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  • 1. Aigelsperger, Lisa
    et al.
    Kummer, Susanne
    Milestad, Rebecka
    Department of Urban and Rural Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vogl, Christian R.
    Chowdhury, A.
    Knowledge systems, innovations and social learning in organic farming: An Overwiev2010In: Proceedings of the 9th European IFSA Symposium, 2010, p. 664-669Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Westberg, Lotten
    Geber, Ulrika
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Ahnström, Johan
    Local selling as a driving force for increased on-farm biodiversity2009In: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, ISSN 1044-0046, E-ISSN 1540-7578, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 885-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the question of whether local selling of farm products improves on-farm biodiversity in rural areas. In contrast to the main agricultural trend of farms specializing and increasing in size in response to national and global markets, increasing numbers of Swedish farmers are diverting their efforts towards selling at local markets. Based on case studies of six farms selling their products locally, this paper explores the nature of the diversity on these farms and identifies qualities in the interaction between the farmers and their consumers that are supporting this diversity. The study showed that farmers who interacted with consumers were encouraged to diversify their production. Marketing a large diversity of products at a local market led to better income for participating farmers. Animal farms maintained important biodiversity associated with their extensive way of rearing animals on semi-natural pastures. Access to local markets promoted this.

  • 3. Darnhofer, Ika
    et al.
    Bellon, Stéphane
    Dedieu, Benoit
    Milestad, Rebecka
    Dept. of Urban and Rural Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adaptiveness to enhance the sustainability of farming systems: A review2010In: Agronomy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 1774-0746, Vol. 30, p. 545-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade the context in which farmers must manage their farm has changed rapidly, and often with little warning. Dramatic price swings for agricultural commodities, more stringent quality requirements, new environmental regulations, the debates surrounding genetically modified crops, extreme climatic events, the demand for energy crops, the revision of the Common Agricultural Policy and the consequences of the financial crisis all create uncertainty regarding future threats and potentials. During such turbulent times, a one-sided focus on efficient production is no longer enough. Farmers also need to be able to cope with unexpected events and to adapt to new developments. Based on a literature review, we identify three strategies that strengthen the adaptive capacity of a farm: learning through experimenting and monitoring its outcomes, ensuring a flexible farm organisation to increase the options for new activities by the farm family, and diversifying to spread risks and create buffers. Implementing these strategies enlarges the farmer's room to manoeuvre and allows identifying transition options. These options do not depend only on the farm itself, but also on the farmer's ability to mobilise external resources and to engage in collective action. Change is then no longer seen as a disturbance, but as a trigger for the reorganisation of resources, and for the renewal of the farm organisation and activities. Implementing these strategies comes at a cost, so that farmers need to tackle the inevitable trade-offs between efficiency and adaptability. However, unless farmers master this challenge they cannot ensure the sustainability of their farms.

  • 4. Darnhofer, Ika
    et al.
    Bellon, Stéphane
    Dedieu, Benoît
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Adaptive farming systems – a position paper2008In: Proceedings of the 8th European IFSA Symposium: Empowerment of the rural actors, a renewal of farming systems perspectives, IFSA , 2008, p. 339-351Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades, there have been profound changes in the understanding of farming systems, in particular regarding their need for on-going adaptation to an ever-changing environment. Indeed, the rapid pace of change and its often unforeseeable direction requires farmers to keep their farms flexible and adaptive. We thus need to understand the attitudes, structures and activities that build and sustain the ability of farmers and of farming communities to cope with change and to use the opportunities offered by change. The approach we propose is based on an understanding of the workings of complex systems and entails another viewpoint on system properties, boundaries and dynamics. It focuses on ensuring sufficient room to manoeuvre, identifying transition capabilities and extending the degrees of freedom. It emphasises the need to ensure that farmers are prepared for turbulences by increasing their adaptive capacity. The concepts of flexibility, resilience and adaptive management may help in learning how to make constructive use of unforeseen change. Indeed, changes are the triggers for experimentation, for the reorganisation of resources, for the renewal of systems capable of learning and adapting. In particular, we will examine the factors that may support the capacity of farming systems to create, test and maintain an adaptive design.

