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  • 1.
    Abdellaoui, G.
    et al.
    Univ Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen, Fac Technol, Telecom Lab, Tilimsen, Algeria..
    Abe, S.
    Nihon Univ Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan..
    Adams, J. H., Jr.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Ahriche, A.
    Univ Jijel, Lab Theoret Phys LPT, Jijel, Algeria..
    Allard, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Allen, L.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Alonso, G.
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Anchordoqui, L.
    CUNY, Lehman Coll, Bronx, NY USA..
    Anzalone, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy..
    Arai, Y.
    High Energy Accelerator Res Org KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Asano, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Attallah, R.
    Univ Badji Mokhtar, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, LPR, Annaba, Algeria..
    Attoui, H.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Ave Pernas, M.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Bacholle, S.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Bakiri, M.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Baragatti, P.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Barrillon, P.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    Bartocci, S.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Bayer, J.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Beldjilali, B.
    Univ Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen, Fac Technol, Telecom Lab, Tilimsen, Algeria..
    Belenguer, T.
    INTA, Madrid, Spain..
    Belkhalfa, N.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Bellotti, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.;INFN, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Belov, A.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Belov, K.
    NASA, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA USA..
    Benmessai, K.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Bertainaek, M.
    Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Biermann, P. L.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Biktemerova, S.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna, Russia..
    Bisconti, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Blanc, N.
    Swiss Ctr Elect & Microtechnol CSEM, Neuchatel, Switzerland..
    Blecki, J.
    Polish Acad Sci CBK, Space Res Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Blin-Bondil, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS IN2P3, Omega, Palaiseau, France..
    Bobik, P.
    Inst Expt Phys, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Bogomilov, M.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Bozzo, E.
    ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Bruno, A.
    Univ Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.;INFN, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Caballero, K. S.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas UNACH, Chiapas, Mexico..
    Cafagna, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Campana, D.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Capdevielle, J-N
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Caramete, A.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Caramete, L.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Caruso, R.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Catania, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy..
    Casolino, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.;RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Cassardo, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Castellina, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Ist Nazl Astrofis, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Catalano, C.
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Catalano, O.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy..
    Cellino, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Ist Nazl Astrofis, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Chikawa, M.
    Kinki Univ, Higashi Osaka, Japan..
    Chiritoi, G.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Christl, M. J.
    NASA, Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Washington, DC 20546 USA..
    Connaughton, V
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Conti, L.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Cordero, G.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Cotto, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Crawford, H. J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Cremonini, R.
    Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Csorna, S.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Cummings, A.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Dagoret-Campagne, S.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    De Donato, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    de la Taille, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS IN2P3, Omega, Palaiseau, France..
    De Santis, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    del Peral, L.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Di Martino, M.
    Ist Nazl Astrofis, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Damian, A. Diaz
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Djemil, T.
    Univ Badji Mokhtar, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, LPR, Annaba, Algeria..
    Dutan, I
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Ebersoldt, A.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Ebisuzaki, T.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Engel, R.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Eser, J.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Fenuek, F.
    Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Fernandez-Gonzalez, S.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Fernandez-Soriano, J.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Ferrarese, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Flamini, M.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Fornaro, C.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Fouka, M.
    CRAAG, Dept Astron, Algiers, Algeria..
    Franceschi, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Franchini, S.
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Fujii, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Fujimoto, J.
    High Energy Accelerator Res Org KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Fukushima, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Galeotti, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Garcia-Ortega, E.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Garipov, G.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Gascon, E.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Genci, J.
    Tech Univ Kosice TUKE, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Giraudo, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Gonzalez Alvarado, C.
    INTA, Madrid, Spain..
    Gorodetzky, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Greg, R.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Guarino, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento Fis, Naples, Italy..
    Guzman, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Hachisu, Y.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Haiduc, M.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Harlov, B.
    TsNIIMash, Cent Res Inst Machine Bldg, Korolev, Russia..
    Haungs, A.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Hernandez Carretero, J.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Hidber Cruz, W.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Ikeda, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Inoue, N.
