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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Baltzopoulos, Apostolos
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    R & D strategies and entrepreneurial spawning2012In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 54-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how different R&D strategies of incumbent firms affect the quantity and quality of their entrepreneurial spawning. When examining entrepreneurial ventures of ex-employees of firms with different R&D strategies, three things emerge: First, firms with persistent R&D investments and a general superiority in sales, exports, productivity, profitability and wages are less likely to generate entrepreneurs than firms with temporary or no R&D investments. Second, start-ups from knowledge intensive business service (KIBS) firms with persistent R&D investments have a significantly increased probability of survival. No corresponding association between the R&D strategies of incumbents and survival of entrepreneurial spawns is found for incumbents in manufacturing sectors. Third, spin-outs from KIBS-firms are more likely to survive if they start in the same sector, indicating the importance of inherited knowledge. These findings suggest that R&D intensive firms are less likely to generate employee start-ups, but their entrepreneurial spawns tend to be of higher quality.

  • 2. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johannson, BörjeKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).Karlsson, CharlieLööf, HansKTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Innovation and Growth: From R&D strategies of innovating firms to economy-wide technological change2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume provides an understanding of firms' R&D and innovation strategies and their economy-wide consequences. It is based on the premise that differences in firm-level returns, as well as economy-wide outcomes, may be linked to the heterogeneous ways in which firms organize and undertake R&D and innovation activities. It emphasizes innovation strategies of innovating firms, and reflects that innovation efforts do not represent a uniform type of expenditure. Organized into three parts the volume moves from the micro to the macro-level. This structure highlights the notion that R&D and innovation and growth are two interdependent perspectives. The first of these is micro-oriented and focuses on innovation processes of firms, where R&D activities and other innovation efforts give rise to consequences such as a strengthening of resource bases, growth of sales and employment, patents, new products, increasing productivity and profits, and improved chances of survival. The second perspective comprises economy-wide effects in the form of overall technological change, growth in total factor productivity, and structural change processes, where certain sectors may benefit from new inputs from other sectors while others experience declining markets and reduced output.

  • 3. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, B.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Introduction2013In: Innovation and Growth: From R&D Strategies of Innovating Firms to Economy-wide Technological Change, Oxford University Press , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Multinationals in the Knowledge Economy: A case study of AstraZeneca in Sweden2010In: Repositioning  Europe and America for Growth: The Role of Governments and private Actors in Key Policy Areas / [ed] Eberhard Bohne and Charlie Karlsson, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a case study of the role of a large R&D intensive multinational company for a small open economy. The case study examines the role of AstraZeneca in the Swedish economy, i.e. an economy dominated by multinational companies. The purpose of the report is to analyze the interaction of AstraZeneca’s units in Sweden with the rest of the Swedish economy, and the Swedish innovation system in particular. We analyze the company’s role as an employer in the private sector, its transaction links with other Swedish firms and its role for Sweden’s exports. In a second perspective we focus on the company’s role in the Swedish knowledge economy and innovation system. The report analyses the company as a node for knowledge flows in the Swedish economy and innovation system, and its role as an employer of highly educated and skilled workers in Sweden.Our analysis of the Swedish units’ interaction with the rest of the Swedish economy shows that ’traditional’ couplings in the form of transactions with Swedish suppliers are limited. It is instead the company’s position in the ‘knowledge economy’ that makes its presence in Sweden important.

  • 5. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Multinationals in the Knowledge Economy: A case study of AstraZeneca in Sweden2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multinational companies play a large and growing role in the world economy. Theycontribute about 10 percent to world GDP and about two thirds to global exports. Inthe vast majority of the countries in the world, the presence of multinationals has alsobeen growing over time.

    This report presents a case study of the role of a large multinational company, activein one of the most R&D and knowledge intensive industries of the world, withestablishments in a small open economy. The case study examines the role ofAstraZeneca in the Swedish economy, i.e. an economy dominated by multinationalcompanies. They account for almost all of Sweden’s aggregate investments in privateR&D, over 90 percent of the country’s exports and imports as well as a significantshare of the total number of employees in the private sector. The analyses in the reportmake it possible to assess the importance of the local presence of such a largeknowledge-intensive multinational for Sweden.