  • 5. Dedieu, Benoit
    et al.
    Darnhofer, Ika
    Bellon, S
    de Greef, K
    Casabianca, F
    Madureira, L
    Milestad, Rebecka
    Paine, M
    Steyaert, P
    Stobbelaar, D. J
    Zasser-Bedoya, S
    Introduction. Special issue: Innovations in farming systems approaches2009In: Outlook on Agriculture, ISSN 0030-7270, E-ISSN 2043-6866, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 108-110Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Jaklin, Ulrike
    et al.
    Kummer, Susanne
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Why do farmers collaborate with a food cooperative?: Reasons for participating in a civic food network in Vienna, Austria2015In: International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, ISSN 0798-1759, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 41-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food cooperatives can be qualified as a civic food network as they can create more embedded market relations between consumers and farmers and increase knowledge about food consumption. In this study, we explore why farmers collaborated with the consumer-initiated food co-op D’Speis in Vienna, and assess the food co-op’s potential to support a peasant mode of farming. Farmers and working members of the food co-op were interviewed. As the food co-op selected their suppliers depending on their production methods, i.e. small-scale and organic farming, all farmers showed some elements of peasant farming. The interaction between farmers and co-op members, especially regarding price negotiations and quality standards, provided farmers with more room to manoeuvre. As the food co-op’s contribution to farmers’ incomes was negligible, the food co-op mainly supported peasant farming in the sphere of social and cultural capital. However, the degree of collaboration differed substantially as more peasant farmers interacted more closely with the food co-op. The farmers and co-op members shared their criticism of the hegemonic food system, but on the other hand missed clear common goals. Both farmers and food co-op members regarded their practices as political acts for a different food system. Values deduced from these practices point towards food sovereignty, which could serve as a compass for common political actions.

  • 7.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bohné, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Zapico, J
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Social practice theory and design as frameworks in understanding the emergence of sustainable food shopping practicesManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Kummer, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Natural resources and Life sciences, Vienna.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leitgeb, Friedrich
    University of Natural Resources and Life sciences, Vienna.
    Vogl, Christian
    University of Natural resources and Life sciences, Vienna.
    Building Resilience through Farmers’ Experiments in Organic Agriculture: Examples from Eastern Austria2012In: Sustainable Agriculture Research, ISSN 1927-050X, E-ISSN 1927-0518, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 308-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers have always lived in changing environments where uncertainty and disturbances are inevitable. Therefore, farmers need the ability to adapt to change in order to be able to maintain their farms. Experimentation is one way for farmers to learn and adapt, and may be a tool to build farm resilience. Farmers’ experiments as defined in this paper are activities where something totally or partially new is introduced at the farm and the feasibility of this introduction is evaluated. The theoretical framework applied to study farmers’ experiments is the concept of resilience. Resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to cope with change, and is a framework used to assess complex systems of interactions between humans and ecosystems.

    This paper explores to which extent farmers’ experimentation can help build farm resilience. In addition to arguments found in the literature, five organic farms in Eastern Austria are used to illustrate this potential. The farmers were interviewed in 2007 and 2008. The respective farmers all worked fulltime on their farms, were between 34 and 55 years old, and owned farms between 15 and 76 ha. These farmers experimented in ways that enhance resilience – at the farm and in the region. The outcome of experiments can be management changes, new insights, or technology that can be passed on and potentially be built into education and advisory institutions. To encourage farmers’ experiments, it is important to develop conditions that support farmers in their experimenting role.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hahn, Thomas
    von Oelreich, Jacob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    The resilience of a sustainability entrepreneur in the Swedish food system2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational resilience emphasizes the adaptive capacity for renewal after crisis. This paperexplores the resilience of a business with both a social and an environmental orientation—a not-forprofitbusiness that claims to contribute to sustainable development of the food system. We ask whatconstitutes social and sustainable entrepreneurship in this case, and discuss determinants of theresilience of the business. The business, Biodynamiska Produkter (BP), has experienced periods ofgrowth, conservation, and rapid decline in demand, followed by periods of re-organization. Our resultssuggest that BP, with its social mission and focus on organic food, meets the criteria of both a socialand sustainability entrepreneurship organization. Two major crises in the late 1980s and late 1990swere met by re-organization and novel market innovations. Other criteria for resilience, met by BP,include flexibility, high level of trust, authentic value-based leadership promoting experimentation andadaptability, and a long-term authentic local trade-mark supporting customer loyalty. BP has beeneconomically resilient but not thriving. Controlling the value chain and following the social andenvironmental objectives were given higher priority than expanding its operations. In 2003 BPlaunched a box scheme and after its crisis in 2008/2009 focused on consolidation rather than newinnovations.

