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  • 1.
    Albinsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nursing students’ and lecturers’ experiences of learning at a university-based nursing student–run health clinic2019In: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 423-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to describe the phenomenon of learning at a university-based nursing student–run health clinic, as experienced by student nurses and lecturers. The study is based on a reflective lifeworld research approach founded on continental philosophy. Eight group interviews were conducted with 38 student nurses and 5 lecturers. The data were explored and analysed for meaning. The results show that learning is supported by a permissive learning environment that builds on both individual and common learning as well as equal relationships within the student group, in relation to the visitors at the health clinic and, to a certain extent, in relation to the lecturers. The most significant finding is that reflective, development-oriented learning takes place when the students, supported by each other and their lecturers, reflect on how to relate to problems and situations. A situation-based learning approach is thus shown to create the prerequisites for lecturers being nearby, reflective dialogue partners but also supervisors in situations where the students ask for support and guidance.

  • 2.
    Almerud Österberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, CarinaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kliniska examinationer: Handbok för sjuksköterskestudenter på grund- och avancerad nivå2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en guide till kliniska examinationer som syftar till att du,som student, ska vara väl förberedd och genomföra examinationen på bästa sätt. Innehållet i boken är tänkt att ge en överskådlig och intresseväckande bild av de olika kliniska examinationsformerna.

    Boken är lätt att bära med sig i kliniska undervisningssituationer,den ger konkreta tips kring olika moment i examinationerna.  Författarna till boken är sjuksköterskor, specialistsjuksköterskor  och universitetslärare med mångårig erfarenhet av kliniska examinationer och kliniska slutexaminationer på olika nivåer och i olika utbildningsprogram.

    Målgruppen är studenter i sjuksköterske- och specialistsjuksköterskeprogrammen där kliniska examinationer är en del av utbildningen. Den kan också läsas av lärare vid universitet eller högskolor som inspiration och stöd i arbetet med kliniska examinationer. Liknande böcker finns på den brittiska och amerikanska marknaden men detta är den första i Sverige.

  • 3.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Akut omhändertagande: i mötet mellan patienter, närstående och olika professioner på skadeplats och på akutmottagning 2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To describe and develop understanding of  the patient’s first encounter with the involved persons at the scene of an accident and at the emergency department; with a special focus on describing the meaning of emergency care of patients in these caring contexts. 

    Method: The thesis uses a reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach founded on phenomenological philosophy. The purpose with this approach is to describe the essential meaning and the variations of a phenomenon. Interviews with a lifeworld perspective were used for data collection and analyzed according to the RLR approach for searching for the essence of the phenomenon.  The four essences in the studies (I-IV) establish a general structure for the phenomenon.

    Findings:  Emergency care is characterized by an organisation, whose goal and resources are focused on life-saving, and that encounters a human being with needs of emergency care as well as existential support. The responsibility in emergency care means an intertwining of doing and being.  The one who is in charge takes responsibility for performing or “doing” medical actions, and by “being” close and present in the situation the patient can at the same time feel an existential support. The responsibility for the injured or ill body is handed over to a chain of persons with more and more specialized competence and resources. This hand-over entails a relief for all involved but fails in one link in the chain, namely to explicitly hand back  the responsibility to the patient.  When the patient’s condition allows the distance to be larger the responsibility pales and the existential support decreases. A gap between doing and being arises where the patient is left to regain control and independence. The intertwining of doing and being, which appears as soon as the one in charge is close and present to the patient, facilitates the hand-over to the patient who in a natural way is able to receive the responsibility with possibilities to be able to conclude the encounter.

    Conclusions: A new understanding of emergency care appears which entails more than just life support measures.  Emergency care includes different ways of communication in order to hand over the responsibility and complete the care chain back to the patient in a safe way. The results highlight the importance of empowering patients with a confirming, communicative contact throughout the whole caring process in order for them to retain their identity. There are also implications for educating students and personnel in inter-professional communication and work. In order to assist the intertwining between doing and being there are needs for the development of supportive structures for inter-professional reflection, which in turn would improve the interaction between patients and professionals in their encounter. 

