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  • 1. Ao, Xianyu
    et al.
    Liu, Liu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Polarization beam splitter based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal of pillar type2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Applied physics letters, Vol. 89, no 17, p. 171115-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negatively and positively refractive behaviors are achieved in a two-dimensional photonic crystal of pillar type for TE and TM polarizations, respectively, at the same frequency. The photonic crystal is formed by a triangular lattice of silicon pillars of finite height on a silicon substrate. A polarization beam splitter based on such a photonic-crystal slab is demonstrated. Measurements at near infrared wavelengths indicate that two beams of different polarizations can be split with an extinction ratio of over 10 dB in a wide wavelength range.

  • 2. Canning, John
    et al.
    Åslund, Mattias
    Ankiewicz, Adrian
    Dainese, Matteo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Fernando, Harendra
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Sahu, Jayanta Kumar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Birefringence control in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition planar waveguides by ultraviolet irradiation2000In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 39, no 24, p. 4296-4299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complete birefringence compensation is demonstrated in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition waveguides by 193-nm postexposure. A single relaxation process dominates the decay in stress anisotropy, indicating that compressive stress from the substrate leads to an elastic stress anisotropy at the core.

  • 3.
    Chen, Xi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Shi, Yuechun
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. Nanjing University, China.
    Lou, Fei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Chen, Yiting
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Yan, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. Zhejiang University, China.
    Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 21, p. 25233-25241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optically pumped thermo-optic (TO) silicon ring add-drop filter with fast thermal response is experimentally demonstrated. We propose that metal-insulator-metal (MIM) light absorber can be integrated into silicon TO devices, acting as a localized heat source which can be activated remotely by a pump beam. The MIM absorber design introduces less thermal capacity to the device, compared to conventional electrically-driven approaches. Experimentally, the absorber-integrated add-drop filter shows an optical response time of 13.7 mu s following the 10%-90% rule (equivalent to a exponential time constant of 5 mu s) and a wavelength shift over pump power of 60 pm/mW. The photothermally tunable add-drop filter may provide new perspectives for all-optical routing and switching in integrated Si photonic circuits.

  • 4. Dai, D.
    et al.
    Liu, Liu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, L.ech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Design and Fabrication of an Ultrasmall Overlapped AWG Demultiplexers Based on α-Si Nanowire Waveguides2006In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 400-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel layout for an ultra-compact arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexer is presented. The present layout has two overlapped free propagation regions, and is more compact than a conventional layout. Using αSi-on-SiO2 nanowire waveguides, an ultra-small 4×4 AWG (about 40×50 μm2) with channel spacing of 11 nm is fabricated and characterised.

  • 5.
    Dai, Daoxin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Guan, Xiaowei
    Wang, Jianwei
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Wang, Zhechao
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Nano-scale silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides and devices2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A summary for our recent work on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides and devices is given.

  • 6.
    Dai, Daoxin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Shi, Yaocheng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Thylen, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides2011In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 24, p. 23671-23682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characteristic analyses are given for a bent silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide, which has the ability of submicron bending (e.g., R = 500nm) even when operating at the infrared wavelength range (1.2 mu m similar to 2 mu m). A silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator is then presented by utilizing the sharp-bending ability of the hybrid plasmonic waveguide. In order to enable long-distance optical interconnects, a pure dielectric access waveguide is introduced for the present hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator by utilizing the evanescent coupling between this pure dielectric waveguide and the submicron hybrid plasmonic resonator. Since the hybrid plasmonic waveguide has a relatively low intrinsic loss, the theoretical intrinsic Q-value is up to 2000 even when the bending radius is reduced to 800nm. By using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the spectral response of hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonators with a bending radius of 800nm is simulated. The critical coupling of the resonance at around 1423nm is achieved by choosing a 80nm-wide gap between the access waveguide and the resonator. The corresponding loaded Q-value of the submicron-donut resonator is about 220.

  • 7.
    Dai, Daoxin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Shi, Yaocheng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Gain enhancement in a hybrid plasmonic nano-waveguide with a low-index or high-index gain medium2011In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, no 14, p. 12925-12936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical investigation of a nano-scale hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a low-index as well as high-index gain medium is presented. The present hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure consists of a Si substrate, a buffer layer, a high-index dielectric rib, a low-index cladding, a low-index nano-slot, and an inverted metal rib. Due to the field enhancement in the nano-slot region, a gain enhancement is observed, i.e., the ratio partial derivative G/partial derivative g > 1, where g and G are the gains of the gain medium and the TM fundamental mode of the hybrid plasmonic waveguide, respectively. For a hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a core width of w(co) = 30nm and a slot height of h(slot) = 50nm, the intrinsic loss could be compensated when using a low-index medium with a moderate gain of 176dB/cm. When introducing the high-index gain medium for the hybrid plasmonic waveguide, a higher gain is obtained by choosing a wider core width. For the high-index gain case with h(slot) = 50nm and w(co) = 500nm, a gain of about 200dB/cm also suffices for the compensation of the intrinsic loss.