  • 10.
    Marquardt, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish unviersity of agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Porro, Roberto
    World Agroforestry Centre.
    Farmers' Perspectives on Vital Soil-related Ecosystem Services in Intensive Swidden Farming Systems in the Peruvian Amazon2013In: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 139-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing dilemma is how to conserve Amazonian forest while allowing local people to secure their livelihoods. Small-scale swidden farming in Amazonia is entirely dependent on the continued provision of ecosystem services (ES) that generate the conditions for agriculture. This study identified soil-related ES needed for, and enhanced by, productive swidden systems from the farmer's perspective. Workshops in six farming communities in northeastern Peru discussed various land uses, swidden systems that continue to be productive, and swidden systems on degraded land. The participating farmers noted changes in their production systems and described the ES (or lack thereof) in terms of soil quality, crop production quantity and quality, burning practices, forest regeneration, and farming skill. The central elements described in farmers' own strategies for managing soil-related ES were fallow management for biomass production and crop diversity, factors identified as central to future ES management work in established agricultural areas in Amazonia.

  • 11.
    Marquardt, Kristina
    et al.
    Swedish unviersity of agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Salomonsson, Lennart
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    Improved fallows: A case study of an adaptive response in Amazonian swidden farming systems2013In: Agriculture and Human Values, ISSN 0889-048X, E-ISSN 1572-8366, no 30, p. 417-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many smallholders in the Amazon employ swidden (slash-and-burn) farming systems in which forest or forest fallows are the primary source of natural soil enrichment. With decreasing opportunities to claim natural forests for agriculture and shrinking landholdings, rotational agriculture on smaller holdings allows insufficient time for fallow to regenerate naturally into secondary forest. This case study examines how Peruvian farmers use "improved fallows" as an adaptive response to a situation of decreasing soil fertility and how the farmers describe the rationale underlying the various actions taken in these modified fallow systems. The results indicate that farmers establish improved fallows using contextual ecological knowledge and various techniques to introduce a large diversity of tree species. This practice is also used to restore degraded land to agricultural production. The tasks of maintaining productivity on agricultural land and reforesting degraded areas is becoming increasingly urgent in the Amazon, making agricultural practices that involve reforestation and tree management highly relevant. Since swidden farming systems are the basis for the livelihoods of most Amazon smallholders, good farming practices elaborated by swidden farmers are important for sustainable small-scale family farming systems in the Amazon.

  • 12.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    SLU.
    Farm resilience and the case of Sölk valleys2004In: 4th EUROPEAN FSR/E Symposium (Volos, Greece, 2000), European Farming and Rural Systems Research and Extension into the next Millennium: Environmental, Agricultural and Socio-economic Issues, 2004, p. 457-470Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ahnström, Johan
    Department of Biology.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Centre for Sustainable Agriculture.
    Essential multiple functions of farms in rural communities and landscapes2011In: Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, ISSN 1742-1705, E-ISSN 1742-1713, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 137-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As farms are consolidated into larger operations and small farms close down for economic reasons, rural areas lose ecological, social and economic functions related to farming. Biodiversity and scenic, open-vista landscapes are lost as fields are left unmanaged. Social and economic benefits such as local job opportunities and meeting places disappear. Four Swedish rural communities were examined to increase our understanding of the functions that a diverse agriculture provides and which of these are lost as farms cease operation and overall rural social capital is depleted. Workshops and interviews with village action groups and with farmers were carried out. Both groups identified key functions from farming that are important to the rural community, such as production of food and fiber, businesses and jobs, human services, local security, ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and biodiversity, and functions pertaining to quality of life. Several ways in which village action groups can support agriculture were identified that current industrial agriculture and even agri-environmental schemes fail to achieve. These include organizing local meeting places, encouraging local processing and consumption and supporting farmers in their work. We conclude that agriculture and village action groups match well in community development and that policies supporting this match would be useful.