    Saitama Univ, Saitama, Japan..
    Inoue, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Isgro, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Napoli Federico II, DIETI, Naples, Italy..
    Itow, Y.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Jammer, T.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Expt Phys Inst, Tubingen, Germany..
    Jeong, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Joven, E.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Judd, E. G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Jung, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Jochum, J.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Expt Phys Inst, Tubingen, Germany..
    Kajino, F.
    Konan Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan..
    Kajino, T.
    Natl Astron Observ, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kalli, S.
    Univ Msila, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, Msila, Algeria..
    Kaneko, I
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Karadzhov, Y.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Karczmarczyk, J.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Lodz, Poland..
    Katahira, K.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Kawai, K.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Kawasaki, Y.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Kedadra, A.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Khales, H.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Khrenov, B. A.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Kim, Jeong-Sook
    Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst KASI, Daejeon, South Korea..
    Kim, Soon-Wook
    Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst KASI, Daejeon, South Korea..
    Kleifges, M.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Klimov, P. A.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Kolev, D.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Krantz, H.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Kreykenbohm, I
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, ECAP, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kudela, K.
    Inst Expt Phys, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Kurihara, Y.
    High Energy Accelerator Res Org KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Kusenko, A.
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.;NASA, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA USA..
    Kuznetsov, E.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    La Barbera, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy..
    Lachaud, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Lahmar, H.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Lakhdari, F.
    UROP CDTA, Res Unit Opt & Photon, Setif, Algeria..
    Larson, R.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Larsson, O.
    KTH.
    Lee, J.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Licandro, J.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Lopez Campano, L.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Maccarone, M. C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy..
    Mackovjak, S.
    ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Mahdi, M.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Maravilla, D.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Marcelli, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    Marcos, J. L.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Marini, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Marszal, W.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Lodz, Poland..
    Martens, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan..
    Martin, Y.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Martinez, O.
    BUAP, Puebla, Mexico..
    Martucci, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Masciantonio, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Chiba, Japan..
    Mastafa, M.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Matev, R.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Matthews, J. N.
    Univ Utah, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Mebarki, N.
    Univ Constantine I, Lab Math & Subatom Phys LPMPS, Constantine, Algeria..
    Medina-Tanco, G.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Mendoza, M. A.
    CDA IPN, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Menshikov, A.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Merino, A.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Meseguer, J.
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Meyer, S. S.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Mimouni, J.
    Univ Constantine I, Lab Math & Subatom Phys LPMPS, Constantine, Algeria..
    Miyamoto, H.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Mizumoto, Y.
    Natl Astron Observ, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan..
    Monaco, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.;INFN, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Morales de los Rios, J. A.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Moretto, C.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    Nagataki, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Naitamor, S.
    CRAAG, Dept Astron, Algiers, Algeria..
    Napolitano, T.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Naslund, W.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Nava, R.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Neronov, A.
    ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Nomoto, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan..
    Nonaka, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Ogawa, T.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Ogio, S.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka, Japan..
    Ohmori, H.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Olinto, A. , V
    Orleanski, P.
    Polish Acad Sci CBK, Space Res Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Osteria, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Pagliaro, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy..
    Painter, W.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Panasyuk, M. , I
    Panico, B.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Pasqualino, G.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Parizot, E.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Park, I. H.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Pastircak, B.
    Inst Expt Phys, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Patzak, T.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Paul, T.
    CUNY, Lehman Coll, Bronx, NY USA..
    Perez-Grande, I
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Perfetto, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Peter, T.
    ETH, Inst Atmospher & Climate Sci, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Picozza, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, Rome, Italy.;RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Pindado, S.
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Piotrowski, L. W.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Piraino, S.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Placidi, L.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Plebaniak, Z.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Lodz, Poland..
    Pliego, S.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Pollini, A.
    Swiss Ctr Elect & Microtechnol CSEM, Neuchatel, Switzerland..