  • 4.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att vara patient på skadeplats2012In: Akut vård ur ett patientperspektiv / [ed] Sofia Almerud Österberg & Lena Nordgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, 1, p. 15-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Emergency care in the encounter between patients, next of kin and different professionals at the scene of an accident and at the emergency department2014In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 273-273Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Inhabiting the interspaces within emergency care2016In: European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare, ISSN 2052-5648, E-ISSN 2052-5656, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 196-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe and develop an understanding of the patient’s first encounter with different professionals at the scene of an accident and at the emergency department (ED), with a special focus on describing the meaning of emergency care of patients in these care contexts.

    Design and Methods: The study, having a descriptive design, was carried out with a reflective lifeworld (RLR) approach founded on phenomenological philosophy

    Results: The general structure revealed that emergency care is characterized by a hand-over of responsibility, which is characterized by life-saving medical actions and constitutes a doing. Those life-saving actions need a conscious presence, which at the same time means an existential support for the patient that is constituted by a being. The responsibility then intertwines the doing and the being and all persons involved are brought together into a mutual space. When the patient’s condition allows for increased physical distance from the professionals, a gap or an interspace in the intertwining between doing and being arises as well as an interspace in the patient's understanding of the encounter. For the patient and next-of-kin, this interspace means an empty space with paradoxical feelings of being interesting and at the same time uninteresting - a paradox of care. For the professionals, this interspace provides a needed  breathing space, but also feelings of being split between the high demands of efficiency and the patient's need for existential support and a meaningful encounter - an ethical dilemma.

    Discussion: Knowledge of the temporal meaning ofthe encounter, to be here andnow,can give professionals an opportunityto fillthe interspacedespite increasingphysical distance as patient health improves. Furthermore, it will also give professionals an opportunity toreflect on howthe available timeis used.

  • 7.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences. 641006.
    Kunskapscentrum Akut Vård (KAV)2012In: AnIva Ventilen, ISSN 0348-6257, Vol. 47, no 4 JubileumsnummerArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Närhet, värme och mänsklighet2012In: SOS : en tidning från SOS Alarm, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rethinking the hand-over process2012In: Journal of Paramedic Practice, ISSN 1759-1376, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 5-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RACTThe article focuses on the hand-over process as clinical hand-over of patient. It mentions that hand-over may begin if the fire or the police service are the first responders at the scene of an accident and they hand-over the responsibility for the injured patients to the ambulance. It says that hand-over also starts when the injured is handling over the responsibility for their own body to the first responders.

  • 10.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. 641006.
    Upplevelser av akut omhändertagande2011In: AnIva Ventilen, ISSN 0348-6257, Vol. 46, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Väntan på skadeplats2016In: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Björn-Ove Suserud & Lars Lundberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2016, 2, , p. 560p. 138-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Väntan på skadeplats2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Björn-Ove Suserud och Leif Svensson, Stockholm: Liber, 2009, 1, p. 145-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Almerud Österberg, SofiaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Akut omhändertagande av trauma: på skadeplats och akutmottagning2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Almerud Österberg, SofiaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Akut omhändertagande av trauma: på skadeplats och akutmottagning2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Almerud Österberg, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Introduktion2019In: Akut omhändertagande av trauma: på skadeplats och akutmottagning / [ed] Carina Elmqvist & Sofia Almerud Österberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 2, p. 17-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. 641006.
    Almerud Österberg, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Utvärdering av projekt Första InsatsPerson (FIP)2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Brunt, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Being first on the scene of an accident - experiences of 'doing' prehospital emergency care2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 266-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prehospital emergency care includes the care and treatment of patients prior to them reaching hospital. This is generally a field for the ambulance services, but in many cases firemen or police can be the ones to provide the first responses. The aim of this study was to describe and understand experiences of being the first responder on the scene of an accident, as described by policemen, firemen and ambulance staff. A lifeworld perspective was used in four different traumatic situations from southern Sweden. The data consisted of 13 unstructured interviews with first responders. The phenomenological analysis showed that experiences of being the first responder on the scene of an accident is expectations of doing a systematic course of action, dressed in the role of a hero, and at the same time being genuine in an interpersonal encounter. This entails a continuous movement between ‘being’ and ‘doing’. It is not a question of either – or, instead everything is to be understood in relation to each other at the same time. Five constituents further described the variations of the phenomenon; a feeling of security in the uncertainty, a distanced closeness to the injured person, one moment in an eternity, cross-border cooperation within distinct borders and a need to make the implicit explicit. This finding highlights the importance of using policemen and firemen in doing life support measures while waiting for the ambulance staff, and would in turn increase the importance of the relationship between the different professionals on the scene of an accident.