  • 14.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björklund, J.
    Jordbruk med många funktioner får hela Sverige att leva2008In: Ska hela Sverige leva / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2008, p. 287-298Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björklund, J.
    Multifunctional farms and rural development: A study of four Swedish rural areas2006In: Changing European farming systems for a better future: New visions for rural areas, 2006, p. 212-216Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björklund, J.
    Strengthening the adaptive capacity of rural communities: multifunctional farms and village action groups2008In: Proceedings of the 8th European IFSA Symposium: Empowerment of the rural actors, a renewal of farming systems perspectives, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farms are rapidly closing down in less-favoured areas in Sweden. While farms in the plainareas grow bigger, many farms in less-favoured areas find themselves in an unviable economicsituation. While all farms are multifunctional, some farms can give rise to more functions than others,which in turn favours the economic, social and ecological development of rural areas to differingdegrees. Thus, the question is what rural communities loose as their farms close down. In this paperwe therefore explore two interrelated issues. The first is what role multifunctional farms have instrengthening adaptive capacity of rural communities. The second question is how village actiongroups can act in order to strengthen local multifunctional farms. Four rural areas in Swedencontribute with insights into these issues. In all four areas, agriculture was found to be vital forachieving what village activists considered desirable: an open landscape and increased localprocessing and marketing of food. A number of social, ecological and economic functions were foundthat farms contribute to the rural areas in order to strengthen their adaptive capacity. Multifunctionalfarms support the local economy since these farms typically have many economic and socialinteractions locally. They are also more likely to sell their products locally, since they are more proneto be directed towards the local market rather than the national market. The presence of active villageaction groups in all four areas helped to take action in order to support local agriculture. For example,village action groups created local meeting places and processing plants. They built social networksand enhanced diversity. However, village action groups are mainly able to work on the local level.Thus, it is crucial that policymakers also find ways to support multifunctional farms now while they arestill in business, before knowledge is lost.

  • 17.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björklund, J.
    Westberg, I.
    Geber, U.
    Ahnström, J.
    Exploring close consumer producer links to maintain and enhance on farm biodiversity2008In: Cultivating the future based on science: Proceedings of the Second Scientific Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR), 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the question of whether local selling of farm products improves on-farm biodiversity. In contrast to the main agricultural trend of farms specialising and increasing in size in response to the national and global markets, increasing numbers of Swedish farmers are instead diverting their efforts towards selling at local markets. Based on a study of six farms, the paper explores the nature of diversity on these farms and identifies factors supporting diversity. The study shows that farmers who interact with consumers are encouraged to diversify their production. The actual crops and varieties grown are determined by a combination of the natural conditions prevailing on the farm and the conditions created by the farmer in terms of marketing strategy for the products.

  • 18.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Lantbruket som nav i bygdeutveckling: det svenska lantbrukets mångfunktionalitet2006Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Dedieu, Benoit
    Darnhofer, Ika
    Bellon, Stephane
    Farms and farmers facing change: the adaptive approach2012In: Farming Systems Research into the 21th Century: the New Dynamic / [ed] Ika Darnhofer, David Gibbon & Benoit Dedieu, Springer, 2012, p. 365-386Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decades, there have been profound changes in the understanding of farming systems: farms are no longer seen as facing a stable environment, thus allowing a focus on optimising production systems. Rather, farms are conceptualised as evolving and adaptive, so as to be able to respond to an ever-changing environment. The adaptive approach in Farming Systems Research focuses on ensuring sufficient room to manoeuvre, identifying transition capabilities and extending the degrees of freedom. The concepts of resilience, diversity and flexibility help in understanding how to make constructive use of unforeseen change. Understanding farmers’ rationalities; the interactions between the farming family’s activities; diverse approaches to production management; farm trajectories, and options to increase farmers’ autonomy are central issues of research. Farmers face the triple challenge of ensuring liveability, making efficient use of their resources, and keeping their farms adaptive so as to find responses to both external and internal drivers of change.

  • 20.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kratochvil, Ruth
    Division of Organic Farming, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences.
    Leitner, Heidrun
    Ökosoziales Forum Österreich.
    Axmann, Paul
    Division of Organic Farming, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences.
    Being close: the quality of social relationships in a local organic cereal and bread network in Lower Austria2010In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 228-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience of the drawbacks of a globalised and industrialised food system has generated interest in localised food systems. Local food networks are regarded as more sustainable food provision systems since they are assumed to have high levels of social embeddedness and relations of regard. This paper explores the social relations between food actors and how 'local' and 'organic' are expressed by detailing how actors describe qualities of their intra-network relationships, how they understand 'local' and how they are connected within the food system. A study from the province of Lower Austria in Austria, where organic cereals and bread are produced and marketed, serves to illuminate these issues. Actors agreed that geographical closeness contributed to the social closeness they experienced and that social relationships were a strong reason for being in the network. However, the meaning of 'local' was elastic depending on where inputs and consumers could be found. Furthermore, despite strong commitment to organic production methods and the local market, actors faced constraints that made them hybrids between organic and conventional, and between locally focused and globally dependent. Thus, the binary thinking along the local-global and organic-conventional divide does not hold. While it is important to not make a causal link between high quality of social relationships and local food networks, the case described here indicates the possibility of such a link.