  • 8.
    Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Jaskorzynska, Bozena
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Shushunova, V.
    Belarussian Stt. Univ. Info./R., Minsk.
    Narrow band coupler based on one-dimensional Bragg reflection waveguide2003In: 2003 Optical Fiber Communication Conference: Altanta, Georgia, 2003, p. 44-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new configuration based on the coupling between a conventional low loss, weakly guiding channel waveguide and a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW) was discussed. The strong difference between the dispersion of a Bragg reflection waveguide and a channel waveguide was used to create a narrow band coupler. The two-dimensional analysis of the BRW was generally based on the transfer matrix method. The structure consisted of a weakly guiding conventional Ge-doped silica waveguide on the top of which a BRW was stacked. The number of periods in the mirror between the BRW and the silica waveguide affected the coupling length and ultimately the bandwidth.

  • 9.
    Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Effects of process parameters on the photosensitivity properties of Ge doped silica films deposited with plasma CVD2005In: Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Thin Films, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Spectroscopic investigation of the photosensitive properties of B-Ge codoped silica films2005In: Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Thin Films, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Directional coupler wavelength selective filter based on dispersive  Bragg Reflection Waveguide2006In: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 260, no 2, p. 514-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new type of wavelength selective filter, based on high differential dispersion between two coupled waveguides, is presented. The Bragg Reflection Waveguide displays high effective refractive index dispersion, due to the interaction of the guided mode with the two confining Bragg reflectors. When coupled with a weakly guided buried channel silica waveguide, a very narrow bandwidth filter (< 1 nm) can be easily produced, in a shorter length, with respect to directional couplers made with standard step index channel waveguides. The complete design methodology, fabrication and characterization are presented.

  • 12.
    Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO (moved to SCI 2011-07-01).
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO (moved to SCI 2011-07-01).
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO (moved to SCI 2011-07-01).
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO (moved to SCI 2011-07-01).
    Wavelength selective coupler based on Bragg Reflection Waveguide2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly wavelength selective optical filters are essential components for channel management in modern Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed communication systems with 50GHz channel spacing and below 0.4nm channel bandwidth. We have designed, fabricated and characterized a new type of wavelength selective directional coupler, based on the high differential dispersion between a Bragg Reflection Waveguide (BRW) and a conventional buried channel silica waveguide.

    The bandwidth of the device is inversely proportional to the length of the coupler as well as to the differential effective refractive index dispersion of the coupled modal fields, at the wavelength of phase matching. The BRW is made of a high index (amorphous) silicon core layer, surrounded vertically by two periodic Bragg reflectors with alternating layers of silica and silicon. The silica waveguide with a Ge-doped core, vertically stacked with the BRW, allows fiber incoupling loss below 1dB which is essentially the insertion loss of the device. The device is operating within the optical bandgap of the Bragg reflectors. Both the bandwidth and the coupling wavelength can be tuned during the fabrication process: the fields’ overlap and the coupling coefficient between the two waveguide modes are controlled by one of the Bragg reflectors (coarse control) and a spacer layer (fine control); the position of the coupling wavelength is mainly determined by the BRW core thickness.

    The devices were fabricated by depositing SiO2 and a-Si:H films on a 4” <100> oriented Si substrate, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, at a temperature of 250ºC. The 5µm wide vertical stack of BRW and silica waveguide were defined by lithography and etched in an inductively coupled plasma reactor. The 8.8µm thick coupler structure was covered with a 16µm thick silica cladding. The device can be easily integrated in a standard silica-based planar lightwave circuit.

    The measured filter suppression is 14dB and the FWHM is 0.29nm for only a 1.73mm long device, which is close to the estimated value of 0.31nm, and one of the lowest ever reported for this type of coupler.

  • 13.
    Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Influence of Ge content on the optical quality of Plasma CVD deposited Silica films2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of a full low temperature process, based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor

    Deposition, for the fabrication of low loss silica-based optical waveguides is investigated.

    Results from XPS, FTIR, ERDA, isochronal wet etch rate, prism coupler measurements show

    that (low frequency) RF power is a critical parameter to improve microstructural properties of

    as-deposited SiO

    2 and minimize Rayleigh scattering. Ge doping of the silica matrix in the

    core layer increases network disorder and point defects density, mainly due to the highly

    reactive characteristics of the employed gas precursor (germane) and the high sticking

    coefficients of its radicals. Measurements on fabricated optical waveguides show that for

    relative refractive index differences between core and cladding up to 0.75%, the optical

    losses are acceptable for the fabrication of high performance devices.

  • 14.
    Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Swillo, Marcin
    Phoxtal Communications AB.
    Photosensitivity of boron-codoped PECVD films in application to grating assisted WDM devices2004In: INTEGRATED OPTICS AND PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS / [ed] Righini, GC; Honkanen, S, BELLINGHAM: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2004, Vol. 5451, p. 191-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    UV sensitivity of B-Ge codoped cores in PECVD silica waveguides has been investigated. Photoinduced refractive index changes have been introduced by KrF excimer laser irradiation at 248 rim, without any presensitization method. The effects of B codoping of Ge doped silica have been examined. It has been shown that B addition mildly increases glass network disorder, by broadening the O bridging angle distribution as from FTIR measurements, but on the other hand it does not produce point defects which may contribute to the absorption band at 5eV already generated by the presence of Ge doping. The fabricated channel waveguides show low optical loss even without high temperature annealing. Strong Bragg gratings imprinted into these waveguides confirm that in non thermally annealed Ge doped PECVD silica glass, where a small absorption band still exist at 5eV, B codoping supplies sufficient photosensitivity amplification to make hydrogen loading unnecessary.