  • 18.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Frank, Catarina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Att vara patient på akutmottagningen2012In: Akut vård ur ett patientperspektiv / [ed] Sofia Almerud Österberg & Lena Nordgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, 1, p. 51-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Frank, Catharina
    Karolinska Univ.
    Patients' strategies to deal with their situation at an emergency department2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionThe care in the emergency department (ED) is often characterised by high standards of efficiency and rapid treatment and the encounter between patient and staff can be described as both short and fragmented. Research within this field has mostly been performed with quantitative measurements and patients are both satisfied and vulnerable in their care at an ED. There is a lack of qualitative studies about patient's strategies to deal with their situation. AimThe aim was to describe patient's strategies for dealing with their situation at an ED. MethodsSecondary analysis has been made of 13 qualitative interviews grounded in a lifeworld perspective. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. ResultsThe results showed that patients' strategies to deal with the situation at the ED are passive or active. The passive strategy is being patient and the active strategies varied in terms of having hidden tactics, using visible tactics and using families as support. ConclusionThese findings increase the importance of gaining knowledge about these strategies so that the staff at the ED can support the patients so they do not have to use them.

  • 20.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work.
    More than medical treatment: The patient´s first encounter with prehospital emergency care2008In: Journal of Emergency Nursing, ISSN 0099-1767, E-ISSN 1527-2966, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 185-192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    On a hidden game board: the patient’s first encounter with emergency care at the emergency department2012In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 21, no 17-18, p. 2609-2616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives.  Describe and understand the patient’s first encounter in emergency care at the emergency department, as experienced by the patient, next of kin and first providers from different professions.

    Background.  The emergency department is most often described as having high levels of satisfaction with the quality of care delivered. Although the patients appreciate clinical competence, quick assessment and technical skills, a close connection between patient satisfaction and vulnerability has been shown.

    Design.  A lifeworld research perspective was used in four different situations at the emergency department.

    Methods.  The data consisted of 14 open-ended interviews with patients, next of kin and first providers.

    Results.  The analysis showed that narratives of the past, present and future characterises the encounter where mutual narratives form a foundation for those involved in the encounter. Five constituents further described the variations; vague rules and conflicting expectations in the encounter, an encounter with the biological body, ‘courtesy encounters’, isolated in a timeless encounter, striving for meaning in the encounter.

    Discussion.  Instead of expecting the patients to know the unwritten rules of the emergency department, the first providers could give clear information about expected waiting times and what to expect in the encounter. The challenge is to make a meaningful comprehensible context for all involved which can be generated in the interpersonal encounter.

    Relevance to clinical practice.  The findings highlight the importance of disclosing the rules of the game by means of giving clear information which would give possibilities for the patient to maintain control, for strengthening the nurse’s role as the patients’ advocate and for strengthening the effort for an emergency department to become more of a learning organisation.