  • 6. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Sweden .
    Karlsson, Charlie
    KTH. Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Sweden .
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Reflections2013In: Innovation and Growth: From R&D Strategies of Innovating Firms to Economy-wide Technological Change, Oxford University Press, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH.
    Johansson, Sara
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Firm performance and international trade - evidence from a small open economy2012In: The Regional Economics of Knowledge and Talent: Local Advantage in a Global Context, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. , 2012, p. 320-342Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Agglomeration and productivity: evidence from firm-level data2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 601-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do agglomerations stimulate productivity? An extensive literature on agglomeration economies, or urban increasing returns, has analyzed this question with aggregated spatial data. This paper estimates the relationship between agglomeration and productivity at the firm level using static and dynamic models. It makes use of a rich dataset comprising register information on all manufacturing firms in Sweden with 10 or more employees over the period 1997-2004. Three things emerge. First, firms located in larger regions are more productive when controlling for size, human capital, physical capital, ownership structure, import: and export, industry classification, and time trend. Second, results from dynamic panel estimations suggests a learning effect in that agglomeration enhances firms' productivity. Third, the role of agglomeration phenomena does not seem to have a clear coupling to firm size.

  • 9. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Firm Performance and International Trade2012In: Knowledge and Talent in Regional and Global Context / [ed] In B. Johansson, C. Karlsson and R. Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Economics (closed 20110301).
    Learning-by-Exporting Revisited: The Role of Intensity and Persistence*2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 893-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses can explain the empirically established export premium: self-selection of more productive firms into export markets and learning-by-exporting. This paper focuses on how the temporal dimension of firms' exporting activities and the intensity of exports influence the scope of learning effects. Using a panel of Swedish firms and dynamic generalized method of moments estimation, we find a learning effect among persistent exporters with high export intensity, but not among temporary exporters or persistent exporters with low export intensity. For small firms, exports boost productivity among persistent exporters with both high and low export intensity, but the effect is stronger for persistent export-intensive small firms.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Small business innovation: firm level evidence from Sweden2012In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 732-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines innovation among very small firms and provides new insights into both internal and external determinants of patenting. Applying a non-linear panel data approach to about 160,000 observations on manufacturing firms in Sweden for the period 2000-2006, the following facts emerge: (i) in contrast to larger firms, innovation in micro firms with 1-10 employees is not sensitive to variation in internal financial resources, (ii) skilled labour is even more important for innovation among micro firms compared to other firms, (iii) affiliation to a domestically owned multinational enterprise group increases the innovation capacity of small businesses, (iv) small firms' innovation is closely linked to participation in international trade and exports to the G7-countries, and (v) there is no statistically significant evidence that proximity to metropolitan areas, or presence in a specialized cluster, increases the innovativeness of the smallest firm.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    Johansson, Sara
    Productivity and International Trade: firm-level evidence from a small open economy2008In: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 144, no 4, p. 774-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and analysis of the international trading activities of firms based on novel and detailed Swedish data. We provide robust evidence of selection operating from market to market which is consistent with that low productive firms are confined to markets with low productivity thresholds. We further show that selection also applies to the number of products traded. There is a substantial heterogeneity among exporters and importers in terms of the number of markets they trade with and in terms of the number of products they trade. Productivity premiums increase in the number of markets and the number of products traded, respectively. Firms that both export and import (i.e. two-way traders) are more productive than firms that only export or only import. This finding can be explained by that two-way traders are deeply engaged in the international division of labor and employ inputs based on frontier knowledge and technology in their production process, which increase their productivity and success on export markets.

  • 13. Backman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    The geography of innovation and entrepreneurship2015In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue "The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship" in the Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labor market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.

  • 14. Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Larijani, Pardis Nabavi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Stephan, Andreas
    A new approach to estimation of the R&D-innovation-productivity relationship2017In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 26, no 1-2, p. 121-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a generalized structural equation model approach to the estimation of the relationship between R&D, innovation and productivity that focuses on the potentially crucial heterogeneity across sectors. The model accounts for selectivity and handles the endogeneity of this relationship in a recursive framework which allows for feedback effects from productivity to future R&D investment. Our approach enables the estimation of the different equations as one system, allowing the coefficients to differ across sectors, and also permits us to take cross-equation correlation of the errors into account. Employing a panel of Swedish manufacturing and service firms observed in three consecutive Community Innovation Surveys in the period 2008-2012, our full-information maximum likelihood estimates show that many key channels of influence among the model's components vary meaningfully in their statistical significance and magnitude across six different sectors based on the OECD classification on technological and knowledge intensity. These results cast doubt on earlier research which does not allow for sectoral heterogeneity.