  • 15.
    Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO (moved to SCI 2011-07-01).
    Zhang, Ziyang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO (moved to SCI 2011-07-01).
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO (moved to SCI 2011-07-01).
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO (moved to SCI 2011-07-01).
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO (moved to SCI 2011-07-01).
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO (moved to SCI 2011-07-01).
    Experimental demonstration of a vertically coupled photonic crystal filter2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design, fabrication, and characterization of an optical filter based on vertical coupling between a silicon wire waveguide and a cavity in a suspended silicon photonic crystal membrane is presented for the 1550 nm wavelength spectral region.

  • 16. Fernando, H. N. J.
    et al.
    Canning, J.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Jaskorzynska, Bozena
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Dainese, M.
    Characterization of ultra-violet-induced changes in planar waveguides2003In: Journal of Optics. A, Pure and applied optics, ISSN 1464-4258, E-ISSN 1741-3567, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 335-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple, low-cost spectrophotometer system operating in reflection absorption mode is used to characterize changes in refractive index and thickness of thin films under 193 nm irradiation. The results indicate overall dilation of the glass and are confirmed by additional surface topographic measurements. We also show that in addition to the net relaxation from laser annealing of the interface, in germanosilicate samples local compaction takes place. Since the net relaxation is triggered by remote interactions, it is not spatially confined to the laser-irradiated area. However, a local positive index change is observed. These results are in agreement with previous hypotheses put forward to explain planar waveguide negative index changes. They also bring to attention the great care necessary in both conducting and interpreting measurements that do not take into account spatial variations arising from the combination of remote and local triggers of both index and thickness changes.

  • 17.
    Fernando, Harendra
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Canning, J.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Jaskorzynska, Bozena
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Engineering UV-photosensitivity in planar lightwave circuits by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition2004In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 37, no 20, p. 2804-2809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion bombarding conditions were used to modify glass properties in silica-on-silicon systems during plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The induced structural modifications in the SiO2/Si system resulted in different photosensitive responses when irradiated by ArF pulsed laser operating at 193 nm wavelength. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the structural modifications triggered by ion bombarding conditions during film growth. The results were further confirmed by additional characterizations with regard to density (etch rate), refractive index and surface topographic measurements. The demonstrated method could be used not only to engineer UV-photosensitivity but also to control and compensate birefringence in planar lightwave devices.

  • 18. Guan, Xiaowei
    et al.
    Chen, Pengxin
    Wang, Xiaokun
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Shi, Yaocheng
    Dai, Daoxin
    Ultrasmall Directional Coupler and Disk-resonantor Based on Nano-scale Silicon Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguides2012In: 2012 Asia Communications And Photonics Conference (ACP), 2012, p. AS2H.4-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanophotonic integrated devices based on nano-scale silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides have been demonstrated experimentally, including directional couplers and disk-resonators. The temperature-dependence of the hybrid plasmonic disk-resonators is also characterized.

  • 19. Guan, Xiaowei
    et al.
    Wu, Hao
    Shi, Yaocheng
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Dai, Daoxin
    Ultracompact and broadband polarization beam splitter utilizing the evanescent coupling between a hybrid plasmonic waveguide and a silicon nanowire2013In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 38, no 16, p. 3005-3008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultracompact polarization beam splitter (PBS) is proposed based on an asymmetrical directional coupler consisting of a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPW) and a silicon nanowire. The widths of the two coupling waveguides are chosen so that the phase-matching condition is satisfied for TE polarization only while the phase mismatch is significant for TM polarization. A sharply bent silicon HPW is connected at the thru port to play the role of polarizer by utilizing its polarization-dependent loss. With the present principle, the designed PBS has a footprint as small as only similar to 1.9 mu m x 3.7 mu m, which is the shortest PBS reported until now, even when large waveguide dimensions (e. g., the waveguide widths w(1,2) = similar to 300 nm and the gap width w(gap) = similar to 200 nm) are chosen to simplify the fabrication process. The numerical simulations show that the designed PBS has a very broad band (similar to 120 nm) with an extinction ratio >12 dB and a large fabrication tolerance to allow a waveguide width variation of similar to 30 nm.

  • 20.
    Jaskorzynska, Bozena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Berrier, Audrey
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Dainese, Matteo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Zawistowski, Zygmunt J.
    Applications of wavelength dispersion in 1D and 2D photonic crystals2005In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering / [ed] Waclaw Urbanczyk, Bozena Jaskorzynska, Philip St. J. Russell, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2005, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most distinctive features of photonic crystals (PhCs) is their unique wavelength dispersion allowing novel device concepts for enhancement of photonic functionality and performance. Here, we present examples of our design and demonstrations utilizing dispersion properties of 1D and 2D photonic crystals. This includes the demonstration of negative refraction in 2D PhC at optical wavelengths, filters based on 1D and 2D PhC waveguides, and the design of a widely tunable filter involving 1D PhC.

