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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Impact-type vibration effects on young concrete for tunnelling2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The strive for a time-efficient construction process naturally put focus on the possibility of reducing the time of waiting between stages of construction, thereby minimizing the construction cost. If recently placed concrete, cast or sprayed, is exposed to impact vibrations at an early age while still in the process of hardening, damage that threatens the function of the hard concrete may occur. A waiting time when the concrete remains undisturbed, or a safe distance to the vibration source, is therefore needed. However, there is little, or no, fully proven knowledge of the length of this distance or time and there are no established guidelines for practical use. Therefore, conservative vibration limits are used for young and hardening concrete exposed to vibrations from e.g. blasting.

    As a first step in the dynamic analysis of a structure, the dynamic loads should always be identified and characterized. Here it is concluded that impact-type loads are the most dangerous of possible dynamic loads on young and hardening concrete. Shotcrete (sprayed concrete) on hard rock exposed to blasting and cast laboratory specimens subjected to direct mechanical impact loads have been investigated using finite element models based on the same analysis principles. Stress wave propagation is described in the same way whether it is through hard rock towards a shotcrete lining or through an element of young concrete.

    Within this project, work on evaluating and proposing analytical models are made in several steps, first with a focus on describing the behaviour of shotcrete on hard rock. It is demonstrated that wave propagation through rock towards shotcrete can be described using two-dimensional elastic finite element models in a dynamic analysis. The models must include the material properties of the rock and the accuracy of these parameters will greatly affect the results. It is possible to follow the propagation of stress waves through the rock mass, from the centre of blasting to the reflection at the shotcrete-rock interface. It is acceptable to use elastic material formulations until the strains are outside the elastic range, which thus indicates imminent material failure. Comparisons are made between numerical results and measurements from experiments in mining tunnels with ejected rock mass and shotcrete bond failure, and with measurements made during blasting for tunnel construction where rock and shotcrete remained intact. The calculated results are in good correspondence with the in situ observations and measurements, and with previous numerical modelling results. Examples of preliminary recommendations for practical use are given and it is demonstrated how the developed models and suggested analytical technique can be used for further detailed investigations.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Laboratorieprovningar av stötbelastade betongprismor vid tidig ålder2015In: Tidskriften Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 5, p. 51-54Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Laboratory simulation of blasting induced bond failure between rock and shotcrete2012Report (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Modelleringsverktyg hittar sprickor2015In: Tidskriften Betong, ISSN 1103-4270, no 5, p. 51-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Models for analysis of shotcrete on rock exposed to blasting2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In underground construction and tunnelling, the strive for a more time-efficient construction process naturally focuses on the possibilities of reducing the times of waiting between stages of construction. The ability to project shotcrete (sprayed concrete) on a rock surface at an early stage after blasting is vital to the safety during construction and function of e.g. a tunnel. A complication arises when the need for further blasting affects the hardening of newly applied shotcrete. If concrete, cast or sprayed, is exposed to vibrations at an early age while still in the process of hardening, damage that threatens the function of the hard concrete may occur. There is little, or no, established knowledge on the subject and there are no guidelines for practical use.

    It is concluded from previous investigations that shotcrete can withstand high particle velocity vibrations without being seriously damaged. Shotcrete without reinforcement can survive vibration levels as high as 0.5−1 m/s while sections with loss of bond and ejected rock will occur for vibration velocities higher than 1 m/s. The performance of young and hardened shotcrete exposed to high magnitudes of vibration is here investigated to identify safe distances and shotcrete ages for underground and tunnelling construction, using numerical analyses and comparison with measurements and observations. The work focuses on finding correlations between numerical results, measurement results and observations obtained during tunnelling. The outcome will be guidelines for practical use.

