrimination was more prominent in the private sector and when the child was a boy or had ADHD.

  • 41.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do Swedish schools discriminate against children with disabilities?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av ett fältexperiment studeras diskriminering mot barn med ADHD och diabetes typ-1 vars föräldrar undersöker möjligheten för dem att få plats i den obligatoriska förskoleklassen för 6-åringar. Resultaten visar att framför allt privata utförare väljer bort barn med funktionsnedsättning och att det främst är barn med ADHD som drabbas.  

  • 42.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do Swedish schools discriminate against children with disabilities?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a field experiment in which fictitious parents to children with certain types of disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), make inquires to Swedish schools about admission for their children to the compulsory preschool class. Our results reveal that Swedish schools discriminated against children with these disabilities and that discrimination is most prevalent in private schools. Private schools discriminated against boys with ADHD and T1DM and against girls with ADHD. Furthermore, public schools discriminated against girls with ADHD. One potential effect of our results is that children with disabilities are referred to less attractive schools than children with no such medical conditions. These results may have implications for the possibilities for individuals with ADHD and T1DM to succeed in the labor market in the long run.

  • 43.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Skolor ratar barn med adhd och diabetes"2020In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 2020-04-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn med adhd och diabetes typ 1 väljs bort när föräldrar kontaktar svenska skolor och frågar om möjligheterna att få plats i den obligatoriska förskolan för sexåriga barn. Det skriver tre forskare.

  • 44.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bastani, Spencer
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Ethnic background and the value of self- employment experience: evidence from a randomized field experiment2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av ett fältexperiment finner vi att erfarenhet från egenföretagande värderas negativt vid övergång till löneanställning. Jobbsökande med företagarerfarenhet har lägre sannolikhet att bli kallade till anställningsintervju än personer som varit löneanställda. Resultaten gäller oberoende av de sökandes etniska bakgrund och kön. 

    Det är välkänt att människor med bakgrund i länder utanför Europa har problem att etablera sig på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Inte sällan framförs förhoppningen att arbetslösheten bland vissa grupper av utrikes födda ska minska genom att människor väljer att starta eget företag.

    Det finns idag en relativt omfattande forskning som visar att andelen egenföretagare är hög i framförallt vissa grupper av utrikes födda från länder utanför Europa, samt att utrikes födda i högre grad än inrikes födda upphör med sina företagarverksamheter.  

    Outforskad frågeställning

    En fråga som däremot är relativt outforskad är hur företagarerfarenhet värderas vid övergång till löneanställning, och i vilken utsträckning det i detta avseende finns skillnader mellan inrikes födda personer och personer med utländsk bakgrund.

    I denna uppsats har vi genomfört ett fältexperiment i vilket mer än 1 300 utannonserade anställningar söktes av fiktiva personer med erfarenhet från att ha varit egenföretagare och/eller löneanställd som programmerare eller redovisningsekonom. 

    Samtliga sökande var 29 år gamla och skilde sig åt beträffande kön och etnisk bakgrund. Sökande hade antingen ett typiskt arabiskt/muslimskt namn eller ett typiskt svenskt namn. Vidare skilde sig de sökande åt genom att de hade erfarenhet från antingen egenföretagande eller löneanställning eller från både och.

    Företagarerfarenhet värderas lågt oavsett etnisk bakgrund

    Vi finner att sökande med arabisk/muslimska namn väljs bort när de söker jobb, då de erhåller färre svar och får färre inbjudningar till anställningsintervjuer än personer med typiskt svenska namn. Vidare framkommer att erfarenhet från företagande värderas negativt av arbetsgivare. Såväl de sökande som enbart hade erfarenhet från företagande som de sökande som hade erfarenhet från både företagande och löneanställning fick färre svar och färre inbjudningar till intervju än de sökande som enbart hade erfarenhet från löneanställning.

    Resultaten gäller oberoende av etnisk bakgrund och kön, men vissa skillnader i hur företagarerfarenhet värderas kan observeras mellan framförallt män och kvinnor med utländsk bakgrund. I det senare fallet pekar resultaten mot att företagarerfarenhet värderas högre för kvinnor än för män.

    Hög policyrelevans

    Resultaten har hög policyrelevans då de visar att personer som i relativt ung ålder väljer att starta företag kan försämra sina möjligheter på arbetsmarknaden senare i livet jämfört med om de varit löneanställda. Vidare är resultaten av betydelse för integrationspolitiken då förhoppningar ofta knyts till att arbetslösheten i vissa grupper av utrikes födda ska minska genom att dessa startar eget företag. I uppsatsen studerar vi inte hur företagarerfarenhet belönas jämfört med att istället ha varit arbetslös, men våra resultat visar att även personer med utländsk bakgrund försämrar sina framtida möjligheter på arbetsmarknaden genom att vara egenföretagare jämfört med att vara löneanställda.

  • 45.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bastani, Spencer
    Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Ethnic Background and the Value of Self-Employment Experience: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment2021In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 83, no 6, p. 1287-1310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a randomized field experiment in Sweden to investigate how self-employment experience is valued in the labour market. Our results show that self-employment experience negatively impacts the likelihood of receiving a positive response from employers. For male applicants, this holds regardless of ethnic background, and independently of whether we consider applicants with experience solely from self-employment, or applicants with combined experience from wage employment and self-employment. For female applicants, the results are less clear-cut. Our findings provide input into the discussion about the impact of self-employment on the chances for individuals with different ethnic background to obtain wage employment.

  • 46.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bastani, Spencer
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic differences in long-term self-employment2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att det finns skillnader i ekonomiska utfall mellan utrikes och inrikes födda personer som driver företag, t.ex. lägre inkomster för utrikes födda. Denna uppsats finner att dylika skillnader även existerar mellan utrikes och inrikes födda personer som driver företag under en längre period.    