  • 21.
    Jaskorzynska, Bozena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Song, Yi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Zhu, Ning
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics, Photonics.
    Dielectric and Plasmon Slot Waveguides for Photonic Integration2009In: ICTON 2009: 11th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks: 2009 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS, VOLS 1 AND 2, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 653-656Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slot waveguides formed either in high-index dielectrics or in metals attract great interest because they provide sub-wavelength confinement in the slot region. While this feature is very attractive for devices relying on stimulated emission or nonlinear effects, it does not necessarily improve the integration density. The spacing between dielectric slot waveguides is still limited by diffraction. Although for metal (plasmon) waveguides the total field can be shrunk far beyond the diffraction limit, the associated increase in propagation loss will set practical limits on both the minimum waveguide width and edge-to-edge separation. Here we compare the packing densities for 3D slot waveguides in silicon and plasmon waveguides in gold with a silicon slot. As a reference we also consider silicon photonic wire. We calculate center-to-center waveguide separations (pitch) versus cross-talk level. We show that at ca 24 dB/mu m cross-talk and requiring the attenuation length of at least 5 mu m, plasmon slot waveguides can be packed ca 3.5 times denser than silicon slot waveguides, and ca 2.5 times denser than photonic wires. We also show examples of the fabricated devices.

  • 22.
    Jaskorzynska, Bozena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101).
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101).
    Silicon-based photonic crystals and nanowires2008In: Photonic Crystals: Physics and Technology / [ed] Sibilia, C.; Benson, T.M.; Marciniak, M.; Szoplik, T., Springer, 2008, p. 149-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Chapter highlights issues related to dense photonic integration based on silicon platform and reviews two alternatives to achieve this goal within the diffraction limit; photonic nanowires and photonic crystal waveguides. Examples of the device concepts and demonstrators, as well as the fabrication techniques for passive Si based mesostructures, are presented. Promising prospects and recent breakthroughs in heterogeneous integration of silicon with optically active materials are indicated.

  • 23.
    Jaskorzynska, Bozena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Kista Photonics Research Center, KPRC.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Kista Photonics Research Center, KPRC.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Kista Photonics Research Center, KPRC.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Kista Photonics Research Center, KPRC.
    Active Si-based photonics via heterogeneous integration2008In: ICTON 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF 2008 10TH ANNIVERSARY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS, VOL 2 / [ed] Marciniak, M, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2008, p. 30-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review major breakthroughs in realizing silicon-based active components by heterogeneous integration with III-V semiconductors, or nonlinear organic materials. In more detail we describe examples of our concepts and technological approach addressing this goal. This includes designs for widely tunable filters and new routes for heteroepitaxy and selective area growth of InP on silicon.

  • 24.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    InP overgrowth on SiO2 for active photonic devices on silicon2010In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2010, Vol. 7606Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ntegrationof III-V materials on silicon wafer for active photonic deviceshave previously been achieved by growing thick III-V layers ontop of silicon or by bonding the III-V stack layersonto a silicon wafer. Another way is the epitaxial lateralovergrowth (ELOG) of a thin III-V material from a seedlayer directly on the silicon wafer, which can be usedas a platform for the growth of active devices. Asa prestudy, we have investigated lateral overgrowth of InP byHydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) over SiO2 masks of differentthickness on InP substrates from openings in the mask. Openingswhich varied in direction, width and separation were made withE-beam lithography allowing a good dimension control even for nano-sizedopenings (down to 100 nm wide). This mimics overgrowth ofInP on top of SiO2/Si waveguides. By optimizing the growthconditions in terms of growth temperature and partial pressure ofthe source gases with respect to the opening direction, separationand width, we show that a thin (~200 nm) layerof InP with good morphology and crystalline quality can begrown laterally on top of SiO2. Due to the thingrown InP layer, amplification structures on top of it canbe well integrated with the underlying silicon waveguides. The proposedELOG technology provides a promising integration platform for hybrid InP/siliconactive devices.

  • 25.
    Khan, Salman Naeem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Dai, Daoxin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Liu, Liu Ming
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Optimal design for a flat-top AWG demultiplexer by using a fast calculation method based on a Gaussian beam approximation2006In: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 262, no 2, p. 175-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passband broadening of an AWG (array waveguide grating) demultiplexer with an MMI (multimode interference) coupler connected at the end of a tapered input waveguide is considered. An explicit formula based on the field propagation of an approximate Hermit-Gaussian beam is used to calculate quickly and reliably the spectral response of the AWG demultiplexer. The widths of the input waveguide, the output waveguides and the MMI coupler are optimized. The optimal design is verified with the experimental measurement.

  • 26. Kulbickas, A.
    et al.
    Tamuliene, J.
    Rasteniene, L.
    Franckevicius, M.
    Vaisnoras, R.
    Marcos, M.
    Serrano, J. L.
    Jaskorzynska, Bozena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Optical study and structure modelling of PPI liquid crystalline dendrimer derivatives2007In: Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications, ISSN 1569-4410, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 178-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical study of two families of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers (G = 1-5) are reported. The enlarging of the chain number (generations) of the PPI dendrimer leads to the spectra shift to IR region in solvent until 8 and 19 nm for both families, respectively. The theoretical modelling of the dendrimer structure was performed. The geometric characterization of dendrimer structure demonstrates that the preferable free space for encapsulation is periphery of the PPI dendrimer.

