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  • 1.
    Almeida, Diogo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL. KTH.
    Ambrus, Rares
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Caccamo, Sergio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Chen, Xi
    KTH.
    Cruciani, Silvia
    Pinto Basto De Carvalho, Joao F
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Haustein, Joshua
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Marzinotto, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Vina, Francisco
    KTH.
    Karayiannidis, Yannis
    KTH.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Jensfelt, Patric
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Team KTH’s Picking Solution for the Amazon Picking Challenge 20162017In: Warehouse Picking Automation Workshop 2017: Solutions, Experience, Learnings and Outlook of the Amazon Robotics Challenge, 2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we summarize the solution developed by Team KTH for the Amazon Picking Challenge 2016 in Leipzig, Germany. The competition simulated a warehouse automation scenario and it was divided in two tasks: a picking task where a robot picks items from a shelf and places them in a tote and a stowing task which is the inverse task where the robot picks items from a tote and places them in a shelf. We describe our approach to the problem starting from a high level overview of our system and later delving into details of our perception pipeline and our strategy for manipulation and grasping. The solution was implemented using a Baxter robot equipped with additional sensors.

  • 2.
    Anisi, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Lindskog, Therese
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Algorithms for the connectivity constrained unmanned ground vehicle surveillance problem2009In: European Control Conference (ECC), Budapest, Hungary: EUCA , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Connectivity Constrained UGV Surveillance Problem (CUSP) considered in this paper is the following. Given a set of surveillance UGVs and a user defined area to be covered, find waypoint-paths such that; 1) the area is completely surveyed, 2) the time for performing the search is minimized and 3) the induced information graph is kept recurrently connected. It has previously been shown that the CUSP is NP-hard. This paper presents four different heuristic algorithms for solving the CUSP, namely, the Token Station Algorithm, the Stacking Algorithm, the Visibility Graph Algorithm and the Connectivity Primitive Algorithm. These algorithms are then compared by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The conclusions drawn are that the Token Station Algorithm provides the most optimal solutions, the Stacking Algorithm has the lowest computational complexity, while the Connectivity Primitive Algorithm provides the best trade-off between optimality and computational complexity for larger problem instances.

  • 3.
    Anisi, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Ögren, Petter
    Minimum time multi-UGV surveillance2008In: OPTIMIZATION AND COOPERATIVE CONTROL STRATEGIES / [ed] Hirsch MJ; Commander CW; Pardalos PM; Murphey R, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2008, p. 31-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of concurrent task- and path planning for a number of  surveillance Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) such that a user defined area of interest is covered by the UGVs' sensors in minimum time. We first formulate the problem, and show that it is in fact  a generalization of the Multiple Traveling Salesmen Problem (MTSP), which is known to be NP-hard. We then propose a solution that decomposes the problem into three subproblems. The first is to find a maximal convex covering of the search area. Most results on static coverage  use disjoint partitions of the search area, e.g. triangulation, to convert the continuous sensor positioning problem into a  discrete one. However, by a simple example, we show that a highly overlapping set of maximal convex sets is better suited for  minimum time coverage. The second subproblem is a combinatorial assignment and ordering of the sets in the cover.  Since Tabu search algorithms are known to perform well on various routing problems,  we use it as a part of our proposed solution. Finally, the third subproblem utilizes a particular shortest path sub-routine in order to find the vehicle paths, and calculate the overall objective function used in the Tabu search. The proposed algorithm is illustrated by a number of simulation examples.

  • 4.
    Anisi, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Ögren, Petter
    Hu, Xiaoming
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Communication constrained multi-UGV surveillance2008In: IFAC World Congress, Seoul, Korea, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of connectivity constrained surveillance of a given polyhedral area with obstacles using a group of Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). The considered communication restrictions may involve both line-of-sight constraints and limited sensor range constraints. In this paper, the focus is on dynamic information graphs, G, which are required to be kept recurrently connected. The main motivation for introducing this weaker notion of connectivity is security and surveillance applications where the sentry vehicles may have to split temporary in order to complete the given mission efficiently but are required to establish contact recurrently in order to exchange information or to make sure that all units are intact and well-functioning. From a theoretical standpoint, recurrent connectivity is shown to be sufficient for exponential convergence of consensus filters for the collected sensor data.

  • 5. Anisi, David A.
    et al.
    Ögren, Petter
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Hu, Xiaoming
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Cooperative Minimum Time Surveillance With Multiple Ground Vehicles2010In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 55, no 12, p. 2679-2691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we formulate and solve two different minimum time problems related to unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) surveillance. The first problem is the following. Given a set of surveillance UGVs and a polyhedral area, find waypoint-paths for all UGVs such that every point of the area is visible from a point on a path and such that the time for executing the search in parallel is minimized. Here, the sensors' field of view are assumed to have a limited coverage range and be occluded by the obstacles. The second problem extends the first by additionally requiring the induced information graph to be connected at the time instants when the UGVs perform the surveillance mission, i.e., when they gather and transmit sensor data. In the context of the second problem, we also introduce and utilize the notion of recurrent connectivity, which is a significantly more flexible connectivity constraint than, e.g., the 1-hop connectivity constraints and use it to discuss consensus filter convergence for the group of UGVs.

