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  • 1.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Railway capacity allocation: a survey of market organizations, allocation processes and track access charges2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few decades, many railway markets (especially in Europe) have been restructured to allow competition between different operators. This survey studies how competition has been introduced and regulated in a number of different countries around the world. In particular, we focus on a central part of market regulation specific to railway markets, namely the capacity allocation process. Conflicting capacity requests from different train operators need to be regulated and resolved, and the efficiency and transparency of this process is crucial. Related to this issue is how access charges are constructed and applied. Several European countries have vertically separated their railway markets, separating infrastructure management from train services provisions, thus allowing several train operators to compete with different passengers and freight services. However, few countries have so far managed to create efficient and transparent processes for allocating capacity between competing train operators, and incumbent operators still have larger market-share in many markets.

  • 2.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Measuring the Socio-economic Benefits of Train Timetables: Application to Commuter Train Services in Stockholm2017In: 20th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2017, 4-6 September 2017, Budapest, Hungary, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 27, p. 849-856Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On highly used railway lines with heterogeneous traffic, timetabling is challenging. In particular, the limited existing capacity means that to guarantee an acceptable level of quality, the infrastructure manager must cancel some train services on the expense of others. In this article, we study the conflict between commercial long-distance trains and subsidized commuter trains with a socio-economic perspective (i.e. travelers and train operators). The study attempts to answer the following question: What is the socio-economic effect of modifying the timetable of a commuter service?The case study treats the commuter train services in Stockholm. Trip data was collected from the local commuter train operator. An entropy maximization-based model was implemented to estimate the dynamic network Origin-Destination (OD) matrix. This dynamic matrix, of one full working day, was then used to estimate the number of travelers per train, and further converted for use in the microscopic simulation tool RailSys. Travel and waiting time are estimated for each OD pair and with that the generalized costs for the travelers and operators. The effect of crowding in the trains is included in the estimation. The article can be considered as an initiation to a novel method to calculate effects of changes in commuter train timetables. This novel approach enables to price commercial train slots in the capacity allocation process such as in an auction. It provides a new way to estimate the local train operator´s valuation of the different parameters (i.e. waiting, travel time and interchanges). Using RailSys for the estimation of times makes it possible to include capacity aspects that normally are difficult to reveal.

  • 3.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Pricing commercial train path requests based on societal costs2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On deregulated railway markets, efficient capacity allocation is important. We study the case where commercial trains and publicly controlled traffic (“commuter trains”) use the same railway infrastructure and hence compete for capacity. We develop a method that can be used by an infrastructure manager trying to allocate capacity in a socially efficient way. The method calculates the loss of social benefits incurred by changing the commuter train timetable to accommodate a commercial train path request and based on this calculates a reservation price for the train path request. If the commercial operator’s willingness-to-pay for the train path exceeds the loss of social benefits, its request is approved. The calculation of social benefits takes into account changes in commuter train passengers’ travel times, waiting times, transfers and crowding, and changes in operating costs for the commuter train operator(s). The method is implemented in a microscopic simulation program, which makes it possible to test the robustness and feasibility of timetable alternatives. We show that the method is possible to apply in practice by demonstrating it in a case study from Stockholm, illustrating the magnitudes of the resulting commercial train path prices. We conclude that marginal societal costs of railway capacity in Stockholm are considerably higher than the current track access charges.

  • 4.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301).
    Is it time to use activity-based urban transport models? A discussion of planning needs and modelling possibilities2005In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 767-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For some decades now, transport researchers have put considerable efforts into developing what is called activity-based approaches for modelling urban travel demand. The basic idea is that travel demand is derived from people's desires to take part in different activities. In particular, the interrelationships among different activities with respect to temporal and spatial constraints are in focus. It means that such models treat the activities and the travelling of the households with respect to where and when the activities can be carried out and how they may be scheduled, given characteristics of the households and potential opportunities, the transport networks and various institutional constraints. We discuss what demands we see on future travel demand models, with a focus on urban analysis. This discussion is somewhat biased towards what role activity-based models could play in meeting these demands. We then review in some detail three prominent and distinctly different representatives of operational activity-based models to give an indication of what new modelling possibilities they offer. Theoretical appeal, empirical validity, usefulness for planning, need for data and easiness of implementation are discussed. In the final section we draw some conclusions about the prospects of these models and of their descendants.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. WSP Analysis & Strategy, Sweden.
    Brundell-Freij, K.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Validation of aggregate reference forecasts for passenger transport2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 96, p. 101-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have compared Swedish national forecasts for passenger transport produced from 1975 to 2009 with the actual outcomes, and we found substantial differences between forecasts of passenger kilometers by mode and actual outcomes. In forecasts produced since the early 1990 s, road and air traffic growth rates have generally been overpredicted. Aggregate railway growth has been fairly accurate, but commercial long-distance railway growth has been overpredicted, and the growth of subsidized intra-regional railway travel has been underpredicted (following vast unanticipated supply increases). Focusing on car traffic forecasts, we show that a very large share of forecast errors can be explained by input variables turning out to be different than what was assumed in the forecasts. Even the original forecasts are much closer to actual outcomes than simple trendlines would have been, and once the input assumptions are corrected, the forecasts vastly outperform simple trendlines. The potential problems of using cross-sectional models for forecasting intertemporal changes thus seem to be limited. This tentative conclusion is also supported by the finding that elasticities from the cross-sectional models are consistent with those from a time-series model.