    Tidigare forskning har belagt att det finns skillnader i sannolikheten att starta och driva eget företag mellan utrikes och inrikes födda personer i Sverige. Det är exempelvis välkänt att egenföretagandet är högt i grupper av utrikes födda som har svårt att få löneanställning. Egenföretagare från sådana grupper har ofta låga företagarinkomster och upphör oftare än andra med sitt företagande. Denna uppsats studerar ekonomiska utfall – arbetsinkomster och kapitalinkomster – bland personer som invandrat till Sverige och som varit egenföretagare i tio år eller längre.

    Data från register och enkäter

    Vår studie bygger på registerdata från Statistiska centralbyrån och enkätdata. Med data från de offentliga registren studerar vi hur arbetsinkomster och kapitalinkomster förändras över tiden för utrikes och inrikes födda företagare. I enkäten ställer vi frågor till företagarna om deras erfarenheter av att driva eget företag. 

    Det finns skillnader mellan framförallt utrikes födda företagare från länder utanför Europa och inrikes födda företagare för såväl arbets- som kapitalinkomster. Dock minskar skillnaderna i arbetsinkomster mellan olika grupper över tid efter det att företaget startats, medan de etniska skillnaderna i kapitalinkomster tenderar att öka över tid.

    Enkäten ger oss en inblick i förklaringarna till de resultat som vi observerar. Företagare från länder utanför Europa upplever fler problem i sitt företagande än inrikes födda företagare och företagare från länder i Europa. Problemen avser exempelvis svårigheter att få tillgång till finansiellt kapital samt relationer till kunder och leverantörer. Vi finner också att företagare från länder utanför Europa har ett svagare socialt nätverk än andra företagare.

    Skillnader på kort sikt kvarstår på längre sikt

    De problem som framförallt personer från länder utanför Europa möter i sina verksamheter, och som dokumenterats i tidigare forskning om utrikes födda personers företagande, existerar även när vi studerar personer som driver företag under lång tid. En slutsats är därför att det finns skillnader mellan etniska grupper och deras förutsättningar för att driva företag som är bestående även på längre sikt.   

  • 47.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bastani, Spencer
    Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy, Sweden;Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden.
    Miao, Chizheng
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Immigrant-native differences in long-term self-employment2022In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 1661-1697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study immigrant-native differences in long-term self-employment in Sweden combining population-wide register data and a unique survey targeting a large representative sample of the total population of long-term self-employment. Using the registers, we analyze the evolution of labor and capital incomes during the first 10 years following self-employment entry. We find that immigrant-native differences in labor income become smaller, whereas immigrant-native differences in capital income grow stronger, over the course of self-employment. These findings are robust to controlling for factors such as organizational form and type of industry. We use the survey data to gain further insights into immigrant-native differences among the long-term self-employed, and show that immigrant self-employed experience more problems and earn less, but work harder than native self-employed. They also have a less personal relation to their customers, do not enjoy their work as much as natives, and appear to have different perspectives on self-employment in general.

  • 48.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Early health and school outcomes for children with lesbian parents: evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was early to legalize same-sex partnership (1995), to allow same-sex couples to adopt children (2003), and to offer same-sex couples fertility treatment through the national health system (2005). Using population data, we identify children of lesbian parents as those whose biological mother was a registered same-sex partner no later than six months after the child's birth. The number of such children increased markedly from 1995 to 2010 with a total of 750 children for the whole period. We find that boys and girls with lesbian parents had 2.4 percent lower birth weight than other children, a difference that is statistically significant from zero at the 5 percent level. Girls, but not boys, also have a higher probability of having a low birth weight. We follow these children until age ten and observe diseases of the respiratory system. Boys with lesbian parents have a significantly lower probability of such diseases (-3.4 percentage points), and girls with lesbian parents an insignificantly higher probability (+2.4 percentage points). Our analysis of school outcomes at age ten uses a small sample so precision is low. The point estimates show that boys with lesbian parents outperform other children by around 10 percentiles higher test scores in Math and Swedish. These differences are barely significant, while estimates for girls are lower and not significant. For all outcomes, we find that children with lesbian parents benefit from their mother's socio-economic status, whereas they suffer in terms of birth weight from having been exposed to fertility treatment.

  • 49.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Edlund, Lena
    Columbia university.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mueller-Smith, Mike
    Columbia University.
    Domestic partnership for what?: Evidence from Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Edlund, Lena
    Columbia University, USA.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mueller-Smith, Mike
    Columbia University, USA.
    Effect of Registered Partnership on Labor Earnings and Fertility for Same-Sex Couples: Evidence From Swedish Register Data2015In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 1243-1268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expansion of legal rights to same-sex couples is afoot in a number of Western countries. The effects of this rollout are not only important in their own right but can also provide a window on the institution of marriage and the rights bundled therein. In this article, using Swedish longitudinal register data covering 1994–2007, we study the impact of the extension of rights to same-sex couples on labor earnings and fertility. In 1994, registered partnership for same-sex couples was introduced, which conferred almost all rights and obligations of marriage—a notable exception being joint legal parenting, by default or election. The latter was added in the 2002 adoption act. We find registered partnership to be important to both gays and lesbians but for different reasons. For gays, resource pooling emerges as the main function of registered partnerships. For lesbians, registered partnership appears to be an important vehicle for family formation, especially after the 2002 adoption act. In contrast to heterosexual couples (included for comparison), we find no evidence of household specialization among lesbians. The lack of specialization is noteworthy given similar fertility effects of registered partnership (after 2002) and the fact that lesbian couples were less assortatively matched (on education) than heterosexual couples—children and unequal earnings power being two factors commonly believed to promote specialization.

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