  • 6. Anisi, David A.
    et al.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Hu, Xiaoming
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Lindskog, Therese
    Cooperative Surveillance Missions with Multiple Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs)2008In: 47TH IEEE CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL, 2008 (CDC 2008), 2008, p. 2444-2449Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an optimization based approach to multi-UGV surveillance. In particular, we formulate both the minimum time- and connectivity constrained surveillance problems, show NP-hardness of them and propose decomposition techniques that allow us to solve them efficiently in an algorithmic manner. The minimum time formulation is the following. Given a set of surveillance UGVs and a polyhedral area, find waypoint-paths for all UGVs such that every point of the area is visible from a point on a path and such that the time for executing the search in parallel is minimized. Here, the sensor's field of view are assumed to be occluded by the obstacles and limited by a maximal sensor range. The connectivity constrained formulation extends the first by additionally requiring that the information graph induced by the sensors is connected at the time instants when the UGVs stop to perform the surveillance task. The second formulation is relevant to situation when mutual visibility is needed either to transmit the sensor data being gathered, or to protect the team from hostile persons trying to approach the stationary UGVs.

  • 7.
    Anisi, David A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Ögren, Petter
    Department of Autonomous Systems Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Robinson, John W. C.
    Department of Autonomous Systems Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Safe receding horizon control of an aerial vehicle2006In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 45TH IEEE CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL, VOLS 1-14, IEEE , 2006, p. 57-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of designing a real time high performance controller and trajectory generator for air vehicles. The control objective is to use information about terrain and enemy threats to fly low and avoid radar exposure on the way to a given target. The proposed algorithm builds on the well known approach of Receding Horizon Control (RHC) combined with a terminal cost, calculated from a graph representation of the environment. Using a novel safety maneuver, and under an assumption on the maximal terrain inclination, we are able to prove safety as well as task completion. The safety maneuver is incorporated in the short term optimization, which is performed using Nonlinear Programming (NLP). Some key characteristics of the trajectory planner are highlighted through simulations.

  • 8.
    Anisi, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Robinson, John W.C.
    Dept. of Autonomous Systems, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ögren, Petter
    Dept. of Autonomous Systems, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Online Trajectory Planning for Aerial Vehicle: A Safe Approach with Guaranteed Task CompletionManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On-line trajectory optimization in three dimensional space is the main topic of the paper at hand. The high-level framework augments on-line receding horizon control with an off-line computed terminal cost that captures the global characteristics of the environment, as well as any possible mission objectives. The first part of the paper is devoted to the single vehicle case while the second part considers the problem of simultaneous arrival of multiple aerial vehicles. The main contribution of the first part is two-fold. Firstly, by augmenting a so called safety maneuver at the end of the planned trajectory, this paper extends previous results by addressing provable safety properties in a 3D setting. Secondly, assuming initial feasibility, the planning method presented is shown to have finite time task completion. Moreover, a quantitative comparison between the two competing objectives of optimality and computational tractability is made. Finally, some other key characteristics of the trajectory planner, such as ability to minimize threat exposure and robustness, are highlighted through simulations. As for the simultaneous arrival problem considered in the second part, by using a time-scale separation principle, we are able to adopt standard Laplacian control to a consensus problem which is neither unconstrained, nor first order. 

  • 9.
    Anisi, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Robinson, John W.C.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Department of Aeronautics .
    Ögren, Petter
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    On-line Trajectory planning for aerial vehicles: a safe approach with guaranteed task completion2006In: Collection of Technical Papers: AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference 2006, 2006, p. 914-938Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-line trajectory optimization in three dimensional space is the main topic of the paper at hand. The high-level framework augments on-line receding horizon control with an off-line computed terminal cost that captures the global characteristics of the environment, as well as any possible mission objectives. The first part of the paper is devoted to the single vehicle case while the second part considers the problem of simultaneous arrival of multiple aerial vehicles. The main contribution of the first part is two-fold. Firstly, by augmenting a so called safety maneuver at the end of the planned trajectory, this paper extends previous results by addressing provable safety properties in a 3 D setting. Secondly, assuming initial feasibility, the planning method presented is shown to have finite time task completion. Moreover, a quantitative comparison between the two competing objectives of optimality and computational tractability is made. Finally, some other key characteristics of the trajectory planner, such as ability to minimize threat exposure and robustness, are highlighted through simulations. As for the simultaneous arrival problem considered in the second part, by using a time-scale separation principle, we are able to adopt standard Laplacian control to a consensus problem which is neither unconstrained, nor first order.

  • 10.
    Båberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Caccamo, Sergio
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Smets, Nanja
    Neerincx, Mark
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Free Look UGV Teleoperation Control Tested in Game Environment: Enhanced Performance and Reduced Workload2016In: International Symposium on Safety,Security and Rescue Robotics, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent telecontrol of the chassis and camera ofan Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) is a demanding task forUrban Search and Rescue (USAR) teams. The standard way ofcontrolling UGVs is called Tank Control (TC), but there is reasonto believe that Free Look Control (FLC), a control mode used ingames, could reduce this load substantially by decoupling, andproviding separate controls for, camera translation and rotation.The general hypothesis is that FLC (1) reduces robot operators’workload and (2) enhances their performance for dynamic andtime-critical USAR scenarios. A game-based environment wasset-up to systematically compare FLC with TC in two typicalsearch and rescue tasks: navigation and exploration. The resultsshow that FLC improves mission performance in both exploration(search) and path following (navigation) scenarios. In the former,more objects were found, and in the latter shorter navigationtimes were achieved. FLC also caused lower workload and stresslevels in both scenarios, without inducing a significant differencein the number of collisions. Finally, FLC was preferred by 75% of the subjects for exploration, and 56% for path following.