  • 6.
    Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Congestion Charges and Labour Market Imperfections2016In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 50, p. 113-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard cost-benefit analyses of transport policy measures will not capture all benefits and losses if there are labour market imperfections. In the case of congestion charges, theoretical analyses have raised concerns that these effects may constitute considerable losses, possibly to the extent that aggregate welfare is reduced, contrary to conventional wisdom. We investigate this by estimating the effects on labour income of the Stockholm congestion charges, using an estimated relationship between accessibility and income. Results show that effects on labour income are, in fact, positive. It turns out to be crucial that the model accounts for value-of-time heterogeneity.

  • 7. Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Congestion charges and labour market imperfections: “Wider economic benefits” or “losses”?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    WSP.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Andersson, Matts
    WSP.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    VTI.
    Congestion charges and labour market imperfections: “Wider economic benefits” or “losses”?2011In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Asplund, Disa
    et al.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 92, p. 195-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty. Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Provided that decisions are based on CBA outcomes, reducing uncertainty is still worthwhile, however, because of the huge sums at stake. Even moderate reductions of uncertainties about unit values, investment costs, future demand and project effects may increase the realized benefits infrastructure investment plans by tens or hundreds of million euros. We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

  • 10.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Börjesson, M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Response to Wadud and Baierl: “Explaining ‘peak car’ with economic variables: An observation”2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 95, p. 386-389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Explaining “peak car” with economic variables2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 2016, no 88, p. 236-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decrease of car travel during the 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the statement that the development cannot be explained by changes in traditional explanatory factors such as GDP and fuel prices. Instead, it has been argued, the observed trends are indications of substantial changes in lifestyles, preferences and attitudes to car travel; what we are experiencing is not just a temporary plateau, but a true “peak car”. However, this study shows that the traditional variables GDP and fuel price are in fact sufficient to explain the observed trends in car traffic in all the countries included in our study: the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden and (to a large extent) Australia and Germany. We argue that the importance of the fuel price increases in the early 2000s has been underappreciated in the studies that shaped the later debate. Results also indicate that GDP elasticities tend to decrease with rising GDP, and that fuel price elasticities tend to increase at high price levels and during periods of rapid price increases.

  • 12.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Explaining “peak car” with economic variables2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 2016, no 88, p. 236-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decrease of car travel during the 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the statement that the development cannot be explained by changes in traditional explanatory factors such as GDP and fuel prices. Instead, it has been argued, the observed trends are indications of substantial changes in lifestyles, preferences and attitudes to car travel; what we are experiencing is not just a temporary plateau, but a true “peak car”. However, this study shows that the traditional variables GDP and fuel price are in fact sufficient to explain the observed trends in car traffic in all the countries included in our study: the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden and (to a large extent) Australia and Germany. We argue that the importance of the fuel price increases in the early 2000s has been underappreciated in the studies that shaped the later debate. Results also indicate that GDP elasticities tend to decrease with rising GDP, and that fuel price elasticities tend to increase at high price levels and during periods of rapid price increases.