  • 27.
    Liu, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Ao, Xianyu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Compact polarization beam splitter employing positive/negative refraction based on photonic crystals of pillar type2006In: Optoeletronic Materials and Devices, Pts 1 and 2 / [ed] Lee, YH; Koyama, F; Luo, Y, BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2006, p. U74-U81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polarization beam splitter based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab is presented. In the designed photonic crystal, the TE polarization is negatively refracted, while the TM polarization is positively refracted. The photonic crystal is composed of silicon pillars in a triangular lattice. The whole device is very compact (20x20 mu m(2)), and is compatible with the planar integration. The measurement results show that the extinction ratio is similar to 15dB from 1530 to 1610nm.

  • 28.
    Liu, Liu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Dai, Daoxin
    Dainese, Matteo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Compact Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demultiplexers Based on Amorphous Silicon Nanowires2006In: Integrated Photonics Research and Applications/Nanophotonics 2006, NWB5,April 24–28, 2006, Uncasville, Connecticut, USA., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel and flexible technology for ultra compact AWGs based on amorphous silicon nanowires is presented. A 4×4 AWG with a total dimension of 50×50µm was fabricated. 11nm channel spacing and -10dB crosstalk was obtained.

  • 29.
    Lobov, G. S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Marinins, A.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Etcheverry, S.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Vasileva, Elena
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Sugunan, A.
    Laurell, F.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Wosinski, L.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Toprak, M. S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Direct birefringence and transmission modulation via dynamic alignment of P3HT nanofibers in an advanced opto-fluidic component2017In: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 52-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) nanofibers are semiconducting high-aspect ratio nanostructures with anisotropic absorption and birefringence properties found at different regions of the optical spectrum. In addition, P3HT nanofibers possess an ability to be aligned by an external electric field, while being dispersed in a liquid. In this manuscript we show that such collective ordering of nanofibers, similar to liquid crystal material, significantly changes the properties of transmitted light. With a specially fabricated opto-fluidic component, we monitored the phase and transmission modulation of light propagating through the solution of P3HT nanofibers, being placed in the electric field with strength up to 0.1 V/μm. This report describes a technique for light modulation, which can be implemented in optical fiber-based devices or on-chip integrated components.

  • 30.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    Yan, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Sugunan, Abhilash
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Thylen, Lars
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Ostling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Size Impact of Ordered P3HT Nanofibers on Optical Anisotropy2016In: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 217, no 9, p. 1089-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) nanofibers are 1D crystalline structures with semiconductor properties. When P3HT nanofi bers are dispersed in nonconducting solvent, they react to external alternate electric field by aligning along the field lines. This can be used to create layers of ordered nanofi bers and is referred to as alternating current poling method. P3HT nanofi bers with three different size distributions are fabricated, using self-assembly mechanism in marginal solvents, and used for the alignment studies. Anisotropic absorption of oriented 2 mu m long nanofi bers exponentially increases with the magnitude of applied field to a certain asymptotic limit at 0.8 V mu m(-1), while 100-500 nm long nanofi bers respond to electric field negligibly. Effective optical birefringence of oriented 2 mu m long nanofi bers is calculated, based on the phase shift at 633 nm and the average layer thickness, to be 0.41. These results combined with further studies on real-time control over orientation of P3HT nanofi bers in liquid solution or host system are promising in terms of exploiting them in electroabsorptive and electrorefractive applications.

  • 31.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Yan, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Li, Jiantong
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Sugunan, A.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, United States.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Electric field induced optical anisotropy of P3HT nanofibers in a liquid solution2015In: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 2642-2647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nanofiber morphology of regioregular Poly-3- hexylthiophene (P3HT) is a 1D crystalline structure organized by π - π stacking of the backbone chains. In this study, we report the impact of electric field on the orientation and optical properties of P3HT nanofibers dispersed in liquid solution. We demonstrate that alternating electric field aligns nanofibers, whereas static electric field forces them to migrate towards the cathode. The alignment of nanofibers introduces anisotropic optical properties, which can be dynamically manipulated until the solvent has evaporated. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements revealed that the electro-optical response time decreases significantly with the magnitude of applied electric field. Thus, for electric field 1.3 V ·μm-1 the response time was measured as low as 20 ms, while for 0.65 V ·μm-1 it was 110-150 ms. Observed phenomenon is the first mention of P3HT supramolecules associated with electrooptical effect. Proposed method provides real time control over the orientation of nanofibers, which is a starting point for a novel practical implementation. With further development P3HT nanofibers can be used individually as an anisotropic solution or as an active component in a guest-host system.

  • 32.
    Lobov, Gleb S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Yan, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Sugunan, A.
    Thylen, Lars
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Wosinski, L.ech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Fotonik och mikrovågsteknik, FMI.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Popov, Sergei Yu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Electro-optical response of P3HT nanofibers in liquid solution2015In: Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, ACPC 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AC electric poling introduces in P3HT nanofibers anisotropic electro-optical response and birefringence. Along with birefringence, such material exhibits strong amplitude modulation which makes it more efficient alternative to liquid crystals. © 2015 OSA.