  • 11.
    Båberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Wang, Yuquan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Caccamo, Sergio
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Adaptive object centered teleoperation control of a mobile manipulator2016In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 455-461Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teleoperation of a mobile robot manipulating and exploring an object shares many similarities with the manipulation of virtual objects in a 3D design software such as AutoCAD. The user interfaces are however quite different, mainly for historical reasons. In this paper we aim to change that, and draw inspiration from the 3D design community to propose a teleoperation interface control mode that is identical to the ones being used to locally navigate the virtual viewpoint of most Computer Aided Design (CAD) softwares.

    The proposed mobile manipulator control framework thus allows the user to focus on the 3D objects being manipulated, using control modes such as orbit object and pan object, supported by data from the wrist mounted RGB-D sensor. The gripper of the robot performs the desired motions relative to the object, while the manipulator arm and base moves in a way that realizes the desired gripper motions. The system redundancies are exploited in order to take additional constraints, such as obstacle avoidance, into account, using a constraint based programming framework.

  • 12.
    Caccamo, Sergio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Parasuraman, R.
    Freda, L.
    Gianni, M.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    RCAMP: A resilient communication-aware motion planner for mobile robots with autonomous repair of wireless connectivity2017In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, Vol. 2017, p. 2010-2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile robots, be it autonomous or teleoperated, require stable communication with the base station to exchange valuable information. Given the stochastic elements in radio signal propagation, such as shadowing and fading, and the possibilities of unpredictable events or hardware failures, communication loss often presents a significant mission risk, both in terms of probability and impact, especially in Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) operations. Depending on the circumstances, disconnected robots are either abandoned, or attempt to autonomously back-trace their way to the base station. Although recent results in Communication-Aware Motion Planning can be used to effectively manage connectivity with robots, there are no results focusing on autonomously re-establishing the wireless connectivity of a mobile robot without back-tracing or using detailed a priori information of the network. In this paper, we present a robust and online radio signal mapping method using Gaussian Random Fields, and propose a Resilient Communication-Aware Motion Planner (RCAMP) that integrates the above signal mapping framework with a motion planner. RCAMP considers both the environment and the physical constraints of the robot, based on the available sensory information. We also propose a self-repair strategy using RCMAP, that takes both connectivity and the goal position into account when driving to a connection-safe position in the event of a communication loss. We demonstrate the proposed planner in a set of realistic simulations of an exploration task in single or multi-channel communication scenarios.

  • 13.
    Caccamo, Sergio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Parasuraman, Ramviyas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Båberg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Extending a UGV Teleoperation FLC Interface with Wireless Network Connectivity Information2015In: 2015 IEEE/RSJ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS (IROS), IEE , 2015, p. 4305-4312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teleoperated Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) are expected to play an important role in future search and rescue operations. In such tasks, two factors are crucial for a successful mission completion: operator situational awareness and robust network connectivity between operator and UGV. In this paper, we address both these factors by extending a new Free Look Control (FLC) operator interface with a graphical representation of the Radio Signal Strength (RSS) gradient at the UGV location. We also provide a new way of estimating this gradient using multiple receivers with directional antennas. The proposed approach allows the operator to stay focused on the video stream providing the crucial situational awareness, while controlling the UGV to complete the mission without moving into areas with dangerously low wireless connectivity. The approach is implemented on a KUKA youBot using commercial-off-the-shelf components. We provide experimental results showing how the proposed RSS gradient estimation method performs better than a difference approximation using omnidirectional antennas and verify that it is indeed useful for predicting the RSS development along a UGV trajectory. We also evaluate the proposed combined approach in terms of accuracy, precision, sensitivity and specificity.

  • 14.
    Caccamo, Sergio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Parasuraman, Ramviyas
    Purdue Univ, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    Freda, Luigi
    Sapienza Univ Rome, DIAG, ALCOR Lab, Rome, Italy..
    Gianni, Mario
    Sapienza Univ Rome, DIAG, ALCOR Lab, Rome, Italy..
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    RCAMP: A Resilient Communication-Aware Motion Planner for Mobile Robots with Autonomous Repair of Wireless Connectivity2017In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT ROBOTS AND SYSTEMS (IROS) / [ed] Bicchi, A Okamura, A, IEEE , 2017, p. 2010-2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile robots, be it autonomous or teleoperated, require stable communication with the base station to exchange valuable information. Given the stochastic elements in radio signal propagation, such as shadowing and fading, and the possibilities of unpredictable events or hardware failures, communication loss often presents a significant mission risk, both in terms of probability and impact, especially in Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) operations. Depending on the circumstances, disconnected robots are either abandoned, or attempt to autonomously back-trace their way to the base station. Although recent results in Communication-Aware Motion Planning can be used to effectively manage connectivity with robots, there are no results focusing on autonomously re-establishing the wireless connectivity of a mobile robot without back-tracing or using detailed a priori information of the network. In this paper, we present a robust and online radio signal mapping method using Gaussian Random Fields, and propose a Resilient Communication-Aware Motion Planner (RCAMP) that integrates the above signal mapping framework with a motion planner. RCAMP considers both the environment and the physical constraints of the robot, based on the available sensory information. We also propose a self-repair strategy using RCMAP, that takes both connectivity and the goal position into account when driving to a connection-safe position in the event of a communication loss. We demonstrate the proposed planner in a set of realistic simulations of an exploration task in single or multi-channel communication scenarios.

