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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden;Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, ISSN 1864-1385, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 249-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 2. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Are gay men and lesbians discriminated against in the hiring process?2013In: Southern Economic Journal, ISSN 0038-4038, E-ISSN 2325-8012, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 565-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against the gay male applicant and the lesbian applicant varied across different occupations and appears to be concentrated in the private sector. The results also show that the gay male applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations, whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Theoretical implications are discussed

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Are homosexuals discriminated against in the hiring process?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4,000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against gays and lesbian varies across different occupations and appears only in the private sector. The results also seem to suggest a new dimension of traditional gender roles; the gay applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Thus, the results suggest that gays to some extent face the same obstacles on the labor market as heterosexual women.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Are lesbians discriminated against in the rental housing market? Evidence from a correspondence testing experiment2008In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 234-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment, conducted over the Internet, studying possible discrimination against lesbians in the rental housing market in Sweden. We let two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one lesbian, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the Internet. We then investigated whether there were differences between the couples in the number of received call-backs, invitations to further contact, and invitations to immediate showings. Our findings show no indication of differential treatment of lesbians by landlords. A discussion relating to earlier findings is provided.

     

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Can discrimination in the housing market be reduced by increasing the information about the applicants?2010In: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 79-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    We investigate how increasing the information about applicantsaffects discrimination in the rental housing market. We letfour fictitious applicants, two with typical Arab/Muslim namesand two with typical Swedish names, use application letterscontaining different amounts of information to apply for apartmentsover the Internet in Sweden. The Arab/Muslim applicants receivedfewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants.All of the applicants gained by providing more information aboutthemselves, but the amount of discrimination against the Arab/Muslimapplicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing theamount of information about the applicants will not reduce discrimination

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Diskriminering mot -icke-heterosexuella i anställningssituationen2011Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Does age matter for employability? A field experiment on ageism in the Swedish labor market2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 403-406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Earnings differentials due to sexual orientation: A look at some possible explanations2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented earnings differentials due to sexual orientation. In this paper we take a closer look at such differentials and the explanations for them. By studying yearly earnings as well as full-time monthly earnings, we are able to observe the extent to which the earnings disadvantage that is often observed for homosexual males and the earnings advantage often observed for homosexual females remain when we control for factors such as their number of hours worked. Our results suggest that male homosexuals are also at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals after controlling for number of hours worked. This disadvantage is larger at the top than at the bottom of the earnings distribution. However, for females the earnings differential is considerably smaller when we study full-time monthly earnings than when we study yearly earnings. Thus, the results indicate that male homosexuals face obstacles on the labour market that hinder them from reaching top-level positions and high earnings levels; the earnings advantage often observed for homosexual females in previous research is more likely to stem from the fact that female homosexuals devote more time to market labour than heterosexual females do.

  • 9.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers2009In: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 3050-3058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment regarding ethnic discrimination in the market place of small business transfers. We let two fictitious prospective buyers, one with a typical Swedish name and one with a typical Arab/Muslim name, respond to advertisements of small business transfers on the Internet in Sweden. We then recorded the number contacts achieved by each fictitious buyer with sellers. We found that sellers discriminated against the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name in the sense that the buyer with an Arab/Muslim name obtained fewer contacts with sellers than did the buyer with a Swedish name.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Homosexuella diskrimineras i traditionella yrken2011In: Svenska Dagbladet (Opinion), ISSN 1101-2412, no 20 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Inter- and intra-household earnings differentials among homosexual and heterosexual couples2011In: British Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0007-1080, E-ISSN 1467-8543, Vol. 49, no s2, p. s258-s278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less. The largest earnings inequalities between spouses are found among gay males followed by heterosexuals. Studying sexual orientation and earnings is complex, and household earnings have to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn.

  • 12.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. More than 1,000 participants were asked to read one out of eight possible fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships and subsequently respond to a questionnaire. Sexual orientation, victims’ and batterers’ gender, and severity of the violence varied across the different scenarios. The clearest result of this study was that participants perceived domestic violence to be significantly more serious when a man battered his wife than in any other case (i.e., when a woman battered her husband, when a gay man battered his husband, or when a lesbian woman battered her wife). In all types of relationships, participants matched their perceptions of domestic violence to the level of severity of the violence and participants with more negative attitudes toward women perceived domestic violence as less serious. Female participants were more concerned about lesbian domestic violence than male participants. Attitudes toward gays and lesbians mattered little for the perceptions of domestic violence.