    Polonski, Z.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Popescu, E. M.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Prat, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Prevot, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Prieto, H.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Putis, M.
    Inst Expt Phys, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Rabanal, J.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    Radu, A. A.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Reyes, M.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Rezazadeh, M.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Ricci, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Rodriguez Frias, M. D.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Rodencal, M.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Ronga, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Roudil, G.
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Rusinov, I
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Rybczynski, M.
    Jan Kochanowski Univ Humanities & Sci, Inst Phys, Kielce, Poland..
    Sabau, M. D.
    INTA, Madrid, Spain..
    Saez Cano, G.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Sagawa, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Sahnoune, Z.
    CRAAG, Dept Astron, Algiers, Algeria..
    Saito, A.
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan..
    Sakaki, N.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Salazar, H.
    BUAP, Puebla, Mexico..
    Sanchez Balanzar, J. C.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Sanchez, J. L.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Sanz-Andres, A.
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Sanz Palomino, M.
    INTA, Madrid, Spain..
    Saprykin, O.
    TsNIIMash, Cent Res Inst Machine Bldg, Korolev, Russia..
    Sarazin, F.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Sato, M.
    Hokkaido Univ, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan..
    Schanz, T.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Schieler, H.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Scotti, V
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Selmane, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Semikoz, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Serra, M.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Sharakin, S.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Shimizu, H. M.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Shinozaki, K.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Shirahama, T.
    Saitama Univ, Saitama, Japan..
    Spataro, B.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Stan, I
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Sugiyama, T.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Supanitsky, D.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Suzuki, M.
    JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Szabelska, B.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Lodz, Poland..
    Szabelski, J.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Lodz, Poland..
    Tajima, N.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Tajima, T.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Takahashi, Y.
    Hokkaido Univ, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan..
    Takami, H.
    High Energy Accelerator Res Org KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Takeda, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Takizawa, Y.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Talai, M. C.
    Univ Badji Mokhtar, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, LPR, Annaba, Algeria..
    Tenzer, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Thomas, S. B.
    Univ Utah, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Tibolla, O.
    Ctr Mesoamer Fis Teor MCTP, Chiapas, Mexico..
    Tkachev, L.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna, Russia..
    Tokuno, H.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Interact Res Ctr Sci, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tomida, T.
    Shinshu Univ, Nagano, Japan..
    Tone, N.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Toscano, S.
    ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Traiche, M.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Tsenov, R.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Tsunesada, Y.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka, Japan..
    Tsuno, K.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Tubbs, J.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Turriziani, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Uchihori, Y.
    Natl Inst Radiol Sci, Chiba, Japan..
    Vaduvescu, O.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Valdes-Galicia, J. F.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Vallania, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Ist Nazl Astrofis, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Vankova, G.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Vigorito, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Villasenor, L.
    UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico..
    Vlcek, B.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Von Ballmoos, P.
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Vrabel, M.
    Tech Univ Kosice TUKE, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Wada, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Watanabe, J.
    Natl Astron Observ, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan..
    Watts, J., Jr.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Weber, M.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Weigand Munoz, R.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Weindl, A.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Wiencke, L.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Wille, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, ECAP, Erlangen, Germany..
    Wilms, J.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, ECAP, Erlangen, Germany..
    Wlodarczyk, Z.
    Jan Kochanowski Univ Humanities & Sci, Inst Phys, Kielce, Poland..
    Yamamoto, T.
    Konan Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan..
    Yang, J.
    Ewha Womans Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Yano, H.
    JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Yashin, I. , V
    Yonetoku, D.
    Kanazawa Univ, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Chiba, Japan..
    Young, R.
    NASA, Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Washington, DC 20546 USA..
    Zgura, I. S.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Zotov, M. Yu
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Marchi, A. Zuccaro
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    First observations of speed of light tracks by a fluorescence detector looking down on the atmosphere2018Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, artikel-id P05023Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for the Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO). It was launched on the moonless night of the 25(th) of August 2014 from Timmins, Canada. The flight ended successfully after maintaining the target altitude of 38 km for five hours. One part of the mission was a 2.5 hour underflight using a helicopter equipped with three UV light sources (LED, xenon flasher and laser) to perform an inflight calibration and examine the detectors capability to measure tracks moving at the speed of light. We describe the helicopter laser system and details of the underflight as well as how the laser tracks were recorded and found in the data. These are the first recorded laser tracks measured from a fluorescence detector looking down on the atmosphere. Finally, we present a first reconstruction of the direction of the laser tracks relative to the detector.