  • 13. Berdica, K.
    et al.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure and Planning.
    Regional accessibility analysis from a vulnerability perspective2004In: Proceedings of The Second International Symposium on Transportation Network Reliability, INSTR , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    et al.
    Transek AB.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Transek AB.
    The Stockholm congestion charging system: an overview of the effects after six months2006In: Proceedings of European Transport Conference 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Expert Group consists of eight traffic experts with various specialities. The group read all documentation and then, during three intensive full-day seminars, drew the conclusions presented in this summary of the evaluation of the Stockholm Trial. Several group members have in different ways participated in preparatory tasks prior to the evaluation and also conducted follow-up activities during the course of the trial.The Expert Group is chaired by Dr Jonas Eliasson, Transek AB and its secretary is Dr Lena Smidfeldt Rosqvist, Trivector Traffic AB. Other members are Associate Prof. Staffan Algers, Royal Institute of Technology/Transek, Dr Karin Brundell-Freij Engineering Faculty, Lund University, Managing Director of Inregia AB Cecilia Henriksson, Inregia AB, Prof. Lars Hultkrantz, Örebro University and scientific advisor to the Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute., Managing Director of Trivector Traffic AB Christer Ljungberg and Dr Lena Nerhagen, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute

  • 15.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Rosenlind, Stina
    Kan vi lita på trafikprognoser? – En kritisk granskning av några trafikmodeller1996Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Sundbergh, Pia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Utveckling av samhällsekonomiska metoder och verktyg2010Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Not invented here: Transferability of congestion charges effects2014In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the effects of congestion charges rely on specific features of a city and its transport system. We use Stockholm, and its current congestion charging scheme, as a case study by making various modifications in the transport system influencing the availability and attractiveness of public transport, bypasses and bottleneck capacities. We use a transport model to forecast the effects of the Stockholm charges given each transport system modification. Our main conclusion is that although the social benefit of a given charging system is considerably and non-linearly dependent on initial congestion levels, traffic effects and adaptations costs are surprisingly stable across transport system modifications. Specifically, the level of public transport provision has only small effects on baseline congestion, and therefore on the total benefit of the charges. Contrary to expectation, the charges' effect on traffic volumes remains virtually unchanged regardless of the changes in public transport supply. All results are compared to and consistent with the one-market standard model. We interpret our results with respect to common arguments against the transferability of experiences from cities having introduced congestion charges.

  • 18.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Not invented here: Transferability of congestion charges effects2014In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the effects of congestion charges rely on specific features of a city and its transport system. We use Stockholm, and its current congestion charging scheme, as a case study by making various modifications in the transport system influencing the availability and attractiveness of public transport, bypasses and bottleneck capacities. We use a transport model to forecast the effects of the Stockholm charges given each transport system modification. Our main conclusion is that although the social benefit of a given charging system is considerably and non-linearly dependent on initial congestion levels, traffic effects and adaptations costs are surprisingly stable across transport system modifications. Specifically, the level of public transport provision has only small effects on baseline congestion, and therefore on the total benefit of the charges. Contrary to expectation, the charges' effect on traffic volumes remains virtually unchanged regardless of the changes in public transport supply. All results are compared to and consistent with the one-market standard model. We interpret our results with respect to common arguments against the transferability of experiences from cities having introduced congestion charges.

  • 19.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH.
    The Stockholm congestion charges – 4 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2010In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH.
    The Stockholm congestion charges – 4 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 World Conference on Transport Research, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first four years of operation. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges’ has increased over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative-fuel vehicles are exempt from the charges, and this has substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesizing recent research and Swedish experience, and conclude that objective and subjective effects as well as general environmental and political attitude played a role for the high levels of public support, while institutional reform and resolving power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

  • 21.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Centre for Transport Studies, WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The Stockholm congestion charges – 4 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2010In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Centre for Transport Studies, WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The Stockholm congestion charges – 4 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 World Conference on Transport Research, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first four years of operation. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges’ has increased over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative-fuel vehicles are exempt from the charges, and this has substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesizing recent research and Swedish experience, and conclude that objective and subjective effects as well as general environmental and political attitude played a role for the high levels of public support, while institutional reform and resolving power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

  • 23.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 59, p. 144-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a synthesis of results and insights from the Swedish Value of Time study, with focus on what is relevant for transport appraisal and understanding travel behavior. We summarize recent econometric advances, and show how these enable a better understanding and identification of the value of time distribution. The influence of the sign and size of changes is estimated and discussed, including the problems of loss aversion and the value of small time savings. Further, we show how the value of time depends on trip and traveler characteristics, discuss in what dimensions the value of time should be differentiated in appraisal, and provide recommended values for use in applied transport appraisal.

  • 25.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 59, p. 144-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a synthesis of results and insights from the Swedish Value of Time study, with focus on what is relevant for transport appraisal and understanding travel behavior. We summarize recent econometric advances, and show how these enable a better understanding and identification of the value of time distribution. The influence of the sign and size of changes is estimated and discussed, including the problems of loss aversion and the value of small time savings. Further, we show how the value of time depends on trip and traveler characteristics, discuss in what dimensions the value of time should be differentiated in appraisal, and provide recommended values for use in applied transport appraisal.