  • 22.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Trapped between doing and being: First providers´ experience of “front line” work2012In: International emergency nursing, ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common focus in research studies within the Emergency Department (ED) is physician patient relations, experiences of the triage model and nurses´ experiences of caring. Little has, however, been written about different first providers´ experiences of working on the “front line” at the ED. The aim of this study was to describe and understand experiences of being the first provider on the “front line” at the ED, as expressed by nurse assistants, registered nurses and physicians. A reflective lifeworld research approach was used in four different caring situations. The data consisted of eight open-ended interviews with first providers. The analysis showed that being the first provider on the “front line” at the ED entails a continuous movement between providing and responding through performing “life-saving” actions and at the same time create a good relationship with the patient and the next of kin. Five constituents further described the variations of the phenomenon. The readiness to save lives creates a perceived stress of time pressure and the first providers adopt different strategies to cope with the work. Instead of leaving the first providers to find their own way to cope with the complex situation, there are needs for a redesigning of the internal work process within ED organizations.

  • 23.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work. 641006.
    Glemne, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Hälsa på campus - Kärnverksamhet2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Work. 641006.
    Glemne, Mats
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Svensson, Idor
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Education.
    Kompetenscentrum för hälsa2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Christina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kliniskt träningscentrum: En miljö som främjar ett reflekterat lärande2019In: Reflektion i lärande och vård: en utmaning för sjuksköterskan / [ed] Mia Berglund & Margaretha Ekebergh, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 2, p. 151-170Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Christina
    Länssjukhuset Kalmar, Sweden.
    Tiger Axelsson, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kliniskt träningscentrum: en miljö som främjar ett reflekterat lärande2015In: Reflektion i lärande och vård: en utmaning för sjuksköterskan / [ed] Mia Berglund, Margaretha Ekebergh, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 129-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindahl, Jeanette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Akutsjukvård för barn 0-18 år2013In: Omvårdnad på avancerad nivå: kärnkompetenser inom sjuksköterskans specialistområden / [ed] Anna-Karin Edberg, Anna Ehrenberg, Febe Friberg, Lars Wallin, Helle Wijk & Joakim Öhlén, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindahl, Jeanette
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vårdmiljöns betydelse på akutmottagningen2013In: Omvårdnad på avancerad nivå: kärnkompetenser inom sjuksköterskans specialistområden / [ed] Anna-Karin Edberg, Anna Ehrenberg, Febe Friberg, Lars Wallin, Helle Wijk & Joakim Öhlén, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. 641006.
    Lindahl, Jeanette
    Region Kronoberg.
    Bergman, Paula
    Jönköping university.
    Ekeberg, Birgitta
    Region Jönköping.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Benefits of a Slideshow with Nature Pictures and Music in the Emergency Department Waiting room: A Pilot Study2019In: European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare, ISSN 2052-5648, no 2, p. 344-350Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Montan, Carl
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Sohl, Ann
    Region Kronoberg.
    Trauma2016In: Omvårdnad & kirurgi / [ed] Christine Kumlien & Jenny Rystedt, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 1, p. 57-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berglund, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Stöd under och efter akut omhändertagande2014In: Akut omhändertagande av trauma: på skadeplats och akutmottagning / [ed] Carina Elmqvist & Sofia Almerud Österberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 1, p. 179-198Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berglund, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bratt, Anna S.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stöd under och efter akut omhändertagande2019In: Akut omhändertagande av trauma: på skadeplats och akutmottagning / [ed] Carina Elmqvist & Sofia Almerud Österberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 2, p. 181-201Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences. 641006.
    Sandvide, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Integrerade interprofessionella lärandemiljöer2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Svensson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Engdahl, Stefan
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Forsgärde, Elin-Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kurland, Lisa
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ledel, Therese
    SOS Alarm Växjö, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Uno
    Falck Emergency Sverige, Sweden.
    ”Vi vill ha en statlig nationell översikt över mobil vård”2019In: Dagens medicin, ISSN 1104-7488, no 2019-09-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den mobila vården behöver definieras nationellt och bli en egen organisationsform och vårdnivå, skriver företrädare från Centrum för interprofessionell samverkan inom akut vård.