  • 13. Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: Evidence from Swedish register data2013In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 83-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore annual earnings as well as full-time monthlyearnings differentials resulting from sexual orientation. We observe that gay malesare at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals regardless of whichearnings measure we use. This earnings disadvantage is found to be larger when wecompare gay and heterosexual males who are working full-time. In addition, thedisadvantage is larger in the private than in the public sector. Lesbians, however,earn more than heterosexual females. This earnings advantage is considerablysmaller when we study full-time monthly rather than annual earnings but an earningsadvantage for lesbians at the top of the earnings distribution is documentedregardless of which earnings measure we use. In addition, lesbians are doing betterthan female heterosexuals in the public sector. To sum up, the results indicate thatgay males face obstacles on the labor market that hinder them from reaching toplevelpositions and high earnings. The earnings advantage observed for lesbians islikely to stem from the fact that lesbians devote more time to market work thanheterosexual females.

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sexual orientation and occupational rank2011In: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 2422-2433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.

  • 15.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Andersson, Lina (current name Aldén, Lina)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sexual prejudice and labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians2012Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Bostadssökande invandrare nobbas åtta gånger av tio2007In: Dagens Nyheter: DN Debatt, Vol. 11, no 76, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Customer discrimination in the fast food market?: experimental evidence from a Swedish university campus2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies customer discrimination against fictive male and female food truck owners with Arabic names on a Swedish University campus using a web-based experiment. Students at a Swedish university campus were asked to participate in a market survey and state if they think it is a good idea to have a food truck establishment on the campus. Further, they were also asked about their own beliefs, and their beliefs about others’ willingness to pay for a baguette and a kebab sold by the food truck on the campus. Four names—one male Swede, one female Swede, one male Arab, and one female Arab—were randomly assigned to the food truck. We found no evidence of customer discrimination against food truck owners with Arabic names. In fact, the respondents were slightly more positive to a food truck establishment run by an Arabic male than by a Swedish male. We conclude that our results are representative in an environment with relatively young and highly educated customers and that customer discrimination may vary across different markets. More research in this area is needed.

  • 18.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Detecting discrimination against homosexuals: Evidence from a field experiment on the Internet2009In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 76, no 303, p. 588-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first field experiment studying discrimination against homosexuals on the housing market. The study is conducted on the rental housing market in Sweden using the internet as a research platform. Two fictitious couples, one heterosexual and one male homosexual, apply for vacant rental apartments advertised by landlords on the internet. Our findings show that homosexual males are discriminated against on the Swedish housing market, since the homosexual couple gets far fewer call-backs and fewer invitations to further contacts and to showings of apartments than the heterosexual couple.

  • 19.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market: A field experiment on the Internet2008In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 362-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a field experiment on discrimination in the housing market, using the Internet as a research platform. The procedure involved our creating three fictitious persons with distinctive sounding ethnic and gender names. These individuals applied for vacant rental apartments in Sweden that were advertised by landlords on the Internet. Our findings show that the Arabic/Muslim male received far fewer call backs, enquiries, and showings than the Swedish male. Our observations also indicate that the Swedish female met with less difficulty in terms of finding an apartment than the Swedish male. Thus, based on our findings, we conclude that ethnic, as well as gender discrimination exists in the Swedish rental housing market.

  • 20.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Diskriminerar kunder utrikes födda företagare? Resultat från ett webb-baserat experiment2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 25-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar resultat från ett experiment utfört på ett universitetscampus.Deltagarna fick se bilder av olika food-trucks och svara på om de tyckte det varen god idé att en food-truck etablerade sig på campusområdet samt ange sinbetalningsvilja för olika varor. Deltagarna i experimentet var mer positivatill en etablering av en food-truck ägd av en man med arabiskt namn än till enetablering av en food-truck ägd av en man med svenskt namn. Resultaten är avintresse för integrationspolitiken, då de visar att egenföretagare med ursprung iMellanöstern inte diskrimineras i en bransch där de ofta är verksamma.