    The project involves development of sophisticated dynamic finite element models for which the collected information and data will be used as input, accomplished by using the finite ele­ment program Abaqus. The models were evaluated and refined through comparisons between calculated and measured data. First, existing simple engineering models were compared and evaluated through calculations and comparisons with existing data. The first model tested is a structural dynamic model that consists of masses and spring elements. The second is a model built up with finite beam elements interconnected with springs. The third is a one-dimensional elastic stress wave model. The stress response in the shotcrete closest to the rock when exposed to P-waves striking perpendicularly to the shotcrete-rock interface was simulated. Results from a non-destructive laboratory experiment were also used to provide test data for the models. The experiment studied P-wave propagation along a concrete bar, with proper­ties similar to rock. Cement based mortar with properties that resembles shotcrete was applied on one end of the bar with a hammer impacting the other. The shape of the stress waves travelling towards the shotcrete was registered using accelerometers positioned along the bar.

    Due to the inhomogeneous nature of the rock, the stress waves from the blasting attenuate on the way from the point of explosion towards the shotcrete on the rock surface. Material damping for the rock mass is therefore accounted for, estimated from previous in-situ measurements. The vibration resistance of the shotcrete-rock support system depends on the material properties of the shotcrete and here were age-dependent properties varied to investigate the behaviour of young shotcrete subjected to blast loading. The numerical simulations require insertion of realistic material data for shotcrete and rock, such as density and modulus of elasticity.

    The calculated results were in good correspondence with observations and measurements in-situ, and with the previous numerical modelling results. Compared to the engineering models, using a sophisticated finite element program facilitate modelling of more complex geometries and also provide more detailed results. It was demonstrated that wave propagation through rock towards shotcrete can be modelled using two dimensional elastic finite elements in a dynamic analysis. The models must include the properties of the rock and the accuracy of the material parameters used will greatly affect the results. It will be possible to describe the propagation of the waves through the rock mass, from the centre of the explosion to the reflection at the shotcrete-rock interface. It is acceptable to use elastic material formulations until the material strengths are exceeded, i.e. until the strains are outside the elastic range, which thus indicates material failure. The higher complexity of this type of model, compared to the engineering models, will make it possible to model more sophisticated geometries. Examples of preliminary recommendations for practical use are given and it is demonstrated how the developed models and suggested analytical technique can be used to obtain further detailed limit values.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Models for analysis of young cast and sprayed concrete subjected to impact-type loads2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The strive for a time-efficient construction process naturally put focus on the possibility of reducing the time of waiting between stages of construction, thereby minimizing the construction cost. If recently placed concrete, cast or sprayed, is exposed to impact vibrations at an early age while still in the process of hardening, damage that threatens the function of the hard concrete may occur. A waiting time when the concrete remains undisturbed, or a safe distance to the vibration source, is therefore needed. However, there is little, or no, fully proven knowledge of the length of this distance or time and there are no established guidelines for practical use. Therefore, conservative vibration limits are used for young and hardening concrete exposed to vibrations from e.g. blasting.

    As a first step in the dynamic analysis of a structure, the dynamic loads should always be identified and characterized. Here it is concluded that impact-type loads are the most dangerous of possible dynamic loads on young and hardening concrete. Shotcrete (sprayed concrete) on hard rock exposed to blasting and cast laboratory specimens subjected to direct mechanical impact loads have been investigated using finite element models based on the same analysis principles. Stress wave propagation is described in the same way whether it is through hard rock towards a shotcrete lining or through an element of young concrete. However, the failure modes differ for the two cases where shotcrete usually is damaged through loss of bond, partly or over larger sections that may result in shotcrete downfall. Cracking in shotcrete due to vibrations only is unusual and has not been observed during previous in situ tests. The study of shotcrete is included to demonstrate the need of specialized guidelines for cases other than for mass concrete, i.e. structural elements or concrete volumes with large dimensions in all directions.

    Within this project, work on evaluating and proposing analytical models are made in several steps, first with a focus on describing the behaviour of shotcrete on hard rock. It is demonstrated that wave propagation through rock towards shotcrete can be described using two-dimensional elastic finite element models in a dynamic analysis. The models must include the material properties of the rock and the accuracy of these parameters will greatly affect the results. It is possible to follow the propagation of stress waves through the rock mass, from the centre of blasting to the reflection at the shotcrete-rock interface. It is acceptable to use elastic material formulations until the strains are outside the elastic range, which thus indicates imminent material failure. The higher complexity of this type of model, compared with mechanical models using mass and spring elements, makes it possible to analyse more sophisticated geometries. Comparisons are made between numerical results and measurements from experiments in mining tunnels with ejected rock mass and shotcrete bond failure, and with measurements made during blasting for tunnel construction where rock and shotcrete remained intact. The calculated results are in good correspondence with the in situ observations and measurements, and with previous numerical modelling results. Examples of preliminary recommendations for practical use are given and it is demonstrated how the developed models and suggested analytical technique can be used for further detailed investigations.