  • 35.
    Forsgärde, Elin-Sofie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    From Attebring, Mona
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Powerlessness: dissatisfied patients' and relatives' experiences of their emergency department visit2016In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 25, no March 2016, p. 32-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to disclose the meaning of patients and relatives lived experience of dissatisfaction when visiting an emergency department.

    Introduction

    Even though most patients are pleased with the emergency department care, there are areas that dissatisfy them, for example lack of communication and unoccupied wait time. However, there are few studies that describe both patients and relatives experience of dissatisfaction.

    Methods

    This explorative study uses a phenomenological hermeneutic approach where patients and relatives were interviewed.

    Results

    Patients and relatives meaning of dissatisfaction mainly contain powerlessness, struggling for control over the situation, lacking knowledge and information, receiving and providing support.

    Conclusions

    The results showed that the experiences of dissatisfaction were similar among patients and relatives. They suffer in the same way when being treated like objects during their visits. Nursing rounds are one way to decrease dissatisfaction by making patients and relatives participating in the care continually updated with information.

  • 36.
    Frank, Catharina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Staff strategies for dealing with care situations at an emergency department2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Overcrowding is a common international problem at Emergency Departments often due to those patients get recommendations or referrals from other health professionals to seek care at the emergency department. Crowding brings with it an amount of adverse consequences for both patients and staff, and knowledge about staff's strategies of dealing with this caring situation is limited. Aim The aim of the present study was thus to describe staffs' strategies to deal with the caring situations at an emergency department. Method Secondary analysis has been made of 18 qualitative interviews grounded in a lifeworld perspective. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Findings The results showed that the staff at the ED worked in twofold directions using both proactive and reactive strategies in order to deal with the care situation when caring for patients at ED. The proactive strategy is optimising conditions, controlling patient flow and being boundary. The reactive strategy is about customising the conversation and holding an open approach. Conclusion In conclusion, the proactive strategy is to make what you decided for unseen circumstances. The reactive strategy is then about less anticipation of the encounter, waiting for the patient to act and react to it. Implication The result can have implications with respect to developing and improving care at crowded Emergency departments. Knowledge about strategies creates a fundament for developing visible sustainable structure for patient flow in making work patient safety for patients, staff and organisation.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    From Attebring, Mona
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Ingrid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rask, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    The nurse anesthetists´adherence to Swedish national recommendations to maintain normothermia in patients during surgery2017In: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, ISSN 1089-9472, E-ISSN 1532-8473, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this study was to determine if nurse anesthetists (NAs) have access, knowledge, and adhere to recommended guidelines to maintain normal body temperature during the perioperative period.

    Design

    A descriptive survey design.

    Methods

    Questionnaires were sent to heads of the department (n = 56) and NAs in the operating departments in Sweden.

    Finding

    The level of access to the recommendations is high, but only one third of the operating departments have included the recommendations in their own local guidelines. The NAs' adherence was low, between 5% and 67%, and their knowledge levels were 57% to 60%.

    Conclusions

    A high level of knowledge, access, and adherence are important for the organization of operating departments to prevent barriers against implementation of new recommendations or guidelines. There are needs for education about patients' heat loss due to redistribution and clear recommendations.