  • 21.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Nationalekonomi och statistik.
    Diskrimineras homosexuella? Några erfarenheter från svensk ekonomisk forskning2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 38, no 8, p. 31-40Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Natinalekonomi och Statistik.
    Diskriminering på bostadsmarknaden: Effekten av att heta Mohammed2007In: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 35, no 34-41Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Ekonomiska perspektiv på etnisk diskriminering2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sexual orientation and earnings: A register data-based approach to identify homosexuals2010In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 835-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [nb]

    This paper examines earnings differentials between homo- and heterosexual individuals by identifying sexual orientation with the help of information from register data. Register data enable us to avoid the misclassifications of sexual orientation often mentioned as a potential bias in survey-based studies. The results show that gay men are at an earnings disadvantage as compared to male heterosexuals while the earnings differential between lesbians and heterosexual women is very small. Our results are in line with results from previous research but are more reliable since we use a more reliable measure of sexual orientation than previous research.

  • 25.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The effect of subtle religious representations on cooperation2011In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 900-910Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Early health and school outcomes for children with lesbian parents: evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was early to legalize same-sex partnership (1995), to allow same-sex couples to adopt children (2003), and to offer same-sex couples fertility treatment through the national health system (2005). Using population data, we identify children of lesbian parents as those whose biological mother was a registered same-sex partner no later than six months after the child's birth. The number of such children increased markedly from 1995 to 2010 with a total of 750 children for the whole period. We find that boys and girls with lesbian parents had 2.4 percent lower birth weight than other children, a difference that is statistically significant from zero at the 5 percent level. Girls, but not boys, also have a higher probability of having a low birth weight. We follow these children until age ten and observe diseases of the respiratory system. Boys with lesbian parents have a significantly lower probability of such diseases (-3.4 percentage points), and girls with lesbian parents an insignificantly higher probability (+2.4 percentage points). Our analysis of school outcomes at age ten uses a small sample so precision is low. The point estimates show that boys with lesbian parents outperform other children by around 10 percentiles higher test scores in Math and Swedish. These differences are barely significant, while estimates for girls are lower and not significant. For all outcomes, we find that children with lesbian parents benefit from their mother's socio-economic status, whereas they suffer in terms of birth weight from having been exposed to fertility treatment.

  • 27.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Edlund, Lena
    Columbia university.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mueller-Smith, Mike
    Columbia University.
    Domestic partnership for what?: Evidence from Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Edlund, Lena
    Columbia University, USA.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Mueller-Smith, Mike
    Columbia University, USA.
    Effect of Registered Partnership on Labor Earnings and Fertility for Same-Sex Couples: Evidence From Swedish Register Data2015In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 1243-1268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expansion of legal rights to same-sex couples is afoot in a number of Western countries. The effects of this rollout are not only important in their own right but can also provide a window on the institution of marriage and the rights bundled therein. In this article, using Swedish longitudinal register data covering 1994–2007, we study the impact of the extension of rights to same-sex couples on labor earnings and fertility. In 1994, registered partnership for same-sex couples was introduced, which conferred almost all rights and obligations of marriage—a notable exception being joint legal parenting, by default or election. The latter was added in the 2002 adoption act. We find registered partnership to be important to both gays and lesbians but for different reasons. For gays, resource pooling emerges as the main function of registered partnerships. For lesbians, registered partnership appears to be an important vehicle for family formation, especially after the 2002 adoption act. In contrast to heterosexual couples (included for comparison), we find no evidence of household specialization among lesbians. The lack of specialization is noteworthy given similar fertility effects of registered partnership (after 2002) and the fact that lesbian couples were less assortatively matched (on education) than heterosexual couples—children and unequal earnings power being two factors commonly believed to promote specialization.

  • 29.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Boende med konsekvens: en ESO-rapport om etnisk bostadssegregation och arbetsmarknad2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konstaterar att även om segregationen i stort sett har varit oförändrad under 2000-talet är skillnaderna mellan olika etniska grupper stora.