  • 15.
    Baum, Christopher F.
    et al.
    Boston Coll, Boston, MA USA.;DIW, Berlin, Germany..
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). ..
    Nabavi, Pardis
    Minist Finance, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Innovation strategies, external knowledge and productivity growth2019In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 348-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies firms ' capability to recombine internal and local knowledge. It measures the outcome in terms of total productivity growth. Using Swedish data on commuting time for face-to-face contacts across all 290 municipalities, we employ a time-sensitive approach for calculating localized knowledge within a municipality and and its close neighbors. Internal knowledge is captured by register data on firms' innovation intensity. The two sources of knowledge are modeled in a production function setting by discrete composite variables with different combinations of input factors. Applying the model on Swedish firm level panel data, we find strong evidence of differences in the capacity to benefit from external knowledge among persistent innovators, temporary innovators and non-innovators. The results are consistent regardless of whether innovation efforts are measured in terms of the frequency of patent applications or the level of R&D investment.

  • 16.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    How does University Collaboration Contribute to Successful R&D Management?2008In: IUP Journal of Managerial Economics, ISSN 0972-9305, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 7-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue—how a firm’s R&D (Research and Development) interaction with universities affects its innovation performance—remains under-researched. This study explores the relationship between firms’ collaboration with universities and their capabilities for innovation, as perceived by R&D managers. Drawing on a series of interviews with R&D managers of 45 randomly selected firms collaborating with two research universities in Sweden, we explicitly recognize mechanisms through which university relationships contribute to successful R&D management.

  • 17.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    How Does University Collaboration Contribute to Successful R&D Management?: An examination of the Swedish setting2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of through what processes R&D collaboration with universities affects a firms’innovation performance remains under-researched. In particular, university relationships have notbeen fully integrated in the open innovation framework. This study explores the relationshipbetween firms’ collaboration with universities and their capabilities for innovation, as perceivedby R&D managers. Drawing on a series of interviews with R&D managers at 45 randomlyselected firms collaborating with two research universities in Sweden, we explicitly recognisemechanisms through which university relationships contribute to successful R&D management.

  • 18.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Vad säger forskningen om sambanden mellan offentligt finansierad forskning och ekonomisk tillväxt?2008Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    What do we know about Firms’ Research Collaboration with Universities?2007In: Commercialization and Transfer of Technology: Major Country Case Studies, Nova Science Publisher , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    What do we know about Firms’ Research Collaborationwith Universities?: New Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an integrated view of knowledge transfer between university and industryby combining two different approaches. First, we report results from an econometric analysis,where recent matching techniques are used on a dataset of 2,071 Swedish firms. Our findingsfrom this analysis strongly suggest that university collaboration has a positive influence on theinnovative activity of large manufacturing firms. In contrast, there appears to be an insignificantassociation between university collaboration and the average service firm’s innovation output.Second, in the pursuit of credible explanations for these findings, we apply a semi-structuredinterview methodology on 39 randomly selected firms collaborating with two researchuniversities in Stockholm, Sweden. We identify three ideas for how collaboration may help firmsbecome more innovative in the literature of innovation studies. In analysis of the interviews, wefind very weak support for the first idea; that firms are able to exploit and market innovationsoriginating in the university. The second idea – that firms improve their internal innovativecapability by collaboration – is found to apply to about half of the investigated firms. Innovationefficiency gains in the form of reduced cost and risk for innovation projects, which is a third ideasuggested by the literature, are also suggested to be a major factor behind firms’ benefits. Finally,we offer tentative explanations for the lack of measurable effects of collaboration for servicefirms.