  • 2. Abdellaoui, G.
    et al.
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Larsson, O.
    KTH. RIKEN, Wako, Japan.
    Zuccaro Marchi, A.
    et.al.,
    Cosmic ray oriented performance studies for the JEM-EUSO first level trigger2017Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, s. 150-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    JEM-EUSO is a space mission designed to investigate Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos (E > 5.10(19) eV) from the International Space Station (ISS). Looking down from above its wide angle telescope is able to observe their air showers and collect such data from a very wide area. Highly specific trigger algorithms are needed to drastically reduce the data load in the presence of both atmospheric and human activity related background light, yet retain the rare cosmic ray events recorded in the telescope. We report the performance in offline testing of the first level trigger algorithm on data from JEM-EUSO prototypes and laboratory measurements observing different light sources: data taken during a high altitude balloon flight over Canada, laser pulses observed from the ground traversing the real atmosphere, and model landscapes reproducing realistic aspect ratios and light conditions as would be seen from the ISS itself. The first level trigger logic successfully kept the trigger rate within the permissible bounds when challenged with artificially produced as well as naturally encountered night sky background fluctuations and while retaining events with general air-shower characteristics.

  • 3.
    Abdellaoui, G.
    et al.
    Univ Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen, Fac Technol, Telecom Lab, Tilimsen, Algeria..
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Oscar
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Marchi, A. Zuccaro
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Ultra-violet imaging of the night-time earth by EUSO-Balloon towards space-based ultra-high energy cosmic ray observations2019Ingår i: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 111, s. 54-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The JEM-EUSO (Joint Experiment Missions for the Extreme Universe Space Observatory) program aims at developing Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence telescopes for efficient detections of Extensive Air Showers (EASs) induced by Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) from satellite orbit. In order to demonstrate key technologies for JEM-EUSO, we constructed the EUSO-Balloon instrument that consists of a similar to 1 m(2) refractive telescope with two Fresnel lenses and an array of multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes at the focus. Distinguishing it from the former balloon-borne experiments, EUSO-Balloon has the capabilities of single photon counting with a gate time of 2.3 mu s and of imaging with a total of 2304 pixels. As a pathfinder mission, the instrument was launched for an 8 h stratospheric flight on a moonless night in August 2014 over Timmins, Canada. In this work, we analyze the count rates over similar to 2.5 h intervals. The measurements are of diffuse light, e.g. of airglow emission, back-scattered from the Earth's atmosphere as well as artificial light sources. Count rates from such diffuse light are a background for EAS detections in future missions and relevant factor for the analysis of EAS events. We also obtain the geographical distribution of the count rates over a similar to 780 km(2) area along the balloon trajectory. In developed areas, light sources such as the airport, mines, and factories are clearly identified. This demonstrates the correct location of signals that will be required for the EAS analysis in future missions. Although a precise determination of count rates is relevant for the existing instruments, the absolute intensity of diffuse light is deduced for the limited conditions by assuming spectra models and considering simulations of the instrument response. Based on the study of diffuse light by EUSO-Balloon, we also discuss the implications for coming pathfinders and future space-based UHECR observation missions.

