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  • 1.
    Birgisson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Sjölander, Peta White
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Snickars, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Kjellberg, Peter
    KTH.
    Perhson, Susanna
    KTH.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    KTH.
    Reitberger, Göran
    KTH.
    RAE2012: KTH Research Assessment Exercise 20122012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    McAllister, Anita M.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Child Voice and Noise: A Pilot Study of Noise in Day Cares and the Effects on 10 Children's Voice Quality According to Perceptual Evaluation2009In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 587-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to study children's exposure to background noise at the ears during a normal day at the day care center and also to relate this to a perceptual evaluation of voice quality. Ten children, from three day care centers, with no history of hearing and speech problems or frequent infections were selected as subjects. A binaural recording technique was used with two microphones placed on both sides of the subject's head, at equal distance from the mouth. A portable digital audio tape (DAT) recorder (Sony TCD-D 100, Stockholm, Sweden) was attached to the subject's waist. Three recordings were made for each child during the day. Each recording was calibrated and started with three repetitions of three sentences containing only sonorants. The recording technique allowed separate analyses of the background noise level and of the sound pressure level (SPL) of each subjects' own voice. Results showed a mean background noise level for the three day care centers at 82.6 dBA Leq, ranging from 81.5 to 83.6 dBA Leq. Day care center no. 2 had the highest mean value and also the highest value at any separate recording session with a mean background noise level of 85.4 dBA Leq during the noontime recordings. Perceptual evaluation showed that the children attending this day care center also received higher values on the following voice characteristics: hoarseness, breathiness, and hyperfunction. Girls increased their loudness level during the day, whereas for boys no such change could be observed.

  • 3. McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Children's Voice and Voice Disorders2013In: Seminars in Speech and Language, ISSN 0734-0478, E-ISSN 1098-9056, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the differences between children's voices and adult voices. We give an overview of the anatomy in the head and neck and specifically the anatomy of the respiratory system and the larynx. We also describe the development of children's voices including different physiological measures and voice quality. The development and consequences for voice production and voice quality are addressed and related to gender differences in the growing child. We also discuss the prevalence of voice problems and hoarseness in children. Environmental and other factors contributing to voice problems in children are described, and finally, issues related to intervention and evidence-based practice are discussed.

  • 4.
    Sergeant, D.
    et al.
    University of Roehampton, UK.
    Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Welch, G.
    Institute of Education, UK.
    Listeners’ identification of gender differences in children’s singing2005In: Research Studies in Music Education, ISSN 1321-103X, E-ISSN 1834-5530, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 28-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four listeners who were experienced with children's voices audited 320 samples of children's singing voices from the age range 4-11 years and judged the sexi of each singer using a response procedure that incorporated a confidence measure. Inter-judge correlations were high. 71.57% of identifications were positive and 44.37% were made with the maximum confidence level. Trend analyses showed a significant relationship between sex identification and age for boys, but this was not evident for girls.

    The response procedure allowed the creation of an index of confusability for each singer. When the most confusable and least confusable singers of each gender were identified, and their mean group ages calculated, highly significant differences between the ages of the most and least confusable boys were noted, but differences for girls were not significant.

    Introspections by judges as to auditory cues that they considered had contributed to their judgments reflected factors that have been suggested in the speech research literature. These included breathiness and huskiness of tone at higher frequencies, differences in consonants and perceived personality factors.

    The data indicate the presence of gender characteristics in children's singing voices sufficient to permit identifications at levels at least as reliable as those demonstrated for speech. Nevertheless, a small percentage of children of each sex and each age group were misattributed by all four judges.

  • 5.
    Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Perceptual relevance of the 5 kHz spectral region to sex identifica­tion in children’s singing voices2003In: Proceedings SMAC03 / [ed] Bresin, R, 2003, p. 503-506Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Sjölander, Peta
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Spectrum effects of subglottal pressure variation in professional baritone singers2004In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 1270-1273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The audio signal from five professional baritones was analyzed by means of spectrum analysis. Each subject sang syllables [pae] and [pa] from loudest to softest phonation at fundamental frequencies representing 25%, 50%, and 75% of his total range. Ten subglottal pressures, equidistantly spaced between highest and lowest, were selected for analysis along with the corresponding production of the vowels. The levels of the first formant and singer's formant were measured as a function of subglottal pressure. Averaged across subjects, vowels, and F-0, a 10-dB increase at 600 Hz was accompanied by a 16-dB increase at 3 kHz.