  • 21. Cook, G. A. S.
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Pandit, N. R.
    Johansson, Börje
    The influence of clustering on mne location and innovation in great Britain2012In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 53-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22. Cook, G. A. S.
    et al.
    Pandit, N. R.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Johansson, B.
    Clustering, MNEs, and Innovation: Who Benefits and How?2013In: International Journal of the Economics of Business, ISSN 1357-1516, E-ISSN 1466-1829, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 203-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores three under-researched questions in the literature on multinational enterprises (MNEs), clustering, and innovation. First, to what extent does multinationality lead to higher rates of innovation activity and performance? Second, what, if any, is the link between MNE cluster location and innovation inputs and outputs? Third, are there any significant differences between enterprises belonging to domestic and overseas MNEs in these regards? Evidence is based primarily on 11,775 firms derived from the UK Community Innovation Survey 2007. Diversity in the regional economy exerts the most consistent positive influence, followed by the scale of employment in the enterprise's own industry. Enterprises belonging to domestic MNEs appear to exert higher levels of innovation effort. However, evidence regarding their superiority in innovation outputs was weaker. Contrary to Michael Porter's work, it appears that enterprises belonging to overseas firms benefit more than domestic firms.

  • 23. Cook, G.
    et al.
    Shevtsova, Y.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Sweden.
    The impact of technology spillovers and international knowledge flows on the productivity and innovativeness of UK multinationals2018In: Globalization, International Spillovers and Sectoral Changes: Implications for Regions and Industries, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 64-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24. Cook, Gary
    et al.
    Pandit, Naresh R.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jonkoping International Business School.
    Geographic Clustering and Outward Foreign Direct Investment2012In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1112-1121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses an important neglected question: To what extent do geographic clusters promote outward foreign direct investment (ODI)? We find evidence that clusters do promote ODI and so support Porter’s argument that advantages gained in clusters can be the foundations of successful internationalisation. Digging deeper, we find that certain cluster incumbents promote more ODI than others, with more experienced firms and firms with stronger resource bases accounting for more ODI. We also find that firms located in clusters within major global nodes/cities engage in more ODI. Finally, we find that both localisation and urbanisation economies promote ODI. However, the former, within-industry effects, are more important. Overall, this study echoes Dunning’s call for more focus on the ‘L’ component of the OLI paradigm and particularly on the advantages that reside in clusters that make them not only attractive destinations for FDI but also fertile environments from which FDI can spring.

  • 25. Dachs, B.
    et al.
    Ebersberger, B.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    The Innovative Performance of Foreign-owned Enterprises in Small Open Economies2008In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 393-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the innovative performance of foreign-owned and domestically owned enterprises in five European countries. We look at innovation inputs, outputs, and examine how strong foreign-owned enterprises are embedded in the innovations systems of their host countries. We find that foreign ownership is associated with similar levels of innovation input, but higher levels of innovation output and higher labour productivity compared to domestic ownership. In four of the five countries, affiliates of foreign multinationals show a similar or even a higher propensity to co-operate with domestic partners than domestically owned enterprises.

  • 26. Ebersberger, B.
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Multinational Enterprises, Spillover, Innovation and Productivity2005In: ICFAI Journal of Management Research, ISSN 0972-5342, Vol. 4, no 11/12, p. 7-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Eliasson, G
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Heshmati, A
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Stephan, A
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Ojnare kan bli ett svenskt exempel i FN2015In: Dagens OpinionArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Eliasson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Miljöstrategisk analys (fms), Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Internationella handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lööf, Hans
    Entreprenörskap och Innovation, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Internationella handelshögskolan i Jönköping, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Westlund, Hans
    Urbana och regionala studier, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Ojnare kan bli ett svenskt exempel i FN2015In: Dagens OpinionArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29. Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Sources of Finance, R&D Investment and Productivity: Correlation or Causality?2006In: ICFAI Journal of Industrial Economics, ISSN 0972-9208, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general there is agreement about the positive impacts of R&D on performance of firms measured as productivity, profitability and growth. However, the opposite relationship is less obvious and very little attention has been paid on examining the feedback from performance on investment. This study is an attempt to contribute to the empirical analysis of the causal relationship between investment and performance. We examine the interaction between a number of financial indicators represented by investments in R&D and tangible capital and a number of performance variables including sales, value added, profit, cash flow, capital structure and employment on R&D and physical capital investments. Empirical results are based on a large panel data set of Swedish manufacturing firms over the period 1992-2000. The results show evidence of weak feedback effects from performance on investment.