  • 21.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kummer, S.
    Vogl, C. R
    Building farm resilience through farmers´ experimentation2010In: Proceedings of the 9th European IFSA Symposium, 2010, p. 770-778Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how farmers’ experimentation can be a building block for resilience at theirfarms. A core challenge in natural resource management is to enhance resource users’ learning and capabilitiesso that they can make informed decisions and adaptively manage the land. In other words, resource users, suchas farmers, need to develop their capacity to manage for resilience of agro‐ecosystems so that the ecosystemservices from agriculture (like food, fibres, cultural values, etc) can be sustained and enhanced. One way todevelop this capacity may be through experimentation on the farm. Experimentation is one way for farmers tolearn about and manage their environment. Farmers’ experiments can be described as the activity ofintroducing something totally or partially new at the farm and to evaluate the feasibility of this introduction.We use literature about farmers’ experiments and resilience theory to build the arguments of this paper. Theoutcome of experiments can be management changes, new insights, or technology. These can be passed on toothers in the farmers’ social network and potentially be built into institutional memory at higher scales. Wecontend that farmers’ experiments have a strong relation to learning and resilience building in farming systems.

  • 22.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Dreborg, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Developing integrated explorative and normative scenarios: The case of future land use in a climate-neutral Sweden2014In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 60, p. 59-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition from the current oil-based world economy to an economy based on renewable resources can become a strong driving force for land use change. This paper describes the development of integrated explorative and normative scenarios for the analysis of future land use in a climate-neutral Sweden. The aim is to show how backcasting scenarios fulfilling far-reaching greenhouse gas reduction targets can be related to assumptions on possible external developments, in order to contribute to the discussion on future sustainable land use. A target-fulfilling scenario element was combined with an external scenario element, i.e. developments that cannot be influenced by the targeted actors. The scenarios were developed and analysed in collaboration with local actors. Four scenarios were used to describe how land in Sweden could be used when Sweden has achieved zero emissions of greenhouse gases in 2060. The explorative dimension stretched from a situation where there is no international climate agreement to one where there is an international agreement on reducing greenhouse gases. The backcasting dimension illustrated different strategies to achieve the target and stretches from a very influential municipal level to one where the national/EU level is most influential.

  • 23.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westberg, L.
    Björklund, J.
    Geber, M.
    The Learning potential of Farmers' Market2006In: Changing European farming for a better future: New visions for rural areas, Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2006, p. 84-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Westberg, Lotten
    Geber, Ulrika
    Bjorklund, Johanna
    Enhancing Adaptive Capacity in Food Systems: Learning at Farmers' Markets in Sweden2010In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 29-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how local food systems in the form of farmers' markets can enhance adaptive capacity and build social-ecological resilience. It does this by exploring the learning potential among farmers and customers. Learning can enable actors to adapt successfully and thus build adaptive capacity. Three forms of learning are investigated: instrumental, communicative, and emancipatory. These forms of learning constitute the foundation for lasting changes of behaviors. Local food systems are characterized by close links and opportunities for face-to-face interactions between consumers and producers of food, and are also institutions where farmers and customers can express and act upon their ethical values concerning food. However, local food systems are still a marginal phenomenon and cannot be accessed by all consumers. Interviews were held with customers and farmers, and the interactions between farmers and customers were observed at two farmers' markets in Sweden. Customers and farmers were found to learn and adapt to each other due to the opportunities offered by the farmers' markets. We found that farmers and customers learned in the instrumental and communicative domains, but could not confirm emancipatory learning. We concluded that the feedback between customers and farmers offers the potential for learning, which in turn contributes to adaptive capacity. This can be a driving force for building resilience in the food system.