    The modelling concept has also been used for analysis of impact loaded beams and concrete prisms modelled with 3D solid elements. As a first analysis step, an elastic material model was used to validate laboratory experiments with hammer-loaded concrete beams. The laboratory beam remained un-cracked during the experiments, and thus it was possible to achieve a good agreement using a linear elastic material model for fully hardened concrete. The model was further developed to enable modelling of cracked specimens. For verification of the numerical results, earlier laboratory experiments with hammer impacted smaller prisms of young concrete were chosen. A comparison between results showed that the laboratory tests can be reproduced numerically and those free vibration modes and natural frequencies of the test prisms contributed to the strain concentrations that gave cracking at high loads. Furthermore, it was investigated how a test prism modified with notches at the middle section would behave during laboratory testing. Calculated results showed that all cracking would be concentrated to one crack with a width equal to the sum of the multiple cracks that develop in un-notched prisms. In laboratory testing, the modified prism will provide a more reliable indication of when the critical load level is reached.

    This project has been interdisciplinary, combining structural dynamics, finite element modelling, concrete material technology, construction technology and rock support technology. It is a continuation from previous investigations of the effect on young shotcrete from blasting vibrations but this perspective has been widened to also include young, cast concrete. The outcome is a recommendation for how dynamic analysis of young concrete, cast and sprayed, can be carried out with an accurate description of the effect from impact-type loads. The type of numerical models presented and evaluated will provide an important tool for the work towards guidelines for practical use in civil engineering and concrete construction work. Some recommendations on safe distances and concrete ages are given, for newly cast concrete elements or mass concrete and for newly sprayed shotcrete on hard rock.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Vulnerability of shotcrete on tunnel walls during construction blasting2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ökad kunskap om sprutbetong ger hållbara tunnlar2012In: Tidskriften Betong, no 6, p. 50-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    A comparison of models for shotcrete in dynamically loaded rock tunnels2010In: Shotcrete: Elements of a system / [ed] E. Stefan Bernard, Taylor & Francis Group, 2010, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During blasting in tunnels and mines, the shotcrete-rock interaction is influenced by propagating stress waves. Shotcrete support in hard rock tunnels is here studied through numerical analysis and comparisons with previous numerical results, measurements and observations in situ. The stress response in the shotcrete closest to the rock when exposed to P-waves striking perpendicularly to the shotcrete-rock interface is simulated. The first model tested is an elastic stress wave model, which is onedimensional with the shotcrete assumed linearly elastic. The second is a structural dynamic model that consists of masses and spring elements. The third model is a finite element model implemented using the Abaqus/Explicit program. Two methods are used for the application of incident disturbing stress waves: as boundary conditions and as inertia loads. Results from these three types of models are compared and evaluated as a first step before a future extension to more detailed analyses using 3D models.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Behaviour of sprayed concrete on hard rock exposed to vibration from blasting operations2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Direct shear strength of high-strength fibre concrete2010In: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, E-ISSN 1751-763X, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 379-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental and theoretical study of the shear behaviour of steel-fibre-reinforced concrete is presented. Twenty-seven direct shear push-off tests were carried out on high-strength concrete, with and without steel fibre reinforcement. The test series contained uncracked and precracked specimens for the study of the slipping response and the shear stress that can be transferred across an open crack. The test variables were the fibre content and the reinforcement ratio. The test results were compared with information provided by the available codes and other, previous results. The test results indicated that incorporation of steel fibres and bars in concrete members subjected to shear leads to an improved mechanical behaviour before failure. Based on the presented experimental results, an equation governing the direct shear strength is proposed and verified against test results from other test series.