    Visar att bostadssegregationen samvarierar med utrikes föddas sannolikhet att ha arbete. Det finns också en koppling till arbetsinkomsten – individer bosatta i områden med många utrikesfödda har sällan höga inkomster och individer med riktigt höga inkomster har få utrikesfödda grannar.

    För att underlätta utrikes föddas integration behövs åtgärder både på bostads- och arbetsmarknaden. Särskilt viktiga är insatser som förbättrar chanserna till egen försörjning. Med arbete och tryggad inkomst ökar möjligheterna för individerna att själva välja boende. Integrationen kan också förbättras genom att det byggs bostäder med olika upplåtelseformer i samma område. Köp rapporten så får du ta del av de kompletta analyserna och förslagen!

    Rapport till expertgruppen för studier i offentlig ekonomi (ESO). ESO ligger under Finansdepartementet.

  • 30.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Debatt: varför får afrikanska kvinnor inga jobb?2014In: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-640XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En nyligen publicerad rapport visar på stora skillnader på arbetsmarknaden. Sannolikheten att stå utanför arbetskraften är 2,5 gånger högre för högutbildade kvinnor från Afrika eller Asien än för andra grupper, skriver Lina Aldén och Mats Hammarstedt vid Linnéuniversitetet.

  • 31.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Debatten är viktig - men kolla fakta först2016In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Discrimination in the credit market?: Access to financial capital among self-employed immigrants2016In: Kyklos (Basel), ISSN 0023-5962, E-ISSN 1467-6435, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 3-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a unique combination of survey and register data regarding access to financial capital conducted among immigrants who are self-employed in private firms in Sweden's retail, trade, and service sectors. This study is the first to examine discrimination against self-employed immigrants in the credit market of a developed economy outside the US. The results demonstrate that non-European immigrants consider access to financial capital a more serious impediment to their self-employment activities than do native Swedes and European immigrants. Self-employed non-European immigrants report more discrimination by banks, suppliers, and customers than do natives and immigrants from European countries. Immigrant-owned firms apply for bank loans to a larger extent than do firms owned by natives. Non-European immigrants especially are more likely than natives to have a loan denied, and they are also charged higher interest rates on their bank loans than natives. The results are robust to various different robustness checks. The occurrence of ethnic discrimination in the market for bank loans is put forward as an explanation for these results. Limited or lack of access to financial capital is a major obstacle to self-employment among certain immigrant groups. This obstacle may be one explanation for the high exit rates from self-employment among immigrants, a finding that has been documented in several countries including Sweden.

  • 33.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Discrimination in the credit market?: survey based evidence of access to financial capital among self-employed immigrants2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a survey regarding access to financial capital conducted among immigrants who are self-employed in private firms in Sweden's retail, trade or service sectors. The results show that non-European immigrants consider access to financial capital as a more serious impediment to their self-employment activities than do native Swedes and European immigrants. Self-employed non-European immigrants report more discrimination by banks, suppliers and customers than do natives and immigrants from European countries. Immigrant owned firms apply for bank loans to a larger extent than do firms owned by natives. Non-European immigrants are more likely than natives of having a loan denial and they are also charged higher interest rates on their bank loans than natives are. The occurrence of ethnic discrimination in the market for bank loans is put forward as an explanation for these results. Limited or no access to financial capital is an obstacle for self-employment among certain immigrant groups. This obstacle may be one explanation for the high exit rates from self-employment among immigrants that has been documented in several countries including Sweden.

  • 34.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Diskriminering på kreditmarknaden?: en enkätundersökning bland utrikes födda egenföretagare2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 50-59Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar resultaten från en enkätundersökning riktad till utrikes födda företagare. Företagare födda i länder utanför Europa upplever sig diskriminerade av kunder, leverantörer och banker i högre grad än andra företagare. De har en högre sannolikhet att få avslag på låneansökningar i banker och betalar högre ränta på beviljade banklån. Resultaten är i linje med vad som framkommit i studier från andra länder. Vi drar slutsatsen att diskriminering, åtminstone delvis, förklarar resultaten. Då en allt större andel utrikes födda i Sverige är aktiva som egenföretagare belyser våra resultat en problematik som är central för integrationen av utrikes födda på arbetsmarknaden.