  • 4. Belov, A.
    et al.
    Bertaina, M.
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik. The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fausti, F.
    Fenu, F.
    Klimov, P.
    Mignone, M.
    Miyamoto, H.
    The integration and testing of the Mini-EUSO multi-level trigger system2017Ingår i: Advances in Space ResearchArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mini-EUSO telescope is designed by the JEM-EUSO Collaboration to observe the UV emission of the Earth from the vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS) in low Earth orbit. The main goal of the mission is to map the Earth in the UV, thus increasing the technological readiness level of future EUSO experiments and to lay the groundwork for the detection of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECRs) from space (Ebisuzaki et al., 2014). Due to its high time resolution of 2.5 μs, Mini-EUSO is capable of detecting a wide range of UV phenomena in the Earth’s atmosphere. In order to maximise the scientific return of the mission, it is necessary to implement a multi-level trigger logic for data selection over different timescales. This logic is key to the success of the mission and thus must be thoroughly tested and carefully integrated into the data processing system prior to the launch. This article introduces the motivation behind the trigger design and details the integration and testing of the logic.

  • 5. Belov, A.
    et al.
    Klimov, P.
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Bertaina, M.
    Fausti, F.
    Mignone, M.
    Mini-EUSO photodetector module data processing system2017Ingår i: Proceedings of Science, Sissa Medialab Srl , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mini-EUSO is a UV telescope which is developed by the JEM-EUSO collaboration to be placed on board the International Space Station (ISS) to carry out measurements of UV atmosphere airglow and transient luminous events (TLEs) in a wide field of view (>40°) and high temporal resolution (2.5 μs). Mini-EUSO is developed to be a space qualified pathfinder of future JEMEUSO missions. Optical system of the detector consists of two Fresnel lenses of 25 cm diameter. The focal surface is composed of 36 produced by Hamamatsu multi anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMT), each with 64 pixels. The output signal of all 2304 pixels is digitized and then passed to the data processing system that was specially developed for the experiment and is being discussed in this work. Data processing system is based on produced by Xilinx ZYNQ chip that contains both programmable part (FPGA) and processor. Such combination in a single chip gives a big advantage for processing a data gathered from focal surface including fast multi-level trigger algorithms, data buffering, MAPMTs high voltage control algorithms, interfaces with front-end electronics and with the separate central processor unit for data storage. The multi-level trigger was developed for the mini-EUSO instrument to perform measurements in various time scales (temporal resolutions 2.5 μs, 320 μs, 40 ms). This trigger was successfully implemented and tested. 

  • 6.
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Cosmic clues from astrophysical particles2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ultrahög energetisk kosmisk strålning (UHECR) är laddade partiklar som har accelererats till extrema energier, så att de i praktiken färdas med ljusets hastighet. Det är möjligt att upptäcka dessa partiklar när de växelverkar med jordens atmosfär då omfattande skurar med partiklar och strålning utvecklas, vilka kan mätas med befintlig teknik. Trots decennier av forskning förblir UHECR:s ursprung dold. Men de tros vara accelererade inom kraftfulla astrofysiska källor som ligger utanför vår galax. Denna avhandling utforskar olika idéer med det gemensamma målet att nå en djupare förståelse av UHECR-fenomenologin. Del I handlar om utvecklingen av ett nytt rymdbaserat observatorium som har potential att upptäcka ett stort antal av dessa gåtfulla partiklar. Genomförandet av ett sådant projekt demonstreras av resultaten från Mini-EUSO-instrumentet som för närvarande är ombord på den Internationella rymdstationen. I Del II ligger fokus på att utnyttja tillgänglig information med avancerade analystekniker för att minska klyftan mellan teori och data, för att nå en djupare förståelse av aktuella observationer. UHECR:er är nära kopplade till produktionen av neutriner och gammastrålning. Ramar för gemensam analys av dessa komplementära kosmiska budbärare utvecklas. Resultaten som presenteras här visar att det är avgörande att investera i utvecklingen av både detekterings- och analystekniker för att gå vidare. Genom att titta närmare på befintliga data kan nya ledtrådar avslöjas i sammanhanget med så kallade multi-budbärare och ger information för att bättre utforma framtida experiment. 

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  • 7.
    Capel, Francesca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Belov, A.
    Bertaina, M.
    Fausti, F.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Collaboration, J E M-E U S O
    The mini-EUSO multi-level trigger algorithm and its performance2017Ingår i: Proceedings of Science, Sissa Medialab Srl , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mini-EUSO telescope is designed by the JEM-EUSO Collaboration to observe the UV emission of the Earth from the vantage point of the International Space Station in low Earth orbit. The main goal of the mission is to map the Earth in the UV, thus increasing the technological readiness level of future EUSO experiments and to lay the groundwork for the detection of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECRs) from space. Due to its high time resolution of 2.5 μs, Mini-EUSO is capable of detecting a wide range of UV phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere. In order to maximise the scientific return of the mission, it is necessary to implement a multi-level trigger logic for data selection on various different timescales. This logic is key to the success of the mission and thus must be thoroughly tested and integrated into the data processing system prior to launch. This article introduces the motivation behind the trigger design and details the testing of the logic through simulations and data taken at the TurLab facility. 