  • 15.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Almeid, Diogo
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Towards Blended Planning and Acting using Behavior Trees. A Reactive, Safe and Fault Tolerant Approach.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Robot navigation under uncertainties using event based sampling2014In: Decision and Control (CDC), 2014 IEEE 53rd Annual Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 1438-1445Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many robot applications, sensor feedback is needed to reduce uncertainties in environment models. However, sensor data acquisition also induces costs in terms of the time elapsed to make the observations and the computations needed to find new estimates. In this paper, we show how to use event based sampling to reduce the number of measurements done, thereby saving time, computational resources and power, without jeopardizing critical system properties such as safety and goal convergence. This is done by combining recent advances in nonlinear estimation with event based control using artificial potential fields. The results are particularly useful for real time systems such as high speed vehicles or teleoperated robots, where the cost of taking measurements is even higher, in terms of stops or transmission times. We conclude the paper with a set of simulations to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach and compare it with a baseline approach using periodic measurements.

  • 17.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Obstacle avoidance in formation using navigation-like functions and constraint based programming2013In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2013 IEEE/RSJ, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 5234-5239Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we combine navigation functionlike potential fields and constraint based programming to achieve obstacle avoidance in formation. Constraint based programming was developed in robotic manipulation as a technique to take several constraints into account when controlling redundant manipulators. The approach has also been generalized, and applied to other control systems such as dual arm manipulators and unmanned aerial vehicles. Navigation functions are an elegant way to design controllers with provable properties for navigation problems. By combining these tools, we take advantage of the redundancy inherent in a multi-agent control problem and are able to concurrently address features such as formation maintenance and goal convergence, even in the presence of moving obstacles. We show how the user can decide a priority ordering of the objectives, as well as a clear way of seeing what objectives are currently addressed and what are postponed. We also analyze the theoretical properties of the proposed controller. Finally, we use a set of simulations to illustrate the approach.

  • 18.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Marzinotto, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    The advantages of using behavior trees in multi-robot systems2016In: 47th International Symposium on Robotics, ISR 2016, VDE Verlag GmbH, 2016, p. 23-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-robot teams offer possibilities of improved performance and fault tolerance, compared to single robot solutions. In this paper, we show how to realize those possibilities when starting from a single robot system controlled by a Behavior Tree (BT). By extending the single robot BT to a multi-robot BT, we are able to combine the fault tolerant properties of the BT, in terms of built-in fallbacks, with the fault tolerance inherent in multi-robot approaches, in terms of a faulty robot being replaced by another one. Furthermore, we improve performance by identifying and taking advantage of the opportunities of parallel task execution, that are present in the single robot BT. Analyzing the proposed approach, we present results regarding how mission performance is affected by minor faults (a robot losing one capability) as well as major faults (a robot losing all its capabilities).

  • 19.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Marzinotto, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Peter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Performance Analysis of Stochastic Behavior Trees2014In: ICRA 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a mathematical framework for performance analysis of Behavior Trees (BTs). BTs are a recent alternative to Finite State Machines (FSMs), for doing modular task switching in robot control architectures. By encoding the switching logic in a tree structure, instead of distributing it in the states of a FSM, modularity and reusability are improved.

    In this paper, we compute performance measures, such as success/failure probabilities and execution times, for plans encoded and executed by BTs. To do this, we first introduce Stochastic Behavior Trees (SBT), where we assume that the probabilistic performance measures of the basic action controllers are given. We then show how Discrete Time Markov Chains (DTMC) can be used to aggregate these measures from one level of the tree to the next. The recursive structure of the tree then enables us to step by step propagate such estimates from the leaves (basic action controllers) to the root (complete task execution). Finally, we verify our analytical results using massive Monte Carlo simulations, and provide an illustrative example of the results for a complex robotic task.

  • 20.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Marzinotto, Alejandro
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Stochastic Behavior Trees for Estimating and Optimizing the Performance of Reactive Plan ExecutionsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Murray, R. M.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Synthesis of correct-by-construction behavior trees2017In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 6039-6046, article id 8206502Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the problem of synthesizing correct-by-construction Behavior Trees (BTs) controlling agents in adversarial environments. The proposed approach combines the modularity and reactivity of BTs with the formal guarantees of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) methods. Given a set of admissible environment specifications, an agent model in form of a Finite Transition System and the desired task in form of an LTL formula, we synthesize a BT in polynomial time, that is guaranteed to correctly execute the desired task. To illustrate the approach, we present three examples of increasing complexity.

  • 22.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Parasuraman, Ramviyas
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Learning of Behavior Trees for Autonomous Agents.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    How Behavior Trees Generalize the Teleo-Reactive Paradigm and And-Or-Trees2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavior Trees (BTs) is a way of organizing the switching structure of a control system, that was originally developed in the computer gaming industry but is now also being used in robotics. The Teleo-Reactive programs (TRs) is a highly cited reactive hierarchical robot control approach suggested by Nilsson and And-Or-Trees are trees used for heuristic problems solving. In this paper, we show that BTs generalize TRs as well as And-Or-Trees, even though the two concepts are quite different. And-Or-Trees are trees of conditions, and we show that they transform into a feedback execution plan when written as a BT. TRs are hierarchical control structures, and we show how every TR can be written as a BT. Furthermore, we show that so-called Universal TRs, guaranteeing that the goal will be reached, are a special case of so-called Finite Time Successful BTs. This implies that many designs and theoretical results developed for TRs can be applied to BTs.