  • 35.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Earnings and occupational attainment among immigrants from the new EU member states in Sweden2012Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Egenföretagande bland utrikes födda: en översikt av utvecklingen under 2000-talet2017Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Exits from immigrant self-employment: when, why and where to?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a study of exit rates from self-employment among immigrants in Sweden. A survey was administered to all immigrants who became self-employed during the period 2001–2005 and to the members of a native comparison group. The respondents were then followed up to the year 2010. Immigrants were found to have a lower propensity than natives of exiting self-employment for wage-employment but a higher propensity than natives of exiting self-employment for unemployment or for economic inactivity. Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions are conducted to study the extent to which different background characteristics affect differences in exit rates between immigrants and natives. In line with previous research, we find that labour market and self-employment experience prior to self-employment as well as access to financial capital are important explanations for the difference between non-European immigrants and natives in exit rates from self-employment to unemployment and to being economically inactive.

  • 38.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Flyktinginvandring: sysselsättning, förvärvsinkomster och offentliga finanser2016Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hur klarar sig utrikes födda på den svenska arbetsmarknaden?2017In: Nationalekonomins frågor, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 243-269Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hur påverkar flyktinginvandring de offentliga finanserna?2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 5-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi studerar sysselsättning bland och påverkan på offentliga finanser av flyktingar från Afrika, Mellanöstern och övriga Asien. Det framkommer att omkring 50 procent av flyktingarna var sysselsatta sju år efter folkbokföring i Sverige. Den offentliga sektorns totala nettokostnad per flykting uppgår till ca 190 000 kr första året efter folkbokföring. Sju år efter folkbokföring uppgår denna kostnad till ca 95 000 kr per flykting. När den offentliga konsumtion som på kort sikt kan antas vara oförändrad vid en ökad flyktinginvandring exkluderas uppgår den offentliga sektorns totala nettokostnad per flykting till ca 125 000 kr första året efter folkbokföring.

  • 41.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Integration of immigrants on the Swedish labour market: recent trends and explanations2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses new data to illustrate the position of the foreign-born on the Swedish labour market. Foreign-born Africans and Asians have a lower employment and a higher unemployment rate than other groups. They are overrepresented in fixed-time employment and underrepresented in managerial positions. Employment is particularly low among family and refugee immigrants. Educated people from these regions are more likely than others to have jobs requiring lower competencies than their educational level. Lack of human capital acquired in Sweden and lack of access to networks as well as prevalence of discrimination are put forward as explanations for this.

  • 42.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Refugee immigration and public sector finances: Evidence from Sweden2019In: Finanzarchiv, ISSN 0015-2218, E-ISSN 1614-0974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of how refugee immigration affects public-sector finances duringthe refugees’ first years of stay in Sweden. Two different measures are presented. First,public-sector revenues are related to public-sector costs under the assumption that pub-lic costs increase in proportion to refugee immigration. Second, public-sector revenuesare related to public-sector costs when, in the short run, costs for public administration,infrastructure, and national defense are assumed to be fixed as refugee immigration in-creases. We find that refugee immigration implies a net cost for public-sector financesfor several years and that this cost to a large extent is dependent on the refugees’ labormarket assimilation.

  • 43.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Refugee immigration and public sector finances: longitudinal evidence from Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an analysis of refugee immigration and public sector finances in Sweden. All refugees who were listed in the national population registers from 2005 to 2007 are tracked from 2006 to 2012. We present two measures of the public sector’s net costs related to refugee immigration. In the first measure, public revenues are related to all public costs associated with refugee immigration. The second measure relates public revenues to public costs associated with immigration, excluding costs that can be assumed to be fixed in the short run when refugee immigration increases. By presenting these two measures we are able to present an upper and a lower bound for the public net costs of refugee immigration during a refugee´s first years in Sweden. Our results reveal that during a refugee’s first year of residency in Sweden after the asylum application has been approved, the public sector net costs for that refugee’s immigration are between 95,000 SEK and 190,000 SEK, depending on how public costs are allocated to the refugee population. After seven years in Sweden, the cost for that refugee is between 37,000 SEK and 125,000 SEK. Large differences are found between refugees with different educational attainment as regards the extent to which they incur a cost for the public sector’s finances.