  • 8.
    Capel, Francesca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik. The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm.
    Belov, A.
    Casolino, M.
    Klimov, P.
    Mini-EUSO: A high resolution detector for the study of terrestrial and cosmic UV emission from the International Space Station2017Ingår i: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mini-EUSO instrument is a UV telescope to be placed inside the International Space Station (ISS), looking down on the Earth from a nadir-facing window in the Russian Zvezda module. Mini-EUSO will map the earth in the UV range (300-400. nm) with a spatial resolution of 6.11. km and a temporal resolution of 2.5. μs, offering the opportunity to study a variety of atmospheric events such as transient luminous events (TLEs) and meteors, as well as searching for strange quark matter and bioluminescence. Furthermore, Mini-EUSO will be used to detect space debris to verify the possibility of using a EUSO-class telescope in combination with a high energy laser for space debris remediation. The high-resolution mapping of the UV emissions from Earth orbit allows Mini-EUSO to serve as a pathfinder for the study of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECRs) from space by the JEM-EUSO collaboration. 

  • 9.
    Capel, Francesca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Belov, Alexander
    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, DV Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Fac Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Cambie, Giorgio
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    Casolino, Marco
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.;RIKEN, Saitama, Japan..
    Fornaro, Claudio
    Uninettuno Univ, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Klimov, Pavel
    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, DV Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Marcelli, Laura
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    Piotrowski, Lech W.
    RIKEN, Saitama, Japan..
    Turriziani, Sara
    RIKEN, Saitama, Japan..
    Mini-EUSO data acquisition and control software2019Ingår i: JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS, ISSN 2329-4124, Vol. 5, nr 4, artikel-id 044009Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the data acquisition and control software for the operation of the Mini-Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO), a space-based fluorescence telescope for the observation of extensive air showers and atmospheric phenomena. This framework has been extensively tested alongside the development of Mini-EUSO and was finalized ahead of the successful launch of the instrument to the ISS on August 22, 2019. The data acquisition, housekeeping, and subsystem control is achieved using custom-designed front-end electronics based on a Xilinx Zynq XC7Z030 chip interfaced with a PCIe/104 CPU module via the integrated Zynq processing system. The instrument control interface is handled using an object-oriented C++ design, which can be run both autonomously and interactively as required. Although developed for Mini-EUSO, the modular design of both the software and hardware can easily be scaled up to larger instrument designs and adapted to different subsystem and communication requirements. As such, this framework will also be used in the upgrade of the EUSO-TA instrument and potentially for the next EUSO-SPB2 NASA Balloon flight. The software and firmware presented are open source and released with detailed and integrated documentation.

  • 10.
    Capel, Francesca Capel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Mortlock, Daniel J.
    Finley, Chad
    Bayesian constraints on the astrophysical neutrino source population from IceCube dataManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Capel, Francesca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Casolino, M.
    Piotrowski, L.
    Collaboration, J E M-E U S O
    Mini-EUSO flight software and operations on ISS2017Ingår i: Proceedings of Science, Sissa Medialab Srl , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mini-EUSO instrument is designed by the JEM-EUSO collaboration to pave the way for space-based observations of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECRs). To be placed inside the International Space Station (ISS) in early 2018, it is a small UV (300-400 nm) telescope which will observe the Earth's atmosphere with a spatial resolution of 6.11 km. Mini-EUSO is capable of detecting a wide variety of UV events such as cosmic ray signals, transient luminous events and meteors with a minimum time resolution of 2.5 μs. It will also be possible to detect space debris during twilight periods. The flight software is fully automated and takes advantage of the frequent day/night cycles of the ISS orbit and ancillary instruments with which Mini-EUSO is equipped in order to optimise the mission's scientific output. The flight operations of Mini-EUSO are presented including the data acquisition, storage and transfer, astronaut interaction and predicted instrument duty cycle. 