  • 24.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    How Behavior Trees Modularize Hybrid Control Systems and Generalize Sequential Behavior Compositions, the Subsumption Architecture, and Decision Trees2017In: IEEE Transactions on robotics, ISSN 1552-3098, E-ISSN 1941-0468, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 372-389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    How Behavior Trees Modularize Robustness and Safety in Hybrid Systems2014In: 2014 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, (IROS 2014), IEEE , 2014, p. 1482-1488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavior Trees (BTs) have become a popular framework for designing controllers of in-game opponents in the computer gaming industry. In this paper, we formalize and analyze the reasons behind the success of the BTs using standard tools of robot control theory, focusing on how properties such as robustness and safety are addressed in a modular way. In particular, we show how these key properties can be traced back to the ideas of subsumption and sequential compositions of robot behaviors. Thus BTs can be seen as a recent addition to a long research effort towards increasing modularity, robustness and safety of robot control software. To illustrate the use of BTs, we provide a set of solutions to example problems.

  • 26. Colledancise, Michele
    et al.
    Parasuraman, Ramviyas Nattanmai
    Petter, Ögren
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Learning of Behavior Trees for Autonomous Agents2018In: IEEE Transactions on Games, ISSN 2475-1502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the problem of automatically synthesizing a successful Behavior Tree (BT) in an a-priori unknown dynamic environment. Starting with a given set of behaviors, a reward function, and sensing in terms of a set of binary conditions, the proposed algorithm incrementally learns a switching structure in terms of a BT, that is able to handle the situations encountered. Exploiting the fact that BTs generalize And-Or-Trees and also provide very natural chromosome mappings for genetic pro- gramming, we combine the long term performance of Genetic Programming with a greedy element and use the And-Or analogy to limit the size of the resulting structure. Finally, earlier results on BTs enable us to provide certain safety guarantees for the resulting system. Using the testing environment Mario AI we compare our approach to alternative methods for learning BTs and Finite State Machines. The evaluation shows that the proposed approach generated solutions with better performance, and often fewer nodes than the other two methods.

  • 27. Egerstedt, M
    et al.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Shakernia, O
    Lygeros, J
    Toward Optimal Control of Switched Linear Systems2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the problem of driving the state of a switched linear control system between boundary states. We propose tight lower bounds for the minimum energy control problem. Furthermore, we show that the change of the system dynamics across the switching surface gives rise to phenomena that can be treated as a decidability problem of hybrid systems. Applying earlier results on controller synthesis for hybrid systems with linear continuous dynamics, we provide an algorithm for computing the minimum number of switchings of a trajectory from one state to another, and show that this algorithm is computable for a fairly wide class of linear switched systems

  • 28.
    Karayiannidis, Yiannis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. Chalmers, Sweden.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Barrientos, Francisco Eli Vina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    An Adaptive Control Approach for Opening Doors and Drawers Under Uncertainties2016In: IEEE Transactions on robotics, ISSN 1552-3098, E-ISSN 1941-0468, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 161-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the problem of robot interaction with mechanisms that afford one degree of freedom motion, e.g., doors and drawers. We propose a methodology for simultaneous compliant interaction and estimation of constraints imposed by the joint. Our method requires no prior knowledge of the mechanisms' kinematics, including the type of joint, prismatic or revolute. The method consists of a velocity controller that relies on force/torque measurements and estimation of the motion direction, the distance, and the orientation of the rotational axis. It is suitable for velocity controlled manipulators with force/torque sensor capabilities at the end-effector. Forces and torques are regulated within given constraints, while the velocity controller ensures that the end-effector of the robot moves with a task-related desired velocity. We give proof that the estimates converge to the true values under valid assumptions on the grasp, and error bounds for setups with inaccuracies in control, measurements, or modeling. The method is evaluated in different scenarios involving opening a representative set of door and drawer mechanisms found in household environments.

  • 29.
    Karayiannidis, Yiannis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Vina, Francisco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Design of force-driven online motion plans for door opening under uncertainties2012In: Workshop on Real-time Motion Planning: Online, Reactive, and in Real-time, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of door opening is fundamental for household robotic applications. Domestic environments are generally less structured than industrial environments and thus several types of uncertainties associated with the dynamics and kinematics of a door must be dealt with to achieve successful opening. This paper proposes a method that can open doors without prior knowledge of the door kinematics. The proposed method can be implemented on a velocity-controlled manipulator with force sensing capabilities at the end-effector. The velocity reference is designed by using feedback of force measurements while constraint and motion directions are updated online based on adaptive estimates of the position of the door hinge. The online estimator is appropriately designed in order to identify the unknown directions. The proposed scheme has theoretically guaranteed performance which is further demonstrated in experiments on a real robot. Experimental results additionally show the robustness of the proposed method under disturbances introduced by the motion of the mobile platform.