  • 25. Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Wivstad, M.
    Lund, V.
    Regelverk – möjligheter och hinder att uppnå målen för ekologiskt lantbruk2004Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    et al.
    Centre for Sustainable Agriculture.
    Wivstad, Maria
    Department of Ecology and Plant Production.
    Lund, Vonne
    National Veterinary Institute.
    Geber, Ulrika
    Centre for Sustainable Agriculture.
    Goals and standards in Swedish organic farming: trading off between desirables2008In: International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, ISSN 1462-4605, E-ISSN 1741-5004, Vol. 7, no 1-2, p. 23-39Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic farming is an explicitly value-based movement working towards a set of goals. The standards of organic farming serve the purpose of telling organic producers what they need to do, to be certified organic, but they are also as a means to steer them towards the goals of organic production. Both standards and goals are dynamic and subject to change. While goals can be broad and idealistic, standards need to be technically and economically feasible, measurable and possible to inspect. Some authors claim that the use of a regulation in organic farming accelerates the process towards conventionalisation while others see standards as a prerequisite for the success of organic farming. This paper analyses some of the conflicts inherent in the organic goals and the gaps that appear between goals and standards in organic farming in Sweden. For example, the goal of minimising use of fossil fuels is at odds with some of the other goals of organic farming. A way to accommodate the gaps is to develop intermediate goals that can be closer connected to the standards than the overall goals.

  • 27. Rist, L.
    et al.
    Felton, A.
    Nyström, M.
    Troell, M.
    Sponseller, R. A.
    Bengtsson, J.
    Österblom, H.
    Lindborg, R.
    Tidåker, P.
    Angeler, D. G.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moen, J.
    Applying resilience thinking to production ecosystems2014In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 73-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production ecosystems typically have a high dependence on supporting and regulating ecosystem services and while they have thus far managed to sustain production, this has often been at the cost of externalities imposed on other systems and locations. One of the largest challenges facing humanity is to secure the production of food and fiber while avoiding long-term negative impacts on ecosystems and the range of services that they provide. Resilience has been used as a framework for understanding sustainability challenges in a range of ecosystem types, but has not been systematically applied across the range of systems specifically used for the production of food and fiber in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments. This paper applied a resilience lens to production ecosystems in which anthropogenic inputs play varying roles in determining system dynamics and outputs. We argue that the traditional resilience framework requires important additions when applied to production systems. We show how sustained anthropogenic inputs of external resources can lead to a "coercion'' of resilience and describe how the global interconnectedness of many production systems can camouflage signals indicating resilience loss.

  • 28.
    Sundkvist, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Jansson, AnnMari
    Stockholm University.
    On the importance of tightening feedback loops for sustainable development of food systems2005In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 224-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the process of searching for sustainable trajectories in the food system, this paper reviews and discusses the importance of tightening feedback loops between ecosystems, actors in the food production chain and consumers. Intensification, specialization, distancing, concentration and homogenization are trends identified as major constraints for tightened feedback loops. These trends can mask or make it possible to disregard feedback signals from unhealthy ecosystems and weaken communication in the food chain. We explore possibilities for improved feedback management on local to global scales and present examples where feedback loops have been tightened. Enhanced communication between the actors in the food system and consciousness of ecological feedback, through e.g., increased reliance on local resources, are possibilities for improvement. However, where distances between resource and resource user are too large, feedback has to be directed through institutions on an overarching level, e.g., policy measures or environmental and social labelling of products.

  • 29.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Potential goal conflicts related to climate change mitigation strategies generated through backcasting scenariosManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In planning for mitigating future climate change, different options and strategies have to be considered. Scenarios are a useful strategy for exploring such options, particularly in collaboration with stakeholders. However, measures generated through scenarios that are opted for achieving one particular target, such as mitigation, can have important implications for the achievability of other goals and policies. When the implementation of a measure makes it more difficult to fulfil some other goal that the decision maker aims to achieve, a conflict arises between these goals. To this date, scenarios presenting/suggesting options for attaining mitigation targets deal mostly with illustrations of future states in which the targets are fulfilled, and/or measures and changes for achieving these targets. Conflicts that scenario generated measures and changes could impose on other policy goals have not been analysed and neither have synergies between goals. The purpose of this paper is to identify potential goal conflicts and synergies as potential consequences of four future scenarios assuming zero CO2 emissions 2060, and discuss strategies for dealing with such conflicts. The scenarios were developed for rural land use in Sweden, and an analysis of potential goal conflicts, with relevance for Swedish climate change mitigation processes was made. We have focused on the Swedish environmental goals. We present the analysis of goal conflicts and synergies that could arise in the context of climate change mitigation, we discuss potential strategies for addressing them, and we point at research needs that have to be addressed if we are to better understand how to produce scenarios that can inform climate change mitigation policies, but with less risk of imposing on other policy goals. 