  • 12.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Dynamic measurements for determination of Poisson’sratio of young concrete2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Experimental and numerical investigation of stress wave propagation in shotcrete2011In: Nordic concrete research: Research projects 2011 / [ed] D.H. Bager, 2011, p. 59-62Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Laboratory investigation of stress waves in young shotcrete on rock2012In: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, E-ISSN 1751-763X, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 899-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the behaviour of shotcrete under dynamic load, a non-destructive laboratory experiment was set up with P-wave propagation along a concrete bar, with properties similar to rock. Cement-based mortar with properties that resemble shotcrete was applied to one end of the bar with a hammer impacting the other. The shape of the stress waves travelling towards the shotcrete was registered using accelerometers positioned along the bar. Finite-element modelling was used to verify the test results, which showed that the laboratory model with an impacting hammer could be used to initiate the same type of stress waves that result from blasting in good-quality rock. Previously recommended maximum allowed peak particle vibration velocities were verified.

  • 15.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Structural dynamic and stress wave models for analysis of shotcrete on rock exposed to blasting2012In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During blasting in tunnels and mines, the interaction between shotcrete (sprayed concrete) and rock is influenced by propagating stress waves. Shotcrete support in hard rock tunnels is studied here through numerical analysis using three different modelling approaches. The stress response in the shotcrete closest to the rock when exposed to P-waves striking perpendicularly to the shotcrete–rock interface is simulated. The first model tested is a structural dynamic model that consists of masses and spring elements. The second is a model built up with finite element beam elements interconnected with springs. The third is a one-dimensional elastic stress wave model. The models give comparable results, although the definition of the dynamic loads is different. The analysis results can be used to estimate whether the shotcrete will fail or not for a prescribed distance to detonating explosives inside the rock.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Vibration vulnerability of shotcrete on tunnel walls during construction blasting2014In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 42, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect on shotcrete from blasting operations during tunnelling is studied, with focus on young and hardening shotcrete. A finite element model specially adapted for analysis of the shotcrete behaviour is tested, it is able to describe stress wave propagation in two dimensions which is important for cases where shear stresses are dominant. The modelling results are compared with in situ measurements and observations, from construction blasting during tunnelling through hard rock. The comparison shows that the model gives realistic results and can be used to investigate the vulnerability of shotcrete, aiming at compiling recommendations and guidelines for practical use. The given recommendations emphasize that blasting should be avoided during the first 12 h after shotcreting and that distance and shotcrete thickness are important factors for how much additional time of waiting is possibly needed.

  • 17.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Malm, Richard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Numerical modelling and evaluation of laboratory tests with impact loaded young concrete prisms2016In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, ISSN 1359-5997, Vol. 49, no 11, p. 4691-4704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical modelling in combination with in situ measurements, observations and laboratory testing will be important to future establishment of reliable guidelines for efficient civil and engineering work involving concrete casting close to e.g. blasting operations. Results from laboratory tests with impact loaded young concrete prisms are here evaluated using a 3D finite element model. Solid elements are used and a non-linear material model implemented, capable of describing cracking during stress wave propagation. The position of cracks and measured particle vibration velocities are calculated and compared with laboratory test results. The damaging effect of impact vibrations is evaluated using crack width and fracture energy as damage criteria. Alternative geometry for the test prisms, with a notched section, is analysed. This will give one wide crack at the centre of the prism instead of two or three cracks distributed over its length which will make future laboratory test more efficient and reliable. Recommended damage limits at concrete ages of 4, 6, 8 and 12 h are given, based on numerical calculations for concrete strength class C25 and C50.

  • 18.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Crack propagation under water pressure2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cracks in concrete structures such as a concrete dam can be exposed to water pressure, for example, uplift pressure. The water pressure can be significant and may result in cracks propagating through the structures and thus it may result in reduced service life. However, the knowledge of water pressure within the cracks is relatively limited and is often neglected or just roughly estimated. The influence of crack opening rate on the uplift pressure distribution in the crack and the pressure variation during opening or sudden crack closure are questions needed to investigate. As an attempt to answer those questions, a pilot study presented here describes the possibilities and limitations of the proposed experimental setup; and technology (penetrability meter and tomography) as an examination method for water pressure in propagation concrete cracks. The test specimens examined here are exclusively cylinders cast of concrete with or without an initial crack.