  • 27.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Finanspolitiska rådet, 2015.: Svensk finanspolitik. Underlagsrapport2015Book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Hur mycket kan förbättringar för cyklister bidra till att minska vägträngseln och förbättra miljön? PM till TV42010Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hur mycket kan förbättringar för cyklister bidra till att minska vägträngseln och förbättra miljön? PM till TV42010Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Kostnadseffektivitet i valet av infrastrukturinvesteringar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är upplagd på följande sätt. I kapitel 2 beskrivs vad som ingår i en samhällsekonomisk kalkyl och hur den tas fram. Kapitel 3 redovisar våra slutsatser om hur samhällsekonomiska kalkyler påverkar beslut om infrastrukturinvesteringar. I kapitel 4 diskuteras vanliga invändningar mot kalkyler, till exempel att inte alla effekter finns med eller att den är att resultatet påverkas starkt av antagande om förutsättningar, till exempel framtida bränslepriser etc. Kapitel 5 diskuterar mer utförligt vad det svaga sambandet mellan samhällsekonomisk effektivitet och beslut kan bero på, vilka problem det kan leda till och vad man skulle kunna göra åt det för att få en effektivare resursanvändning i transportsektorn.

  • 31.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kostnadseffektivitet i valet av infrastrukturinvesteringar2015Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    New Values of time and their application in appraisal2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference and the Summer School, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    New Values of time and their application in appraisal2012In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 91st Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA: Transportation Research Board , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    New Values of time and their application in appraisal2012In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 91st Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    New Values of time and their application in appraisal2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference and the Summer School, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    On the use of "average delay" as a measure of train reliability2011In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 171-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how passengers on long-distance trains value unexpected delays relative to scheduled travel time and travel cost. For scheduled services with high reliability and long headways, the value of delays is most commonly assumed to be proportional to the average delay. By exploring how the valuation of train delays depends on delay risk and delay length, using three different stated choice data sets, we find that the "average delay" approach does not hold: the disutility increases slower than linearly in the delay risk. This means that using the average delay as a performance indicator, a guide for operations planning or for investment appraisal will underestimate the value of small risks of long delays relative to large risks for short delays. It also means that estimated valuations of "average delay" will depend on the delay risk level: valuations will be higher the lower the risk levels in the study are.

  • 37.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    On the use of "average delay" as a measure of train reliability2009Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    On the use of "average delay" as a measure of train reliability2011In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 171-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how passengers on long-distance trains value unexpected delays relative to scheduled travel time and travel cost. For scheduled services with high reliability and long headways, the value of delays is most commonly assumed to be proportional to the average delay. By exploring how the valuation of train delays depends on delay risk and delay length, using three different stated choice data sets, we find that the "average delay" approach does not hold: the disutility increases slower than linearly in the delay risk. This means that using the average delay as a performance indicator, a guide for operations planning or for investment appraisal will underestimate the value of small risks of long delays relative to large risks for short delays. It also means that estimated valuations of "average delay" will depend on the delay risk level: valuations will be higher the lower the risk levels in the study are.

  • 39.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    The benefits of cycling: Viewing cyclists as travellers rather than non-motorists2012In: Cycling and sustainability / [ed] John Parkin, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, p. 247-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This chapter provides a think piece on economic evaluation and policy for cycling. Bicycle investments are often motivated by a desire to improve health, the environment and congestion conditions. However, we argue that since the bicycle is a part of the transport system, it should be evaluated as such. Focusing on implications for cycling appraisal in general, we also discuss two conflicting trends in Stockholm: a sharp decrease in cycling in the outer areas, and a sharp increase in the inner parts.

    Methodology – We use (i) travel survey data to analyse the potential to reduce congestion through improvements for cyclists, (ii) travel survey data from 1986 to 1987 and 2004 and bicycle counts over 25 years and (iii) a value of time survey of Stockholm cyclists including questions of exercise habits.

    Findings – Additional benefits in appraisal from reduced car traffic and improved health seem to be small. Given bicyclists’ high values of time and low investment costs, bicycling investments are still likely to be socially beneficial. The conflicting bicycling trends can be explained by (i) increased road congestion and improved bicycle infrastructure, (ii) increased visibility of bicyclists generating a ‘positive spiral’, (iii) increased interest in physical fitness and changes in the relative prices of cars versus central residences turn cycling into a high-status mode and (iv) in peripheral areas, increasing distances and less dense land use patterns decrease cycling levels.