  • 33.
    Lobov, Gleb
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Zhao, Yichen
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Marinins, Aleksandrs
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Yan, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Li, Jiantong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Sugunan, A.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, United States.
    Wosinski, L.ech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Photonics and Microwave Engineering , FMI.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
    Toprak, Muhammet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Dynamic Manipulation of Optical Anisotropy of Suspended Poly-3-hexylthiophene Nanofibers2016In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 1651-1656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) nanofibers are 1D crystalline semiconducting nanostructures, which are known for their application in photovoltaics. Due to the internal arrangement, P3HT nanofibers possess optical anisotropy, which can be enhanced on a macroscale if nanofibers are aligned. Alternating electric field, applied to a solution with dispersed nanofibers, causes their alignment and serves as a method to produce solid layers with ordered nanofibers. The transmission ellipsometry measurements demonstrate the dichroic absorption and birefringence of ordered nanofibers in a wide spectral range of 400–1700 nm. Moreover, the length of nanofibers has a crucial impact on their degree of alignment. Using electric birefringence technique, it is shown that external electric field applied to the solution with P3HT nanofibers can cause direct birefringence modulation. Dynamic alignment of dispersed nanofibers changes the refractive index of the solution and, therefore, the polarization of transmitted light. A reversible reorientation of nanofibers is organized by using a quadrupole configuration of poling electrodes. With further development, the described method can be used in the area of active optical fiber components, lab-on-chip or sensors. It also reveals the potential of 1D conducting polymeric structures as objects whose highly anisotropic properties can be implemented in electro-optical applications.​

  • 34.
    Lou, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Dai, Daoxin
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Design and analysis of ultra-compact EO polymer modulators based on hybrid plasmonic microring resonators2013In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 21, no 17, p. 20041-20051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-compact EO polymer modulators based on hybrid plasmonic microring resonators are proposed, simulated and analyzed. Comparing with Si slot microring modulator, hybrid plasmonic microring modulator shows about 6-times enhancement of the figure of merit when the bending radius is around 510 nm, due to its much larger intrinsic quality factor in sub-micron radius range. Influences of the EO polymer height and Si height on the device's performance are analyzed and optimal design is given. When operating with a bias of 3.6V, the proposed device has optical modulation amplitude of 0.8 and insertion loss of about 1 dB. The estimated power consumption is about 5 fJ/bit at 100 GHz.

  • 35.
    Lou, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Dai, Daoxin
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Ultracompact polarization beam splitter based on a dielectric-hybrid plasmonic-dielectric coupler2012In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 37, no 16, p. 3372-3374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultracompact polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on a dielectric-hybrid plasmonic-dielectric coupler is proposed. The device utilizes the polarization-dependent nature of hybrid plasmonic waveguides. By choosing proper waveguide parameters, a 2 x 5.1 mu m(2) PBS (including S-bends) with extinction ratios over 15 dB and insertion losses below 1.5 dB in the full C-band should be achievable. The effect of fabrication errors is also investigated.

  • 36.
    Lou, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, United States.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Experimental demonstration of silicon-based metallic whispering gallery mode disk resonators and their thermo-tuning2014In: Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, Technical Digest Series, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Si-based metallic whispering gallery mode disks with 0.5 μm and 1 μm radii are theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Estimated Purcell factor is around 127±42. Thermo-tuning of the device is also presented.

  • 37.
    Lou, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Hybrid plasmonic microdisk resonators for optical interconnect applications2013In: Integrated Optics: Physics and Simulations, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. 87810X-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present our theoretical and experimental work on hybrid plasmonic microdisks. The 170 nm wide access waveguide is first simulated and characterized, and shows a propagation loss about 0.08 dB/mu m. 3-D FDTD simulations are then used to investigate the lower limit of the bending radius of the hybrid plasmonic microdisk. Microdisks with radius around 500 nm are fabricated, characterized, and analyzed. The 5th and 4th order resonances are experimentally observed around 1412 nm and 1625 nm. The extinction ratios of the two resonances are measured to be 5.5dB and above 10dB, respectively. The measured intrinsic quality factors are 350 and 110, respectively. Comparisons are also made between the theoretical and experimental results. The demonstrated ultra-small hybrid plasmonic microdisk may find applications in low-power-consumption modulators, nano laser cavities with large Purcell-factor, molecule sensors, and others.

  • 38.
    Lou, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Ultra-sharp bends based on hybrid plasmonic waveguides2014In: European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore the potentials of hybrid plasmonics, ultrasharp 90 degree bends and resonators based on silicon waveguide and hybrid plasmonic waveguides are simulated and analyzed. Experimental demonstrations of ring and donut resonators based on hybrid plasmonics are also presented.

  • 39.
    Lou, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Wang, Zhechao
    Ghent Univ IMEC, Ghent, Belgium.
    Dai, Daoxin
    JORCEP, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China ; Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou Zhejiang, Peoples R China .
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Experimental demonstration of ultra-compact directional couplers based on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 24, p. 241105-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid plasmonic waveguides and directional couplers have been experimentally demonstrated. Using a direct measurement method, the propagation loss of a 170 nm wide waveguide is measured to be 0.08 dB/mu m at 1550 nm when the thickness of low-index region is 56 nm. Ultra-compact directional couplers based on such hybrid plasmonic waveguides are demonstrated with gaps of 140 nm, 185 nm, 235 nm, and 290 nm. The corresponding coupling lengths measured are 1.55 mu m, 2.2 mu m, 3.2 mu m, and 4.8 mu m, respectively, which are in very good agreement with the simulations. These ultra-compact devices can be potentially used in future ultra-dense photonic integrated circuits.