  • 30. Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    The Impact of Public Funding on Private R&D Investment: New Evidence from A Firm Level Innovation Study2007In: Technology Transfer, Nova Science Publisher , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Ebersberger, H.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    The Impact of Foreign Takeovers on Innovation and Productivity Performance2007In: Entrepreneurship and Development – Local Processes and Global Patterns / [ed] I. Johansson, George Mason University, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    FDI Inflows to Sweden: Consequences for Innovation and Renewal2011In: New Dimensions in  Regional Economic Development: The Role of Entrepreneurship Research, Practice and Policy / [ed] S. Desai, P. Nijkamp and R. Stough, Elsevier, 2011, p. 310-339Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    FDI Inflows to Sweden: Consequences for Innovation and Renewal2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    FDI inflows have expanded rapidly during the past decade. This paper analyses if such inflows dointroduce new characteristics of the innovation systems at national and regional levels. The paperstudies two phenomena. First, what novelties are brought into the host region (country) when FDIinflows occur? Second, what are the consequences for the innovation intensity, technology transferand economic performance of firms in a regional (national) economy that experiences FDI inflows?These issues are assessed by examining the characteristics of foreign multinationals and comparingthem with the characteristics of multinational, uninational and non-affiliate firms, respectively. Theanalyses control for location, examine regional impacts, and are based on CIS data (CommunityInnovation Survey III). The paper contributes to earlier studies in two important ways. First, itcompares FDI firms with three other distinct types of corporate structure. Second, it combines resultsfrom both parametric and non-parametric estimations. The results indicate that FDI inflows in anunambiguous way renew the local economy when acquiring or replacing domestic multi-unit firms(uninationals). Compared to other types of corporate structure, FDI firms do not seem to improveinnovation characteristics of the local economy.

  • 34.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Firm Strategy, Location and MNE-networks2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper asks three explicit questions, where the first one concerns the impact of a firm’s choice of innovation strategy and knowledge resources. The study aims at confirming that firms with a strategy with R&D persistency have a markedly higher productivity, profitability and wage level than other firms. The second question is focused on the location of firms, with a distinction between firms dwelling in a metropolitan region and other firms. The hypothesis is that a metropolitan knowledge milieu may augment the performance of firms. The third question concerns knowledge exchange in regional and global networks that pertain to multinational affiliates. Applying Swedish data on individual firms and their location, the paper shows that firm performance is significantly higher when the three factors R&D persistency, metropolitan location and affiliation to a multinational group are combined.

  • 35.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Global Location of R&D2006In: Internationalization of Corporate R&D: Leveraging and Changing Geography of Innovation, Stockholm: Elanders , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Global Location Patterns of R&D Investments2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns offshore R&D investments, focusing mainly on largemultinational companies within the industrialized world. What do we know aboutoffshore R&D activities regarding trends, scope and destinations, driving forcesand constraints? What do we know about consequences for the R&D investingcompany, as well as for national systems of innovation, regional R&Dexternalities, agglomeration and urban economies of home and host countries aswell?

  • 37.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Innovation Activities Explained by Firm Attributes and Location2008In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 533-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, innovation activities of a firm are observed as its R&D spending and participation in three categories of innovation systems. The various factors that can influence a firm’s innovation efforts are divided into, (i) firm location reflecting the regional milieu and (ii) firm attributes such as corporate structure, nature of the knowledge production, type of industry and a set of specific firm characteristics. The study is based on information about 2094 individual firms, which may be non-affiliated or belong to a group (multi-firm enterprise). The empirical analysis applies a novel data set to examine the influence of location versus a vector of firm attributes. Among innovative firms, the location of a firm does not influence neither the R&D intensity nor the frequency of interaction in horizontal and vertical innovation systems, when controlling the skill composition, physical capital intensity, industry, firm size and market extension. The paper contributes to the literature by observing that innovative firms have similar characteristics irrespective of where they are located, although the share of innovative firms differs between regions.

  • 38.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    INNOVATION ACTIVITIESEXPLAINED BY FIRM ATTRIBUTES AND LOCATION2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines systematically the importance of location versus a vector of firmattributes on firms’ innovation engagements. The various factors that can influence a firm’sinnovation efforts are divided into (i) firm location, reflecting the regional milieu, and (ii)firm attributes such as corporate structure, nature of the knowledge production, type ofindustry and a set of specific firm characteristics. The study is based on information about2, 094 individual Swedish firms, where a firm may be non-affiliated or belong to a group(multi-firm enterprise), domestically or foreign owned. The study concludes that thepropensity to be innovative differs between the five macro-region investigated. Amonginnovative firms, however, the R&D intensity as well as most other innovation-activitycharacteristics remain invariant with regard to location, when controlling for the skillcomposition, physical capital intensity, industry, corporate structure firm, size and marketextension.