  • 30.
    Van der Voorn, Tom
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Systems ResearchUniversity of OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany.
    Sundkvist, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, Philosophy.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Towards multi-target backcasting approach for robust climate change mitigation strategies: A Swedish case study on an environmental assessment of climate mitigation scenarios.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the face of climate change, a major challenge for policy makers is to develop robust scenario-based strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation options. This paper presents a novel approach for environmental assessment of climate change mitigation scenarios. Scenarios, and particularly backcasting scenarios, are often used as a strategy for exploring options and measures for achieving environmental targets, such as climate change mitigation. Measures and options generated through backcasting scenarios are often opted for achieving one particular target and such scenarios are seldom assessed in relation to other environmental aspects. This limits the achievability of other goals and policies. When the implementation of a measure makes it more difficult to fulfil some other goal that the decision maker aims to achieve, a conflict arises between these goals. This paper presents a qualitative environmental assessment of scenarios that identifies conflicts and synergies in regard to a broad range of environmental targets. The method is illustrated in an assessment of four future scenarios assuming zero greenhouse gas emissions 2060 in relation to a variety of environmental aspects, operationalized in policy goals. The scenarios concern rural land use in Sweden, and the goals were the Swedish environmental goals. In this paper potential goal conflicts and synergies that could arise if the strategies and developments in the scenarios were to be realised are analysed. We discuss the assessment and point at research needs that have to be addressed if we are to understand how to better assess

    1

    environmental goal conflicts, and produce scenario outcomes that can inform specific policies, but with less risk of imposing on fulfilment of other policy goals.

  • 31.
    von Oelreich, Jacob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Sustainability transformations in the balance: exploring Swedish initiatives challenging the corporate food regime2016In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores to what extent organic initiatives that go beyond mainstream organic (so-called Organic 3.0) can challenge the corporate food regime and how they can push the food system towards sustainability transformations. We depart from the assumption that individual initiatives may differ in their potential to influence the corporate food regime and that this potential can be assessed by examining traits linked to reformist, progressive or radical food regime/food movement trends that they may possess. Rather than establishing a dichotomy between niche and food regime or categorising Organic 3.0 initiatives within one of these trends, we explore the nuances in niche-regime relationships within the food system from a multi-level perspective, using the cases of two Organic 3.0 initiatives in Sweden. The results show that relations between these initiatives and the food regime share key characteristics, but also differ in important respects. While a reformist strategy facilitates niche growth, progressive and radical approaches are more likely to challenge the regime. The choice of approach in both cases involves trade-offs between growth and organic values. We conclude that one of the primary roles of Organic 3.0 initiatives may be to illustrate the viability of alternative models.

  • 32.
    von Oelreich, Jacob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Transformations towards resilience within the food system: scaling up two organic food value chains in Sweden2015In: Proceedings of the XXVI Congress. Places of Possibility? Rural Societies in a Neoliberal World / [ed] Sutherland, L.-A. et al., Aberdeen: James Hutton Institute , 2015, p. 201-202Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to build resilience of the food system may be to scale up organic food initiatives. This paper discusses two organic food initiatives in Sweden, exploring challenges and opportunities for a double scaling up of volumes and values. Two different approaches, "reformist" and "progressive", are explored. The paper concludes that the two approaches demand sustaining and building resilience in different ways and at multiple scales.

  • 33. Zapico, Jorge Luis
    et al.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Bohne, Ulrica
    Milestad, Rebecka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Eco-feedback Visualization for Closing the Gap of Organic Food Consumption2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NORDICHI '16: THE 9TH NORDIC CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION - GAME CHANGING DESIGN, Association for Computing Machinery , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of EcoPanel, an eco-feedback visualization created in collaboration with a Swedish food retailer. The visualization uses automatic data gathering to provide consumers with detailed information and long-term trends about their organic food consumption. The results from a five months test with 65 users show an increase in organic purchases compared to the control group, especially for the users who overestimated their percentage of organic food before the test. From the results we point out the possibilities of using visualization as a way of creating insight on behaviors such as food consumption, that are difficult to grasp from individual actions. This insight can be a way of closing the gap between attitudes and actual behavior, helping users that are already aware and willing to change, to perform more sustainable.

1 - 33 of 33
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