  • 40.
    Lou, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101).
    Wang, Zhechao
    Ghent University-IMEC, Belgium.
    Dai, Daoxin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics (Closed 20120101). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Photonic devices based on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides2012In: 2012 Asia Communications And Photonics Conference (ACP), 2012, p. AS2H.2-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 170 nm wide hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a loss of 0,08 dB/mu m is demonstrated experimentally. Directional couplers with different gaps and microdisks with 0.5 mu m radius based on such waveguides are also presented.

  • 41.
    Lou, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Wang, Zhechao
    Ghent University, Belgium .
    Dai, Daoxin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP. Zhejiang University.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Sub-wavelength microdisk resonator based on hybrid plasmonic waveguides2012In: Information Optoelectronics, Nanofabrication and Testing, IONT 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on hybrid plasmonic waveguides, microdisk resonators with radii of 0.5 μm and FSRs of about 200 nm are simulated and experimentally demonstrated. Thermal tuning of the devices in 6 nm range is also presented.

  • 42.
    Lou, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Yan, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Whispering gallery mode nanodisk resonator based on layered metal-dielectric waveguide2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 8490-8502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a layered metal-dielectric waveguide consisting of a stack of alternating metal and dielectric films which enables an ultracompact mode confinement. The properties of whispering gallery modes supported by disk resonators based on such waveguides are investigated for achieving a large Purcell factor. We show that by stacking three layers of 10 nm thick silver with two layers of 50 nm dielectric layers (of refractive index n) in sequence, the disk radius can be as small as 61 nm similar to lambda(0) / (7n) and the mode volume is only 0.0175 (lambda(0) / (2n))(3). When operating at 40 K, the cavity's Q-factor can be similar to 670; Purcell factor can be as large as 2.3x10(4), which is more than five times larger than that achievable in a metal-dielectric-metal disk cavity in the same condition. When more dielectric layers with smaller thicknesses are used, even more compact confinement can be achieved. For example, the radius of a cavity consisting of seven dielectric-layer waveguide can be shrunk down to lambda(0) / (13.5n), corresponding to a mode volume of 0.005 lambda(0) / (2n))(3), and Purcell factor can be enhanced to 7.3x10(4) at 40 K. The influence of parameters like thicknesses of dielectric and metal films, cavity size, and number of dielectric layers is also comprehensively studied. The proposed waveguide and nanodisk cavity provide an alternative for ultracompact light confinement, and can find applications where a strong light-matter interaction is necessary.

  • 43.
    Lou, Fei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Zhang, Xinliang
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Optics and Photonics.
    Transmission characteristics of a novel grating assisted microring2011In: Optoelectronic Materials and Devices VI / [ed] Guang-Hua Duan, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2011, p. 83080A-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new type of grating-assisted microring (GAMR) structure with Bragg gratings placed on microring's arms. Two Fabry-Perot resonances interact with microring resonance, resulting in GAMR's unique amplitude and phase spectra. The structure's characteristics are analytically studied using coupled mode theory and numerically verified by 2D-FDTD. With proper cavity lengths, GAMR exhibits an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectrum. The ultra-narrow resonance can be used for sensing, modulation, and other applications.

  • 44. Saeed, Saba
    et al.
    Buters, Frank
    Dohnalova, Katerina
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Gregorkiewicz, Tom
    Structural and optical characterization of self-assembled Ge nanocrystal layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition2014In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 25, no 40, p. 405705-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a structural and optical study of solid-state dispersions of Ge nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Structural analysis shows the presence of nanocrystalline germanium inclusions embedded in an amorphous matrix of Si-rich SiO2. Optical characterization reveals two prominent emission bands centered around 2.6 eV and 3.4 eV, and tunable by excitation energy. In addition, the lower energy band shows an excitation power-dependent blue shift of up to 0.3 eV. Decay dynamics of the observed emission contains fast (nanosecond) and slow (microseconds) components, indicating contributions of several relaxation channels. Based on these material characteristics, a possible microscopic origin of the individual emission bands is discussed.

  • 45.
    Shi, Yuechun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. Nanjing Univ, Microwave Photon Technol Lab, Nanjing Natl Lab Microstruct, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Xi
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Lou, Fei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Chen, Yiting
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Yan, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. Zhejiang University, China.
    All-optical switching of silicon disk resonator based on photothermal effect in metal-insulator-metal absorber2014In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 39, no 15, p. 4431-4434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient narrowband light absorption by a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure can lead to high-speed light-to-heat conversion at a micro-or nanoscale. Such a MIM structure can serve as a heater for achieving all-optical light control based on the thermo-optical (TO) effect. Here we experimentally fabricated and characterized a novel all-optical switch based on a silicon microdisk integrated with a MIM light absorber. Direct integration of the absorber on top of the microdisk reduces the thermal capacity of the whole device, leading to high-speed TO switching of the microdisk resonance. The measurement result exhibits a rise time of 2.0 mu s and a fall time of 2.6 mu s with switching power as low as 0.5 mW; the product of switching power and response time is only about 1.3 mW.mu s. Since no auxiliary elements are required for the heater, the switch is structurally compact, and its fabrication is rather easy. The device potentially can be deployed for new kinds of all-optical applications.