  • 30.
    Karayiannidis, Yiannis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Vina, Francisco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Interactive perception and manipulation of unknown constrained mechanisms using adaptive control2013In: ICRA 2013 Mobile Manipulation Workshop on Interactive Perception, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Karayiannidis, Yiannis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Vina, Francisco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Model-free robot manipulation of doors and drawers by means of fixed-grasps2013In: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), New York: IEEE , 2013, p. 4485-4492Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of robot interaction with objects attached to the environment through joints such as doors or drawers. We propose a methodology that requires no prior knowledge of the objects’ kinematics, including the type of joint - either prismatic or revolute. The method consists of a velocity controller which relies onforce/torque measurements and estimation of the motion direction,rotational axis and the distance from the center of rotation.The method is suitable for any velocity controlled manipulatorwith a force/torque sensor at the end-effector. The force/torquecontrol regulates the applied forces and torques within givenconstraints, while the velocity controller ensures that the endeffectormoves with a task-related desired tangential velocity. The paper also provides a proof that the estimates converge tothe actual values. The method is evaluated in different scenarios typically met in a household environment.

  • 32.
    Karayiannidis, Yiannis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Vina, Francisco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    "Open Sesame!" Adaptive Force/Velocity Control for Opening Unknown Doors2012In: Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 4040-4047Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of door opening is fundamental for robots operating in domestic environments. Since these environments are generally less structured than industrial environments, several types of uncertainties associated with the dynamics and kinematics of a door must be dealt with to achieve successful opening. This paper proposes a method that can open doors without prior knowledge of the door kinematics. The proposed method can be implemented on a velocity-controlled manipulator with force sensing capabilities at the end-effector. The method consists of a velocity controller which uses force measurements and estimates of the radial direction based on adaptive estimates of the position of the door hinge. The control action is decomposed into an estimated radial and tangential direction following the concept of hybrid force/motion control. A force controller acting within the velocity controller regulates the radial force to a desired small value while the velocity controller ensures that the end effector of the robot moves with a desired tangential velocity leading to task completion. This paper also provides a proof that the adaptive estimates of the radial direction converge to the actual radial vector. The performance of the control scheme is demonstrated in both simulation and on a real robot.

  • 33.
    Karayiannidis, Yiannis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Kragic, Danica
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Adaptive force/velocity control for opening unknown doors2012In: Robot Control, Volume 10, Part  1, 2012, p. 753-758Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of door opening is fundamental for robots operating in domesticenvironments. Since these environments are generally unstructured, a robot must deal withseveral types of uncertainties associated with the dynamics and kinematics of a door to achievesuccessful opening. The present paper proposes a dynamic force/velocity controller which usesadaptive estimation of the radial direction based on adaptive estimates of the door hinge’sposition. The control action is decomposed into estimated radial and tangential directions,which are proved to converge to the corresponding actual values. The force controller usesreactive compensation of the tangential forces and regulates the radial force to a desired smallvalue, while the velocity controller ensures that the robot’s end-effector moves with a desiredtangential velocity. The performance of the control scheme is demonstrated in simulation witha 2 DoF planar manipulator opening a door.

  • 34. Lundberg, I.
    et al.
    Björkman, Mårten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Intrinsic camera and hand-eye calibration for a robot vision system using a point marker2015In: IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 59-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate robot camera calibration is a requirement for vision guided robots to perform precision assembly tasks. In this paper, we address the problem of doing intrinsic camera and hand-eye calibration on a robot vision system using a single point marker. This removes the need for using bulky special purpose calibration objects, and also facilitates on line accuracy checking and re-calibration when needed, without altering the robots production environment. The proposed solution provides a calibration routine that produces high quality results on par with the robot accuracy and completes a calibration in 3 minutes without need of manual intervention. We also present a method for automatic testing of camera calibration accuracy. Results from experimental verification on the dual arm concept robot FRIDA are presented.

  • 35.
    Marzinotto, Alejandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Towards a Unified Behavior Trees Framework for Robot Control2014In: Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2014 IEEE International Conference on , IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, 2014, p. 5420-5427Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a unified framework for Behavior Trees (BTs), a plan representation and execution tool. The available literature lacks the consistency and mathematical rigor required for robotic and control applications. Therefore, we approach this problem in two steps: first, reviewing the most popular BT literature exposing the aforementioned issues; second, describing our unified BT framework along with equivalence notions between BTs and Controlled Hybrid Dynamical Systems (CHDSs). This paper improves on the existing state of the art as it describes BTs in a more accurate and compact way, while providing insight about their actual representation capabilities. Lastly, we demonstrate the applicability of our framework to real systems scheduling open-loop actions in a grasping mission that involves a NAO robot and our BT library.