  • 7. Welch, G.F.
    et al.
    Sergeant, D.
    White, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The “threat” to the cathedral choir tradition: an empirical study of gender differences in singing voices of trained cathedral choristers1995In: Proceedings of the DGM and ESCOM 1995 Conference / [ed] G. Kleinen, 1995, p. 77-79Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Welch, G.F.
    et al.
    Roehampton Inst, Ctr Adv Stud Mus Educ, London, England.
    Sergeant, D.
    Roehampton Inst, Ctr Adv Stud Mus Educ, London, England.
    White Sjölander, Peta
    Roehampton Inst, Ctr Adv Stud Mus Educ, London, England.
    Age, sex and vocal task as factors in singing ‘in-tune’ during the first years of schooling1997In: Bulletin of The Council For Research in Music Education, ISSN 0010-9894, E-ISSN 2162-7223, no 133, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Welch, G.F.
    et al.
    Sergeant, D.
    White Sjölander, Peta
    University College London; University of Surrey.
    The Singing Competencies of Five-Year-Old Developing Singers1996In: Bulletin of The Council For Research in Music Education, ISSN 0010-9894, E-ISSN 2162-7223, Vol. 127, p. 155-162Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Welch, G.F.
    et al.
    Sergeant, D.C.
    White Sjölander, Peta
    Centre for Advanced Studies in Music Education .
    The role of linguistic dominance in the acquisition of song1998In: Research Studies in Music Education, ISSN 1321-103X, E-ISSN 1834-5530, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that there is a developmental sequence in children's singing, with certain singing behaviours having developmental primacy over others. The research literature indicates that, when learning songs, children first focus on the linguistic features, then rhythm, and finally the pitch and melodic attributes. This theorised hierarchy was examined as part of a larger study of singing development in early childhood in which a longitudinal sample (n=184) were assessed on a variety of vocal pitch matching tasks during each year of their first three years at school, i.e. at age five, six and seven years. In each year of testing, the assessment protocol embraced a specially-designed test battery and two sample songs. The protocol was constructed so that the test battery items (pitch glides, pitch patterns and single pitches) were deconstructed features of the two test songs, thus enabling an analysis to be made of the effects of the task on vocal pitch matching performance. The results suggest that children enter school with a clear disposition towards learning the words of the songs. In general, this ability is not matched by an ability to learn and reproduce the melodic components of the test songs. It is only in the third year of schooling that vocal pitch matching in song singing improves, but this particular ability is still significantly less well developed than that for learning and reproducing the words. 'For singers are given honour and respect by all people on the earth, since the Muse has taught them their songs, and she loves the race of singers' (Homer Odyssey).

  • 11. Welch, GF
    et al.
    White Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    The developing voice: Education and vocal efficiency – a physical perspective1993In: Bulletin of The Council For Research in Music Education, ISSN 0010-9894, E-ISSN 2162-7223, Vol. 119, p. 146-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    White, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A study of the effects of vocal intensity variation on children’s voices using long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis1997In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 119-131Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been well documented in adult studies that, as overall vocal intensity increases, the resulting increase in partials is greater in higher than in lower frequencies. Investigations involving children’s normal productions are uncommon however, and there is, as a consequence, little knowledge of how children’s vocal function differs from that of adults. Using long term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis, this study investigates the effects of vocal intensity variation on the voices of fifteen schoolchildren aged 10 years, singing in soft, mid and loud voice. Mean amplitudes, dynamic range, and gain in each frequency band were calculated, and means are presented as normative data for children’s vocal productions. Observed systematic effects of vocal loudness as well as male-female differences in the averaged spectra are discussed, and comparisons with adult data made.

  • 13. White, Peta
    Acoustic and Aerodynamic Measurements of Children’s Voices1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 14. White, Peta
    Child Voice2000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    White, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing. KTH Voice Research Centre.
    Formant frequency analysis of children's spoken and sung vowels using sweeping fundamental frequency production1999In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 570-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-pitched productions present difficulties in formant frequency analysis due to wide harmonic spacing and poorly defined formants. As a consequence, there is little reliable data regarding children's spoken or sung vowel formants. Twenty-nine 11-year-old Swedish children were asked to produce 4 sustained spoken and sung vowels. In order to circumvent the problem of wide harmonic spacing, F-1 and F-2 measurements were taken from vowels produced with a sweeping F-0. Experienced choir singers were selected as subjects in order to minimize the larynx height adjustments associated with pitch variation in less skilled subjects. Results showed significantly higher formant frequencies for speech than for singing. Formants were consistently higher in girls than in boys suggesting longer vocal tracts in these preadolescent bays. Furthermore, formant scaling demonstrated vowel dependent differences between boys and girls suggesting non-uniform differences in male and female vocal tract dimensions. These vowel-dependent sex differences were not consistent with adult data.

  • 16.
    White, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Formant frequency analysis of children’s spoken and sung vowels using sweeping fundamental frequency production1998In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 1-2, p. 43-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-pitched productions present difficulties in formant frequency analysis due to wide harmonic spacing and poorly defined formants. As a consequence, there is little reliable data regarding children’s spoken or sung vowel formants. In order to circumvent the problem of wide harmonic spacing, 29 11-year-old Swedish children were asked to produce four sustained spoken and sung vowels with a sweeping F0. F1 and F2 measurements were taken. Experienced choir singers were used as subjects in order to minimise the larynx height adjustments associated with pitch variation in less-skilled subjects. Results showed significantly higher formant frequencies for speech than for singing. Formants were consistently higher in females than in males suggesting longer vocal tracts in these preadolescent boys. Furthermore, formant scaling demonstrated vowel-dependent differences between boys and girls suggesting non-uniform differences in male and female vocal tract dimensions. These vowel-dependent sex differences were not consistent with adult data.