  • 12.
    Capel, Francesca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik. Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mortlock, Daniel J.
    Imperial Coll London, Astrophys Grp, Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Rd, London SW7 2AZ, England.;Imperial Coll London, Stat Sect, Dept Math, London SW7 2AZ, England.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Impact of using the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray arrival energies to constrain source associations2019Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 484, nr 2, s. 2324-2340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a Bayesian hierarchical model which enables a joint fit of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) energy spectrum and arrival directions within the context of a physical model for the UHECR phenomenology. In this way, possible associations with astrophysical source populations can be assessed in a physically and statistically principled manner. The importance of including the UHECR energy data and detection effects is demonstrated through simulation studies, showing that the effective GZK horizon is significantly extended for typical reconstruction uncertainties. We also verify the ability of the model to fit and recover physical parameters from CRPROPA 3 simulations. Finally, the model is used to assess the fraction of the publicly available data set of 231 UHECRs detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory which are associated with the Fermi-LAT 2FHL catalogue, a set of starburst galaxies, and Swift-BAT hard X-ray sources. We find association fractions of 9.5(-5.9)(+2.4), 22.7(-12.4)(+6.6), and 22.8(-8.0)(+6.6) per cent for the 2FHL, starburst galaxies, and Swift-BAT catalogues respectively.

  • 13. Casolino, M.
    et al.
    Belov, A.
    Bertaina, M.
    Cambie, G.
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Ebisuzaki, T.
    Klimov, P.
    Panasyuk, M.
    Picozza, P.
    Ricci, M.
    collaboration, JEM-EUSO
    Science of Mini-EUSO detector on board the International Space Station2017Ingår i: Proceedings of Science, Sissa Medialab Srl , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mini-EUSO space experiment ("UV atmosphere" in Russian Space Program) is a telescope designed to perform observations of night-time Earth in the UV spectrum. The instrument comprises a compact telescope with a large field of view (44°x44°), based on an optical system employing two 25 cm diameter Fresnel lenses (focal length ∼ 30 cm) for increased light collection. Mini-EUSO will study different scientific phenomena ranging from strange quark matter and Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) to bioluminescence and atmospheric physics. It will also create the first night-time map of the Earth in UV light. The mission will raise the technology readiness level (TRL) of the future JEM-EUSO missions to observe UHECRs from space. The Mini-EUSO measurements will be performed from the ISS through a UV transparent window in the Russian Zvezda Service Module. Launch is foreseen between Autumn 2017 and beginning 2018 in the framework of the next manned ASI (Italian Space Agency) flight and observations are supposed to continue with Russian cosmonauts for several years. 

  • 14. Fausti, F.
    et al.
    Bertaina, M.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Fenu, F.
    Mignone, M.
    Durando, S.
    D’Ago, D.
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Belov, A.
    Klimov, P.
    A multi-level triggering system for the Mini-EUSO UV telescope2017Ingår i: Proceedings of Science, Sissa Medialab Srl , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As a pathfinder for the JEM-EUSO mission, Mini-EUSO is a 25cm diameter telescope which is going to be launched and positioned inside the International Space Station (ISS) in 2018. The main scientific goal of this mission is the achievement of a state-of-the-art UV map of the Earth from a 400 Km altitude, with ∼ 6 km of pixel spatial resolution, collecting data though a multi-level triggering system. The signal is collected with Multi-Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes (MAPMTs) and digitized by means of custom chips. The raw data moves then to a central system, the Zynq Board, where the trigger operates a data selection dividing different classes of events characterized by specific time scales. The acquired UV map will be used as discrimination threshold for the Extreme Energy Cosmic-Ray detection. 