  • 36. McGhan, C. L. R.
    et al.
    Wang, Y. -S
    Murray, R. M.
    Vaquero, T.
    Williams, B. C.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Towards architecture-wide analysis, verification, and validation for total system stability during goal-seeking space robotics operations2016In: AIAA Space and Astronautics Forum and Exposition, SPACE 2016, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss the beginnings of an attempt to define and analyze the stability of an entire modular robotic system architecture - one which includes a three-tier (3T) layer breakdown of capabilities, with symbolic, deterministic planning at the highest level. We approach the problem from the standpoint of a control theory outlook, and try to formalize the issues that result from trying to quantitatively characterize the overall performance of a well-defined system without a need for exhaustive testing. We start by discussing the concept of bounded-input bounded-output stability, giving examples where the technique might not be sufficient to guarantee what we term “total system stability” due to complications associated with the levels of abstraction between the modules and components that are being chained together in the architecture. We then go on to discuss necessary conditions that may fall out of this naturally as a result. We further try to better-define the input and output constraints needed to guarantee total system stability, using an assumption-guarantee-like contractual framework that sits alongside the architecture; the requirements then may have influence across multiple modules, in order to keep consistency. We also discuss how the structure of the architectural modules may help or hinder the process of capability characterization and performance analysis of each module and a given architecture configuration as a whole. We then discuss two overlapping methods that, combined, should allow us to analyze the effectiveness of the architecture, and help towards verification and validation of both the components and the system as a whole. Demonstrative examples are given using a specific architectural implementation called the Resilient Spacecraft Executive. In future work, we hope to define both necessary and sufficient conditions for total system stability across such a system architecture for robotics use.

  • 37.
    Robinson, John
    et al.
    FOI.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    On the use of gradual dense-sparse discretizations in receding horizon control2014In: Optimal control applications & methods, ISSN 0143-2087, E-ISSN 1099-1514, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 253-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key factor to success in implementations of real time optimal control, such as receding horizon control (RHC), is making efficient use of computational resources. The main trade-off is then between efficiency and accuracy of each RHC iteration, and the resulting overall optimality properties of the concatenated iterations, that is, how closely this represents a solution to the underlying infinite time optimal control problem (OCP). Both these issues can be addressed by adapting the RHC solution strategy to the expected form of the solution. Using gradual dense-sparse (GDS) node distributions in direct transcription formulations of the finite time OCP solved in each RHC iteration is a way of adapting the node distribution of this OCP to the fact that it is actually part of an RHC scheme. We have previously argued that this is reasonable, because the near future plan must be implemented now, but the far future plan can and will be revised later. In this paper, we investigate RHC applications where the asymptotic qualitative behavior of the OCP solution can be analyzed in advance. For some classes of systems, explicit exponential convergence rates of the solutions can be computed. We establish such convergence rates for a class of control affine nonlinear systems with a locally quadratic cost and propose to use versions of GDS node distributions for such systems because they will (eventually) be better adapted to the form of the solution. The advantages of the GDS approach in such settings is illustrated with simulations.

  • 38. Salling, E.
    et al.
    Rensfelt, A.
    Stensbäck, N.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Learning air combat parameters using differential evolution2013In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications: Twelfth Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IOS Press, 2013, p. 225-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we improve the performance of autonomous air combat behaviours using a differential evolution approach. We have previously developed air combat behaviours, that are used as opponents in a pilot training facility of the Swedish Air Force. These behaviours contain a number of design parameters, such as at what distance to fire missiles and what risk levels toaccept before disengaging. We improve the performance of the behaviours by applying two approaches. First, by searching for the best response against a given opponent strategy, second by looking for a Nash-equilibrium in a game where both players are allowed to adapt their strategies. Differential Evolution is used in both cases, and the fitness of the parameters is evaluated using parallel execution of detailed high fidelity models of aircraft, weapons and behaviours.

  • 39.
    Tardioli, Danilo
    et al.
    University of Zaragoza.
    Parasuraman, Ramviyas
    University of Georgia.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Pound: A multi-master ROS node for reducing delay and jitter in wireless multi-robot networks2019In: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, ISSN 0921-8890, E-ISSN 1872-793X, Vol. 111, p. 73-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Robot Operating System (ROS) is a popular and widely used software framework for building robotics systems. With the growth of its popularity, it has started to be used in multi-robot systems as well. However, the TCP connections that the platform relies on for connecting the so-called ROS nodes presents several issues regarding limited-bandwidth, delays, and jitter, when used in wireless multi-hop networks. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of the problem and propose a new ROS node called Pound to improve the wireless communication performance by reducing delay and jitter in data exchanges, especially in multi-hop networks. Pound allows the use of multiple ROS masters (roscores), features data compression, and importantly, introduces a priority scheme that allows favoring more important flows over less important ones. We compare Pound to the state-of-the-art solutions through extensive experiments and show that it performs equally well, or better in all the test cases, including a control-over-network example.

  • 40.
    Thunberg, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Autonomous Systems, Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI).
    Anisi, David
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Ögren, Petter
    Department of Autonomous Systems, Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI).
    A comparative study of task assignment and path planning methods for multi-UGV missions2009In: OPTIMIZATION AND COOPERATIVE CONTROL STRATEGIES / [ed] Hirsch, MJ; Commander, CW; Pardalos, PM; Murphey, R, 2009, p. 167-180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many important problems involving a group of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are closely related to the multi traviling salesman problem (m-TSP). This paper comprises a comparative study of a number of algorithms proposed in the litterature to solve m-TSPs occuring in robotics. The investigated algoritms include two mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulations, a market based approach (MA), a Voronoi partition step (VP) combined with the local search used in MA, and a deterministic and a stocastic version of the granular tabu search (GTS). To evaluate the algoritms, an m-TSP is derived from a planar environment with polygonal obstacles and uniformly distributed targets and vehicle positions. The results of the comparison indicate that out of the decentralized approaches, the MA yield good solutions but requires long computation times, while VP is fast but not as good. The two MILP approaches suffer from long computation times, and poor results due to the decomposition of the assignment and path planning steps. Finally, the two GTS algorithms yield good results in short times with inputs from MA as well as the much faster VP. Thus the best performing centralized approach is the GTS in combination with the VP. Funded by the Swedish defence materiel administration (FMV) and the Swedish armed forces through the Technologies for Autonomous and Intelligent Systems (TAIS) project. 297316-LB704859