  • 38.
    Göransson, K.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parenti, N.
    Imola Hosp, Imola, Italy.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wirekllint, S. C.
    Comparison of a four and a five-point triage party reliability (Italy vs Sweden)2014In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 289-289Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Herault, Romain Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Lincke, Alisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Forsgärde, Elin-Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Using 360-degrees interactive videos inpatient trauma treatment education: design, development and evaluationaspects2018In: Smart Learning Environments, E-ISSN 2196-7091, Vol. 5, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extremely catastrophic situations are rare in Sweden, which makes training opportunities important to ensure competence among emergency personnel who should be actively involved during such situations. There is a requirement to conceptualize, design, and implement an interactive learning environment that allows the education, training and assessment of these catastrophic situations more often, and in different environments, conditions and places. Therefore, to address these challenges, a prototype system has been designed and developed, containing immersive, interactive 360-degrees videos that are available via a web browser. The content of these videos includes situations such as simulated learning scenes of a trauma team working at the hospital emergency department. Various forms of interactive mechanisms are integrated within the videos, to which learners should respond and act upon. The prototype was tested during the fall term of 2017 with 17 students (working in groups), from a specialist nursing program, and four experts. The video recordings of these study sessions were analyzed and the outcomes are presented in this paper. Different group interaction patterns with the proposed tool were identified. Furthermore, new requirements for refining the 360-degrees interactive video, and the technical challenges associated with the production of this content, have been found during the study. The results of our evaluation indicate that the system can provide the students with novel interaction mechanisms, to improve their skills, and it can be used as a complementary tool for the teaching and learning methods currently used in their education process.

  • 40.
    Herault, Romain Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Lincke, Alisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Forsgärde, Elin-Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Svensson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Design and Evaluation of a 360 Degrees Interactive Video System to Support Collaborative Training for Nursing Students in Patient Trauma Treatment2018In: 26TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION (ICCE 2018) / [ed] Yang, JC Chang, M Wong, LH Rodrigo, MMT, Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, 2018, p. 298-303Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme catastrophe situations are rare in Sweden, which makes training opportunities important to secure the competence among emergency personnel that should be actively involved during those situations. There is a need to conceptualize, design and implement interactive learning environments that allow to educate, train and assess these catastrophe situations more often and in different settings, conditions and places. In order to address these challenges, a prototype system has been designed and developed containing immersive interactive 360 degrees educational videos that are available via a web browser. The content of these videos includes simulated learning scenes of a trauma team working at the hospital emergency department. Different types of interaction mechanisms are integrated within the videos in which learners should act upon and respond. The prototype was tested during the fall term 2017 with 17 students from the specialist nursing program, and four medical experts. These activities were assessed in order to get new insights into issues related to the proposed approach and feedback connected to the usefulness, usability and learnability of the suggested prototype. The initial outcomes of the evaluation indicate that the system can provide students with novel interaction mechanisms to improve their skills and it can be applied as a complementary tool to the methods used currently in their education.

  • 41.
    Holmberg, Pär
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nurses' encounters with children as next of kin to parents with a cancer diagnosis on oncology wards2019In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a challenge for registered nurses (RNs) to meet children and young people who have a parent diagnosed with cancer. These children often suffer from shock, anxiety, outrage, fear and stress. Recent studies indicate that when next of kin have a professional person to talk to, their wellbeing increases. Moreover, when these children are involved in their parent’s care they also begin to trust the nurse caring for their parent. However, there is little known of how nurses respond to a child’s needs. Thus, aim of this study was to describe RNs’ experiences of encounters with children as next of kin to a parent diagnosed with cancer. A qualitative descriptive study based on semi-structured group interviews, with a latent content analysis was carried out. One theme, ‘sense of security’ including three categories ‘balanced meeting’, ‘de-dramatize healthcare’ and ‘learn from one another’ was identified. Beyond the categories, there are six sub-categories: ‘sense of insecurity’, ‘caring approach’, ‘providing information’, ‘participation’, ‘processing and follow-up’ and ‘increased knowledge’. The findings of this study highlight the importance of strengthening the RN's ability to create a caring relationship with children as next of kin.

  • 42.
    Jacobson, Lisa
    Dagens Medicin.
    Mänsklighet viktig i akuta situationer2011In: Dagens medicin, ISSN 1104-7488, no 36 (7 Sep)Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En hand att hålla i eller att höra sitt namn kan upplevas som livräddande för en person som varit med om en olycka.