  • 15. Fenu, F.
    et al.
    Piotrowski, L. W.
    Shin, H.
    Jung, A.
    Bacholle, S.
    Bisconti, F.
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Eser, J.
    Kawasaki, Y.
    Kuznetsov, E.
    Larsson, O.
    Mackovjak, S.
    Miyamoto, H.
    Plebaniak, Z.
    Prevot, G.
    Putis, M.
    Shinozaki, K.
    Adams, J.
    Bertaina, M.
    Bobik, P.
    Casolino, M.
    Matthews, J. N.
    Ricci, M.
    Wiencke, L.
    Preliminary analysis of EUSO - TA data2016Ingår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 718, nr 5, artikel-id 52011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The EUSO-TA detector is a pathfinder for the JEM-EUSO project and is currently installed in Black Rock Mesa (Utah) on the site of the Telescope Array fluorescence detectors. Aim of this experiment is to validate the observation principle of JEM-EUSO on air showers measured from ground. The experiment gets data in coincidence with the TA triggers to increase the likelihood of cosmic ray detection. In this framework the collaboration is also testing the detector response with respect to several test events from lasers and LED flashers. Moreover, another aim of the project is the validation of the stability of the data acquisition chain in real sky condition and the optimization of the trigger scheme for the rejection of background. Data analysis is ongoing to identify cosmic ray events in coincidence with the TA detector. In this contribution we will show the response of the EUSO-TA detector to all the different typologies of events and we will show some preliminary results on the trigger optimization performed on such data.

  • 16.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI).
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Partikel- och astropartikelfysik.
    Casolino, M.
    Klimov, P.
    Larsson, O.
    Ricci, M.
    Mini-euso inside iss to prepare for studying ultra-high energy particles from the outside2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC, International Astronautical Federation, 2015, s. 3998-4002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mini-EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) is a small UV telescope to be placed inside the Zvezda module of ISS in 2017, as a part of the work of the JEM-EUSO collaboration. The Mini-EUSO instrument will be equipped with one full original JEM-EUSO Photo-Detector-Module (PDM), an optical system made of two Fresnel lenses (25 cm in diameter) and a data acquisition system. The Mini-EUSO instrument serves as a pathfinder towards the goals of the full JEM-EUSO mission: to place a large instrument on the outside of ISS to study Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) with energies of E > 3×1019 eV. This can be achieved by measuring the light in the UV range from the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) that these particles trigger in the atmosphere [1]. By using the ISS altitude to monitor a target volume far greater than is possible from the ground, unprecedented statistical accuracy of the primary energy, arrival direction and composition of UHECRs will be obtained. Such data will shed light on the origin of the UHECRs, on the sources that are producing them, on the propagation environment from the source to the Earth and, possibly, on the particle physics mechanisms at energies well beyond those achievable in man-made accelerators. Moreover, there are exploratory objectives such as constraining the galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, the detection of extreme energy neutrinos and gamma rays, the verification of special relativity at extremely large Lorentz factors, the examination of possible quantum gravity effects at extreme energies and the systematic surveillance of atmospheric phenomena. The Mini-EUSO instrument will have 2, 304 pixels from 36 multi-anode PMTs with each pixel viewing an equivalent area of 5.4 × 5.4 km2 on ground. The full field of view is ±19° and the instrument has a time resolution of 2.5 μs. The Mini-EUSO mission has at least four different objectives: (1) to raise the technical readiness level of JEM-EUSO to the highest grade, (2) to perform an absolute calibration of the multi-anode photomultipliers in flight (crucial for JEM-EUSO), (3) to take advantage of being at ISS altitude, like JEM-EUSO, and study in a precise way the UV background coming from Earth in all the different reflective conditions (water, earth, vegetation, snow, etc.) and (4) to study atmospheric phenomena, such as lightning, and related light, as well as meteors.

  • 17. Piotrowski, L. W.
    et al.
    Belov, A.
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH.
    collaboration, JEM-EUSO
    Mini-EUSO data processing and quasi-real time analysis2017Ingår i: Proceedings of Science, Sissa Medialab Srl , 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mini-EUSO is a telescope that will observe ultra-violet night-time light emission of Earth. It will watch the atmosphere through a UV transparent window of the International Space Station. The main data stream is composed of regularly sampled exposures integrated on three different time scales: microseconds, milliseconds and seconds. This, accompanied by visible and near infra red images will be sent to Earth on hard drives for analysis. We present here the general dataprocessing scheme for the mission, including the data format and the tools for quick view and first analysis of the collected data. © Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).

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