  • 46.
    Sun, Xu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Chen, Xi
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Yan, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Qiu, Min
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Thylen, Lars
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    All-Optical Switching Using a Hybrid Plasmonic Donut Resonator With Photothermal Absorber2016In: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, ISSN 1041-1135, E-ISSN 1941-0174, Vol. 28, no 15, p. 1609-1612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel hybrid plasmonic (HP) donut resonator integrated with a photothermal plasmonic absorber has been developed, which can be used as a compact all-optical switch or modulator. The radius of the fabricated HP donut resonator is 1.8 mu m, with a resonant wavelength around 1550 nm and a quality factor (Q factor) around 600. The photothermal plasmonic absorber is directly integrated above the HP device, which can absorb as much as 75% of impinging optical power at 1064 nm wavelength. Since the absorber is in tight contact to the Si ridge of the HP waveguide, the absorbed optical power can efficiently heat up the Si ridge, and hence change the resonant wavelength of the HP donut resonator by Si thermal expansion effect. Experimental results show that the power used for 15 dB amplitude switch is only 10 mW, with rise and fall response times around 18 and 14 mu s, respectively.

  • 47.
    Sun, Xu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Dai, Daoxin
    Thylen, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    High-sensitivity liquid refractive-index sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a double-slot hybrid plasmonic waveguide2015In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 20, p. 25688-25699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) liquid sensor, employing ultra-compact double-slot hybrid plasmonic (DSHP) waveguide as active sensing arm, is developed. Numerical results show that extremely large optical confinement factor of the tested analytes (as high as 88%) can be obtained by DSHP waveguide with optimized geometrical parameters, which is larger than both, conventional SOI waveguides and plasmonic slot waveguides with same widths. As for MZI sensor with 40 mu m long DSHP active sensing area, the sensitivity can reach as high value as 1061nm/RIU (refractive index unit). The total loss, excluding the coupling loss of the grating coupler, is around 4.5dB.

  • 48.
    Sun, Xu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Fotonik och mikrovågsteknik, FMI. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Dai, Daoxin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP. Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP .
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Fotonik och mikrovågsteknik, FMI. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP. Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Fotonik och mikrovågsteknik, FMI. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP. JORCEP, Joint Research Center of Photonics of the Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden) and Zhejiang University (China), Hangzhou, 310058, China.
    Double-Slot Hybrid Plasmonic Ring Resonator Used for Optical Sensors and Modulators2015In: Photonics, E-ISSN 2304-6732, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1116-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultra-high sensitivity double-slot hybrid plasmonic (DSHP) ring resonator, used for optical sensors and modulators, is developed. Due to high index contrast, as well as plasmonic enhancement, a considerable part of the optical energy is concentrated in the narrow slots between Si and plasmonic materials (silver is used in this paper), which leads to high sensitivity to the infiltrating materials. By partial opening of the outer plasmonic circular sheet of the DSHP ring, a conventional side-coupled silicon on insulator (SOI) bus waveguide can be used. Experimental results demonstrate ultra-high sensitivity (687.5 nm/RIU) of the developed DSHP ring resonator, which is about five-times higher than for the conventional Si ring with the same geometry. Further discussions show that a very low detection limit (5.37 × 10−6 RIU) can be achieved after loaded Q factor modifications. In addition, the plasmonic metal structures offer also the way to process optical and electronic signals along the same hybrid plasmonic circuits with small capacitance (~0.275 fF) and large electric field, which leads to possible applications in compact high-efficiency electro-optic modulators, where no extra electrodes for electronic signals are required

  • 49.
    Sun, Xu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Lou, Fei
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Wosinski, Lech
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Study of plasmonic analogue of EIT effect based on hybrid plasmonic waveguide system2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect has been theoretically demonstrated using hybrid plasmonic waveguide system, composed of two stripe-shaped resonators in form of resonant stubs with different lengths located on each side of the HP waveguide.

  • 50.
    Sun, Xu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Thylén, Lars
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Wosinski, L.ech
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Zhejiang-KTH Joint Research Center of Photonics, JORCEP.
    Hollow hybrid plasmonic Mach-Zehnder sensor2017In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 42, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI)-based liquid refractiveindex sensor, utilizing a hollow hybrid plasmonic (HP)waveguide as the sensing element, has been investigated,showing large sensitivity to the refractive index changesof the tested liquids, as well as lower propagation loss incomparison to typical plasmonic waveguide-based ones.The sensor is fabricated using conventional silicon-oninsulator(SOI) technology; therefore, it is compatible toother standard SOI devices. The waveguide sensitivity, Sw,is experimentally demonstrated to be 0.64, with a propagationloss less than 0.25 dB/μm. Using a 20 μm long hollowHP waveguide in the sensing arm, the sensitivity of the MZIsensor (device sensitivity, Sd ) is about 160 nm/RIU, with anextinction ratio larger than 40 dB.

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