  • 43.
    Jonsson, Annica
    Vårdfokus.
    Mänsklig närvaro allra viktigast2011In: Vårdfokus, ISSN 2000-5717, no 10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Lederman, Jakob
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden;Södersjukhuset, Sweden;Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löfvenmark, Caroline
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden;Danderyds Hospital, Sweden;Sophiahemmet university, Sweden.
    Djarv, Therese
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Lindström, Veronica
    Region Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Assessing non-conveyed patients in the ambulance service: a phenomenological interview study with Swedish ambulance clinicians2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 1-8, article id e030203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To combat overcrowding in emergency departments, ambulance clinicians (ACs) are being encouraged to make on-site assessments regarding patients' need for conveyance to hospital, and this is creating new and challenging demands for ACs. This study aimed to describe ACs' experiences of assessing non-conveyed patients. Design A phenomenological interview study based on a reflective lifeworld research approach. Setting The target area for the study was Stockholm, Sweden, which has a population of approximately 2.3 million inhabitants. In this area, 73 ambulances perform approximately just over 200000 ambulance assignments annually, and approximately 25000 patients are non-conveyed each year. Informants 11 ACs. Methods In-depth open-ended interviews. Results ACs experience uncertainty regarding the accuracy of their assessments of non-conveyed patients. In particular, they fear conducting erroneous assessments that could harm patients. Avoiding hasty decisions is important for conducting safe patient assessments. Several challenging paradoxes were identified that complicate the non-conveyance situation, namely; responsibility, education and feedback paradoxes. The core of the responsibility paradox is that the increased responsibility associated with non-conveyance assessments is not accompanied with appropriate organisational support. Thus, frustration is experienced. The education paradox involves limited and inadequate non-conveyance education. This, in combination with limited support from non-conveyance guidelines, causes the clinical reality to be perceived as challenging and problematic. Finally, the feedback paradox relates to the obstruction of professional development as a result of an absence of learning possibilities after assessments. Additionally, ACs also described loneliness during non-conveyance situations. Conclusions This study suggests that, for ACs, performing non-conveyance assessments means experiencing a paradoxical professional existence. Despite these aggravating paradoxes, however, complex non-conveyance assessments continue to be performed and accompanied with limited organisational support. To create more favourable circumstances and, hopefully, safer assessments, further studies that focus on these paradoxes and non-conveyance are needed.

  • 45.
    Lindahl, Jeanette
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Lund University, Sweden;Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Edvardsson, David
    La Trobe University, Australia;Umeå University, Sweden.
    Psychometric evaluation of the Swedish language Person-centred Climate Questionnaire - family version2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 859-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In a holistic view of care, the family is important for the patient as well as for the staff and integration of family members in health care is a growing trend. Yet, family participation in the care is sparsely investigated and valid assessment instruments are needed.

    Setting

    Data were collected from 200 family members participating in an intervention study at an emergency department (ED) in Sweden.

    Method

    The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire – Family (PCQ-F) is a measure for how family members perceive the psychosocial climate. PCQ-F is a self-report instrument that contains 17 items assessing safety, everydayness and hospitality – three subscale dimensions that mirror the Swedish patient version of the questionnaire, the PCQ-P.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the PCQ-F in an ED context.

    Results

    The psychometric properties of the PCQ-F were evaluated using statistical estimates of validity and reliability and showed high content validity and internal consistency. Cronbach's Alpha was >0.7 and item–total correlations were >0.3 and <0.7.

    Conclusion

    In terms of psychometrics, the findings in this study indicate that the PCQ-F can be used with satisfactory validity and reliability to explore to what degree family members perceive ED settings as being person-centred, safe, welcoming and hospitable within an everyday and decorated physical environment. As the PCQ already exists in a valid and reliable patient (PCQ-P) and staff (PCQ-S) version, this new family member version is a significant addition to the literature as it enables further comparative studies of how diverse care settings are perceived by different stakeholders.