  • 39.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Innovation, R&D and Productivity - assessing alternative specifications of CDM-models2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies a CDM-model framework to depict the successive links (correlations) between (i) innovation expenditure, (ii) innovation output, and (iii) firm productivity. The CDM model has become popular in many countries among scholars using data from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS). First, the study contrasts a general structural OECD version of the model against a model with country-specific design. Second, the study examines the gains from separating the labour force into ordinary and knowledge labour – as a means to avoid double counting of R&D investments. Third, the paper examines the difference between recognising a firm as a member of an unspecified company group versus a multinational group. Fourth, the paper explores how well sales per employee serves as a proxy for labour productivity proper. Fifth, the paper scrutinises the quality of CIS information by comparing key variables from the voluntary CIS survey with the same variables (for the same firms) recorded in the compulsory and audited register data in Sweden.

  • 40.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Innovation Strategy and Firm Performance: What is the long-run impact of persistent R&D?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are systematic long-run differences in the performance of firms explained by the R&D-strategy that each firm employs. Controlling for unobservable heterogeneity, past performance and other firm characteristics, this paper shows that labour productivity is, on average, 13 percent higher among firms with persistent R&D commitment and 9 percent higher among firms which make occasional R&D efforts when compared with non-R&D-firms. Furthermore, firms which employ a strategy with persistent R&D efforts are rewarded with a productivity growth rate that on average is about 2 percent higher than for other firms. The results are similar when firm performance is measured as total sales or exports per labor input.

  • 41. Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Productivity, networks and knowledge flows2015In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 24, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue of EINT surveys a collection of eight papers that study innovation and productivity at the firm level and the industry level for a number of European countries. This focus is supported by the view that an innovating firm can maintain a favourable position in terms of profits, productivity and growth by following a path along which its knowledge-creation efforts have become a regular activity. The performance of an innovating firm is also affected by the firm's accession of external knowledge sources, and this gives firms an incentive to develop innovation networks.

  • 42.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    R&D-Persistency, Metropolitan Externalities and Productivity2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms display persistent differences as regards both internal and external characteristics, and these differences correspond to asymmetries in the performance of firms with regard to productivity level and growth as well as innovativeness. This paper focuses on one internal characteristic and one external factor by distinguishing between firms with persistent R&D efforts and other firms and firms located in a metropolitan region versus firms with other locations. Applying Swedish data on individual firms and their location, the paper shows that firms that follow a strategy with persistent R&D efforts have a distinctly higher level of productivity across all types of location. In addition, the productivity level of firms with persistent R&D is augmented in a significant way when such firms have a metropolitan location and, in particular, a location in a metropolitan city.

  • 43.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    The Global-Local Interplay of MNE and Non-MNE Firms2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During a sequence of decades we can observe a co-evolution of globalization through network formation of multinational (MNE) firms and concentration in specific places due to agglomerative forces. First, innovation ideas arrive at a faster speed to firms with past experience of innovation activities and with established export market contacts. Second, innovativeness is strongly dependent on corporate and ownership structure. Third, the returns to innovation efforts are positively influenced by firms’ capability to exploit extended markets. All these phenomena can be theoretically explained by MNE’s capacity to coordinate global supply chains and orchestrate localized R&D activities and knowledge flows. The paper illuminates how attributes of MNEs and non-MNEs differ, and how these differences affect the productivity and export intensity. It also shows how agglomeration economies affect MNEs and non-MNEs.

  • 44.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    The Impact of Firm’s R&D Strategy on Profit and Productivity2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how a firm’s R&D strategy influences the firm performance as measured byproductivity and profitability. A formal production model is introduced to define and interpretalternative ways of measuring the impact of R&D. Studying 1,767 randomly selected firms from theSwedish manufacturing sector, the main findings are: (i) firms which apply persistent R&D performbetter than firms with occasional as well as no R&D, (ii) occasional R&D is associated with lowerperformance than no R&D, and (iii) in quantile regressions the positive effect from R&D persistencyis lacking for low productivity firms (lowest quartile) indicating a non-linear response. Moreover, theanalysis recognises the different roles of ordinary and knowledge labour in production whenspecifying alternative performance measures and when identifying knowledge labour as a firm’s R&Dcapacity, which has a highly significant impact on firm performance. Introducing a formal productionmodel in order to define and interpret alternative ways of measuring the impact of R&D, we applysimple ordinary OLS and quantile regressions on the economic model for analyzing the importance fora particular R&D strategy on firms’ productivity and profitability. To the best of our knowledge, webelieve that the main findings of the analysis make contributions to the R&D literature.