    Practical implications – The results underscore the need for dense, mixeduse spatial planning and ‘smart’ marketing using the effects of cyclist visibility to reinforce the ‘status’ of cycling.

  • 40.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The benefits of cycling: Viewing cyclists as travellers rather than non-motorists2012In: Cycling and sustainability / [ed] John Parkin, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, p. 247-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This chapter provides a think piece on economic evaluation and policy for cycling. Bicycle investments are often motivated by a desire to improve health, the environment and congestion conditions. However, we argue that since the bicycle is a part of the transport system, it should be evaluated as such. Focusing on implications for cycling appraisal in general, we also discuss two conflicting trends in Stockholm: a sharp decrease in cycling in the outer areas, and a sharp increase in the inner parts. Methodology – We use (i) travel survey data to analyse the potential to reduce congestion through improvements for cyclists, (ii) travel survey data from 1986 to 1987 and 2004 and bicycle counts over 25 years and (iii) a value of time survey of Stockholm cyclists including questions of exercise habits. Findings – Additional benefits in appraisal from reduced car traffic and improved health seem to be small. Given bicyclists’ high values of time and low investment costs, bicycling investments are still likely to be socially beneficial. The conflicting bicycling trends can be explained by (i) increased road congestion and improved bicycle infrastructure, (ii) increased visibility of bicyclists generating a ‘positive spiral’, (iii) increased interest in physical fitness and changes in the relative prices of cars versus central residences turn cycling into a high-status mode and (iv) in peripheral areas, increasing distances and less dense land use patterns decrease cycling levels. Practical implications – The results underscore the need for dense, mixeduse spatial planning and ‘smart’ marketing using the effects of cyclist visibility to reinforce the ‘status’ of cycling.

  • 41.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 673-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists' value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis. Bicyclists seem to take health largely into account when making their travel choices, implying that it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, our results suggest that bicycle should be viewed as a competitive mode of travel and not primarily as a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

  • 42.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 673-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists' value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis. Bicyclists seem to take health largely into account when making their travel choices, implying that it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, our results suggest that bicycle should be viewed as a competitive mode of travel and not primarily as a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

  • 43.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH,.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle cost-benefit analyses2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 World Conference on Transport Research, Lisbon, Portugal, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time gains, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists’ value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis, contrary to some earlier studies and beliefs. As to health effects, cyclists seem to take these largely into account when making their travel choices, so it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, the bicycle is perfectly able to be viewed as a competitive mode of travel, rather than primarily a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

  • 44.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle cost-benefit analyses2010In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle cost-benefit analyses2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 World Conference on Transport Research, Lisbon, Portugal, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time gains, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists’ value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis, contrary to some earlier studies and beliefs. As to health effects, cyclists seem to take these largely into account when making their travel choices, so it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, the bicycle is perfectly able to be viewed as a competitive mode of travel, rather than primarily a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

  • 46.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle cost-benefit analyses2010In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    The value of time of car drivers choosing route: evidence from the Stockholm congestion charging trial2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The value of time of car drivers choosing route: evidence from the Stockholm congestion charging trial2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301).
    Train passengers' valuation of travel time unreliability2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For scheduled services with relatively high reliability and long headways, most common approach is the “expected delay” approach, where passengers are assumed to value a possible delay proportional to its expected value. Common measures of travellers’ valuations are the “value of [expected] delay time”, or the “reliability multiplier”, i.e. the ratio of the value of delay time to the value of (scheduled) travel time.

    Using three different data sets, we investigate whether the expected delay approach holds empirically. In particular, we study how the valuation of apossible delay with probability p and length L depends on p and L.

    The main result is that this valuation is not proportional to the expected delay pL, but increases slower than linear in the delay probability. This is particularly pronounced for small risks.

    This means that estimated “values of delay time” will depend on the delay risk level p; “delay time values” will be higher the lower the risk level p is. One implication is that estimated values of delay times which does not take the non-linearity in delay risk into account will result in valuations that cannot be transferred between contexts with different delay risks. We also give a theoretical reason why this should be an expected phenomenon, as long asheadways are large.

    Regarding the dependence on delay length L, results are ambiguous: in one study, the valuation is linear in delay length L, whereas in another it increases slower than linearly.

  • 50.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Train passengers' valuation of travel time unreliability2008In: European Transport Conference 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
1234 1 - 50 of 164
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