  • 46.
    Lindahl, Jeanette
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Thulesius, Hans
    Region Kronoberg.
    Edvardsson, D.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Caring Optimized Physical Environment (COPE) at an emergency department in Sweden2014In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 287-288Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Nord-Ljungquist, Helena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Engström, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Cooperat.
    Lone and lonely in a double ambivalence situation as experienced by callers while waiting for the ambulance in a rural environment2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In a rural environment where distances and access to ambulance resources in people's immediate area are limited, other responders like firefighters dispatched to perform a first aid before ambulance arrives in areas where a longer response time exists; an assignment called 'While Waiting for the Ambulance' (WWFA). Knowledge is limited about the experience from a caller's perspective when a person has a life-threatening condition needing emergency help and both firefighters in a WWFA assignment and ambulance staff are involved. Aim The aim of the study is to describe the emergency situation involving a WWFA assignment in a rural environment from the caller's perspective. Method A descriptive design using qualitative methodology with a reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach was used for this study, including in-depth interviews with eight callers. Results An emergency situation involving WWFA assignment in a rural environment mean a sense of being lone and lonely with a vulnerability in while waiting to hand over responsibility for the affected person. Ambivalence in several dimensions arises with simultaneous and conflicting emotions. A tension between powerlessness and power of action where the throw between doubt and hope are abrupt with a simultaneous pendulum between being in a chaos and in a calm. Conclusion A double ambivalence emerges between, on one hand feeling alone in the situation and having full control, on the other hand, with trust handing over the responsibility, thereby losing control. Contact with the emergency medical dispatcher becomes a saving lifeline to hold onto, and access to emergency help in the immediate area of WWFA is valuable and important. Trust and confidence are experienced when callers are met with empathy, regardless of personal acquaintance with arriving responders.

  • 48.
    Ozolins, Lise-Lotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    A nursing student-run health clinic: an innovative project based on reflective lifeworld-led care and education2014In: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 415-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing students need support in order to be able to intertwine caring science theory with practice through reflection. In this theoretical paper a nursing student-run health clinic based on lifeworld led learning and caring is described and propounded as providing such support. The student nurses are offered possibilities for integrating theoretical and practical knowledge by the re-location of parts of the theoretical courses to this innovative learning environment. In applying a phenomenological attitude, both in the learning situation and in the caring situation, the natural (unreflective) attitude is challenged in order for the student nurses to gain a deeper and broader understanding of caring science within their caring practice and vice versa. This means that the nursing students can develop a reflective caring approach that is important in order to become both sensitive and sensible nurses. This paper can be supportive for nurse educators in developing nursing education to meet the needs of the modern society. Our perspective on health, well-being and reflective learning can also inspire persons who work in clinical practice and with health promotion.

  • 49.
    Rudenstam, Charlotte
    Omvårdnadsmagasinet.
    Viktigt patientmöte vid akut omhändertagande2011In: Omvårdnadsmagasinet, ISSN 1652-0858, no 5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Svensson, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Almerud Österberg, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Stening, Kent
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Firefighters as First Incident Persons: breaking the chain of events and becoming a new link in the chain of survival2018In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 120-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose In order to shorten the response time, two part-time fire departments (FDs) in Sweden initialize a first incident person (FIP) assignment. This is done by alarming the crew manager as an FIP, responding in a separate emergency vehicle, and by arriving at the scene before rest of the crew. The purpose of this paper is to explore and describe experiences of the FIP assignment within an FD. Design/methodology/approach A multimethod design was used, influenced by Creswell and Plano Clark's (2011) explanatory sequential mixed method design including emergency reports, a questionnaire and interviews. Findings The results show that the FIP assignment was a function that secured an early presence at the scene of an accident or emergency situations, which is beneficial for society in the form of a safety factor, for the firefighters in the form of early prior information on what to expect at the scene and for the patient in the form of early existential support and increased chances of survival. Originality/value In order to prevent full scenarios to happen and get the chance to save lives, an early response must be ensured. Hence, studies must be made in different settings, based on its unique conditions. This study indicates that by implementing FIP in FDs placed in a rural area, the FIP can break the chain of events and becoming a new link in the chain of survival.

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