  • 17.
    White, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis of developmental changes in children's voices2000In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 85-88Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Long­term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis has been found to offer representative information on voice timbre. It provides spectral information averaged over a period of time and is particularly useful when persistent spectral features are under investigation. The aim of this study was to compare perceived and actual sex of the recorded voices of children to the LTAS characteristics. A total of 320 children, 20 boys and 20 girls in each of eight age groups (range 3 to 12 years), were recorded singing a nursery rhyme. In an earlier analysis, the recorded voices were evaluated with respect to perceived sex by expert listeners. Mean LTAS analysis for boys and girls groups revealed a peak at 5 kHz for children consistently perceived as boys (whether male or female in actuality), and a flat spectrum at 5 kHz for children consistently perceived as girls.

  • 18.
    White, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Some acoustic measurements of children’s voiced and whispered vowels1994In: Voice: Journal of the British Voice Association, ISSN 0966-789X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    White, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Voice source and formant frequencies in 11-year-old girls and boys2000In: Child Voice / [ed] White, P., KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2000, p. 13-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    White, Peta
    et al.
    Roehampton Institute, United Kingdom .
    Sergeant, D.
    Welch, G.F.
    Some observations on the singing development of five-year-olds1996In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the first year of investigation of a major longitudinal study into young children's singing development. A central focus during this first year was the design and piloting of a research protocol which would be valid for (a) a longitudinal sample of five-year-old children and (b) a comparative sample aged three to twelve years. The research instrument included specially-composed songs and a range of complementary pitch stimuli. Early results have provided an indication of five-year-olds' developing singing abilities and also offer an insight into the difficulties inherent in assessing young children's vocalisations within a changing school context.

  • 21.
    White, Peta
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Spectrum effects of subglottal pressure variation in professional baritone singers2000In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 41, p. 29-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The audio signal from five professional operatic baritone singers was analysed by means of spectrum analysis. Each subject sang a sustained diminuendo, from loudest to softest phonation, three times on the vowels [a:] and [ä:] at fundamental frequencies representing 25%, 50% and 75% of his total pitch range as measured in semitones. During the diminuendi the subjects repeatedly inserted the consonant [p] so that associated subglottal pressures could be estimated from the oral pressure during [p]­occlusions. Pooling the three takes of each condition, ten subglottal pressures (PS), equidistantly spaced between highest and lowest, were selected for analysis along with the corresponding production of [a:] and [ä:] vowels. The levels of the first formant and the singer’s formant, L1 and LSF, were measured as a function of increasing subglottal pressure. Averaged across subjects, an increase in PS resulted in (a) an increase in L1 and (b) a decrease in L1-LSF. This implies that a 10 dB increase at or near 600 Hz was, on average, accompanied by an increase of 17 dB of the level near 3 kHz.

  • 22.
    White, Peta
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Welch, GF
    A laryngographic study of the speaking and singing voices of young children1992In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics 1992 Conference / [ed] R. Lawrence, 1992, p. 225-231Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    White Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    A study of the effects of vocal intensity variation on children’s voices using long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis1998In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 111-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of adult voices have shown that, as vocal intensity is increased, the partials at higher frequencies gain more than those at lower frequencies. Investigations involving children's normal productions are uncommon, however, and there is, consequently, little knowledge of how children's vocal function differs from that of adults. Using LTAS analysis, this study investigates the effects of vocal intensity variation on the voices of 10-year-old schoolchildren singing in soft, mid and loud voice. A frequency-dependent gain factor was calculated which showed the increase in level to have been greater for partials at higher than at lower frequencies for these children. Also, gain within frequency bands was often different between boys and girls, although this was not demonstrated statistically.

  • 24.
    White Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis of sex- and gender-related differences in children’s voices2001In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 97-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term average spectrum (LTAS) analysis offers representative information on voice timbre providing spectral information averaged over time. It is particularly useful when persistent spectral features are under investigation. The aim of this study was to compare perceived sex of children to the LTAS analysis of their audio signals. A total of 320 children, aged between 3 and 12 years, were recorded singing a song. In an earlier analysis, the recorded voices were evaluated with respect to perceived and actual sex by experienced listeners. From this group, a subgroup of 59 children (30 boys and 29 girls) was selected. The mean LTAS revealed a peak at 5 kHz for children perceived with confidence as boys, and a flat spectrum at 5 kHz for children perceived confidently as girls (whether male or female in actuality).

1 - 24 of 24
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