  • 44.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly: survey-based evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares life satisfaction among the elderly (61 years of age or older) who are self-employed, wage-employed or out of the labour force in Sweden with the help of a unique survey. Sweden is interesting since the share of elderly, just as in other countries, has increased during the last decade. Encouraging the elderly to remain in the labour force is now high on the political agenda. We find that people who are self-employed report higher life satisfaction than people who are wage-employed or out of the labour force. General health is a strong determinant of life satisfaction but the differences among the groups remain when we control for health related variables. Further, the self-employed report higher job satisfaction than the wage-employed, and find their work less mentally stressful. Even though our results are driven by different types of selection, we conclude that they underline the need for a flexible working life. Stimulating self-employment among older people may be an effective way to improve their life satisfaction, to increase Sweden’s labour supply and to keep older people in the labour force.

  • 45.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Self-employment and life satisfaction among the elderly: survey-based evidence from Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares life satisfaction among the elderly (61 years of age or older) who are self-employed, wage-employed or out of the labour force in Sweden with the help of a unique survey. Sweden is interesting since the share of elderly, just as in other countries, has increased during the last decade. Encouraging the elderly to remain in the labour force is now high on the political agenda. We find that people who are self-employed report higher life satisfaction than people who are wage-employed or out of the labour force. General health is a strong determinant of life satisfaction but the differences among the groups remain when we control for health related variables. Further, the self-employed report higher job satisfaction than the wage-employed, and find their work less mentally straining or stressful. Even though our results are driven by different types of selection, we conclude that they underline the need for a flexible working life. Stimulating self-employment among older people may be an effective way to improve their life satisfaction, to increase Sweden’s labour supply and to keep older people in the labour force.

  • 46.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Svårare för utrikes födda att starta eget2014In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Politiker pekar ofta på att ökat företagande bland utrikes födda ska minska arbetslösheten. Men ett hinder för detta är att en enkät bland företagare visar att över 20 procent av dem som är födda i länder utanför Europa upplever sig ha blivit diskriminerade vid kontakter med banker. Det skriver Lina Aldén och Mats Hammarstedt, nationalekonomer vid Linnéuniversitetet i Växjö.

  • 47.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Sysselsättning bland flyktingar måste öka"2017In: Dagens Samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511, no 2017-04-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den bristande integrationen av flyktingar på svensk arbetsmarknad får konsekvenser för de offentliga finanserna och gör flyktinginvandringen till en nettokostnad lång tid efter invandring, skriver nationalekonomerna Mats Hammarstedt och Lina Aldén, som menar att reformer är nödvändiga.

  • 48.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utrikes födda på 2000-talets arbetsmarknad - en översikt och förklaringar till situationen2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 77-89Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel ger en bild av utrikes föddas position på den svenska arbetsmarknaden under 2000-talet. Utrikes födda från Afrika och Asien har lägre sysselsättningsgrad och högre andel arbetslösa än andra grupper av utrikes födda och infödda. De är också överrepresenterade i tidsbegränsade anställningar och underrepresenterade på chefspositioner. Högutbildade personer från dessa regioner har oftare än andra personer arbeten som kräver lägre kompetens än deras formella utbildningsnivå. Vidare utmärker sig högutbildade kvinnor från Afrika och Asien genom ett lågt arbetskraftsdeltagande. En diskussion förs om olika tänkbara förklaringar till situationen.

  • 49.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Utrikes födda på den svenska arbetsmarknaden: en översikt och en internationell jämförelse2014Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    ”Ärliga argument krävs i debatt om flyktingar”2016In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En flykting kostar i genomsnitt 142 000 kronor per år de första sju åren efter att personen har fått uppehållstillstånd. Kostnaderna för offentlig sektor är därmed höga och det är centralt att diskutera hur de kan minskas, skriver nationalekonomerna Lina Aldén och Mats Hammarstedt.

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