  • 45.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Ebersberger, B.
    Does Ownership Matter?: The Impact of Foreign Takeovers on Innovation and Productivity Performance2007In: Commercialization and Transfer of Technology: Major Country Case Studies / [ed] A. Heshmati, Y.-B. Sohn and Y.-R. Kim, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Ebersberger, Bernd
    The Innovation and Productivity Effect of Foreign Take-Over of National Assets2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the foreign-ownership offirms in the four Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. This increasehas generated interest in the welfare effect of foreign take-over of national assets. In thispaper we ask: how would a firm’s behaviour and performance have been if a foreignowner had not acquired the firm? The analysis is based on a sample of 5 186 firm-levelobservations in four Nordic countries, of which close to 30 percent are owned by foreigncompanies. Using an empirical approach that accounts for both selection bias andsimultaneity bias, we establish some new findings regarding foreign ownership. First, norobust difference in the propensity to be innovative can be established. Second, amongthe group of innovative firms, foreign-owned multinationals are generally outperformedby domestic multinationals in R&D and innovation engagement. Third, despite the factthat domestic multinationals are considerably more involved in national innovationsystems than other firms, they are not producing more innovation per R&D-dollar,controlling for firm size, human capital and industry. Finally, we find that foreign takeoverof firms is neutral with respect to labour productivity, and hence that no evidence ofwelfare gain or welfare drain of foreign ownership can be established.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701). Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden .
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Ebersberger, Berndt
    The Innovation and Productivity Effect of Foreign Take-Over of National Assets2010In: Entrepreneurship and regional development: local processes and global patterns / [ed] Charlie, Karlsson, Börje Johansson and Roger Stough, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 287-312Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Firm Location, Corporate Structure, R&D Investment, Innovation and Productivity2007In: Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Functional Regions, Edward Elgar , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study elucidates the relationship between localisation of firms, corporate structure, intellectual capital and innovations.The main finding is that a greater concentration of multinational firms, human capital, T&D and universities is significantly and positive associated with research productivity. All other things equal, such as firm size, sector classification, human capital, corporate owner structure and R&D investment, the return to an invested Euro in R&D is, at the margin, greatest for firms localized to the capital of Sweden, compared to four other large regions. However, surprisingly Stockholm firms also have a lower propensity to cooperate with scientific, vertical and horisontal innovation systems. This may reflect limitations of popular survey-based information such as Community Innovation Survey data to capture spillover and the importance of informal collaborative relationships within regions.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Firm Location, Corporate Structure,R&D Investment, Innovation and Productivity2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study elucidates how firm location and corporate structure influence R&D-intensity, externalcollaboration on innovation, return on R&D and economic performance. The study, based on 1,907 firmlevel observations, essentially compare a functional region with four other regional areas in Sweden. Inthis context, the Stockholm region is assumed as an integrated functional urban region with innovationproximitycharacteristics. The paper examines systematically the influence of location versus various firmcharacteristics. The econometric results suggest the following: First, a typical Stockholm firm has asignificantly larger likelihood than other firms of being engaged in innovation activities. Second, amonginnovative firms, the R&D intensity and global collaboration on innovation is primarily determined by itscorporate structure, not geographic location. Third, the embeddedness in regional and national scientificand vertical innovation systems is relatively more intense outside Stockholm. Finally, the advantage ofbeing located within Sweden’s most strongest concentration of R&D spending, universities, human capitaland multinational enterprises with their global networks is reflected by a superior return on R&Dinvestments and higher productivity, when controlling for firm size, human capital, physical capital, R&Dintensity,market orientation and sector classification.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Rader-Olsson, A.
    Localization, Corporate Structure, R&D, Innovation and Productivity2006In: Innovations and Entrepreneurship in Functional Regions / [ed] I. Johansson, Trollhättan/Uddevalla University, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 119
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