    The penetrability meter can be used to apply water pressure and to visualize the crack opening, X-Ray computed tomography test, was performed. KTH Civil and Architectural Engineering department has organized the laboratory resources.

    The examples reported in this work show that the technology and equipment have great potential for future work on crack propagation, however, sample design and preparation, as well as testing need further development.

  • 19.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Malm, Richard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ansell, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Finite element simulation of shotcrete exposed to underground explosions2012In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, no 45, p. 59-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An elastic finite element model is used tosimulate theinducedstress waves from blasting, propagating in rock towards shotcrete on a tunnel wall. Due to the inhomogeneous nature of the rock, the stress wavesattenuate onitsway from the point of explosiontowardsthe shotcrete on the rock surface. Material damping for the rock-mass is estimated from in-situ measurements. The vibration resistance of the shotcrete-rock support system depends on the material properties of the shotcrete. Age-dependent material properties are varied to investigate the behaviour of young shotcrete subjected to blast loading. Finally, finite element analysis results are presented and verified through comparison with other numerical models, measurements and observations.

  • 20.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Dynamic Measurements for Determining Poisson’s Ratio of Young Concrete2018In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, no 58, p. 95-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the elastic properties of concrete at early age is often a pre-requisite for numerical calculations. This paper discusses the use of a laboratory technique for determining Poisson’s ratio at early concrete age. A non-destructive test set-up using the impact resonance method has been tested and evaluated. With the method, it has been possible to obtain results already at 7 hours of concrete age. Poisson's ratio is found to decrease sharply during the first 24 hours to reach a value of 0.08 and then increase to approximately 0.15 after seven days.

  • 21.
    Ansell, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Skaderisker för vibrationsutsatt ung betong2016In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 7, p. 54-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    De osäkerheter som finns kring de vibrationsnivåer som kan tolereras nära nygjuten betong leder ofta till att konservativa gränsvärden används vid byggande, vilket orsakar onödiga förseningar och stora säkerhetsavstånd med merkostnader som följd. För ung och hårdnande betong är effekten från vibrationer av stöttyp från till exempel sprängning den allvarligaste. Det finns stora skillnader mellan rekommenderade maximala vibrations-hastigheter från nationella föreskrifter och standarder och de som observerats och uppmätts av forskare och ingenjörer.

  • 22.
    Gasch, Tobias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Ahmed, Lamis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Malm, Richard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Instrumentation and Modelling of a Reactor Containment Building2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear concrete containment buildings typically consist of pre-stressed concrete. The pre-stressing tendons are utilized to enforce a compressive state of stress to ensure that cracks do not occur in the containment structure. The tendons are thereby an important part of the containment building and important for its structural integrity. In many cases, these tendons are grouted with cement grout to prevent corrosion. This results however in that it is not possible to directly assess the tendons or re-tension these if significant long term losses occurs. The drawback with cement grouted tendons is, thereby, that it is not possible to directly measure the current tendon force. One conventional method to assess the status of the containment building, and thereby indirectly the tendons, is to perform pressure tests. The pressure tests are performed where the pressure in the containment building is increased. The response of the containment can after this be determined based on measurements of displacements and strains. The purpose of this project is to perform simulations of a pressure test of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) that is common in Sweden and Finland. Based on these simulations, the response of the containment building is determined and suggestions are made regarding suitable placement of measuring sensors. The suggested instrumentation has been divided into different types of sensors defined as detectors and support sensors. The detectors are needed to monitor the structural response of the containment while the support sensors are needed to give sufficient input to numerical analyses. It is suggested that detector sensors are placed at four vertical positions and at three points along the perimeter. At these locations, it is recommended that displacement sensors, strain gauges and temperature sensors are installed. In addition, it is also recommended that the relative radial displacement between the intermediate slab and the cylinder wall is monitored. As support sensors, it is recommended that the ambient temperature and relative humidity is measured since these constitute important boundary conditions for numerical analyses and thereby prediction of the structural behaviour.

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