  • 41.
    Thunberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Hu, Xiaoming
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Ögren, Petter
    Aeronautical and Systems Technology, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    A Boolean Control Network Approach to Pursuit Evasion Problems in Polygonal Environments2011In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on obotics and Automation (ICRA), 2011, p. 4506-4511Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the multi pursuer version of the pursuit evasion problem in polygonal environments is addressed. This problem is NP-hard, and therefore we seek good enough, but not optimal solutions. By modeling the problem as a Boolean Control Network, we can efficiently keep track of which regions are cleared, and which are not, while the input nodes of the network are used to represent the motion of the pursuers. The environment is partitioned into a set of convex regions, where each region correspond to a set of nodes in the network. The method is implemented in ANSI C, and efficiently solves complex environments containing multiple loops and requiring so-called recontamination. The provided examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in terms of computational time

  • 42.
    Thunberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    A Mixed Integer Linear Programming approach to Pursuit Evasion Problems with optional Connectivity Constraints2011In: Autonomous Robots, ISSN 0929-5593, E-ISSN 1573-7527, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 333-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we address the multi pursuer version of the pursuit evasion problem in polygonal environments. By discretizing the problem, and applying a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) framework, we are able to address problems requiring so-called recontamination and also impose additional constraints, such as connectivity between the pursuers. The proposed MILP formulation is less conservative than solutions based on graph discretizations of the environment, but still somewhat more conservative than the original underlying problem. It is well known that MILPs, as well as multi pursuer pursuit evasion problems, are NP-hard. Therefore we apply an iterative Receding Horizon Control (RHC) scheme where a number of smaller MILPs are solved over shorter planning horizons. The proposed approach is implemented in Matlab/Cplex and illustrated by a number of solved examples.

  • 43.
    Thunberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    An Iterative Mixed Integer Linear Programming Approach to Pursuit Evasion Problems in Polygonal Environments2010In: 2010 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION (ICRA)  / [ed] Rakotondrabe M; Ivan IA, 2010, p. 5498-5503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we address the multi pursuer version of the pursuit evasion problem in polygonal environments. It is well known that this problem is NP-hard, and therefore we seek efficient, but not optimal, solutions by relaxing the problem and applying the tools of Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and Receding Horizon Control (RHC). Approaches using MILP and RHC are known to produce efficient algorithms in other path planning domains, such as obstacle avoidance. Here we show how the MILP formalism can be used in a pursuit evasion setting to capture the motion of the pursuers as well as the partitioning of the pursuit search region into a cleared and a contaminated part. RHC is furthermore a well known way of balancing performance and computation requirements by iteratively solving path planning problems over a receding planning horizon, and adapt the length of that horizon to the computational resources available. The proposed approach is implemented in Matlab/Cplex and illustrated by a number of solved examples.

  • 44.
    Wang, Yuquan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ogren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Vina, Francisco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Karayiannidis, Yiannis
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Dual Arm Manipulation using ConstraintBased Programming2014In: Proceedings of the 19th World CongressThe International Federation of Automatic Control / [ed] Boje, Edward, Xia, Xiaohua, 2014, Vol. 19, p. 311-319Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a technique for online generation of dual arm trajectories using constraint based programming based on bound margins. Using this formulation, we take both equality and inequality constraints into account, in a way that incorporates both feedback and feedforward terms, enabling e.g. tracking of timed trajectories in a new way. The technique is applied to a dual arm manipulator performing a bi-manual task. We present experimental validation of the approach, including comparisons between simulations and real experiments of a complex bimanual tracking task. We also show how to add force feedback to the framework, to account for modeling errors in the systems. We compare the results with and without feedback, and show how the resulting trajectory is modified to achieve the prescribed interaction forces.

  • 45.
    Wang, Yuquan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Karayiannidis, Yiannis
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Whole Body Control of a Dual-Arm Mobile Robot Using a Virtual Kinematic Chain2016In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANOID ROBOTICS, ISSN 0219-8436, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 1550047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual-arm manipulators have more advanced manipulation abilities compared to single-arm manipulators and manipulators mounted on a mobile base have additional mobility and a larger workspace. Combining these advantages, mobile dual-arm robots are expected to perform a variety of tasks in the future. Kinematically, the configuration of two arms that branches from the mobile base results in a serial-to-parallel kinematic structure. In order to respond to external disturbances, this serial-to-parallel kinematic structure makes inverse kinematic computations non-trivial, as the motion of the base has to take the needs of both arms into account. Instead of using the dual-arm kinematics directly, we propose to use a virtual kinematic chain (VKC) to specify the common motion of the two arms. We formulate a constraint-based programming solution which consists of two parts. In the first part, we use an extended serial kinematic chain including the mobile base and the VKC to formulate constraints that realize the desired orientation and translation expressed in the world frame. In the second part, we use the resolved VKC motion to constrain the common motion of the two arms. In order to explore the redundancy of the two arms in an optimization framework, we also provide a VKC-oriented manipulability measure as well as its closed-form gradient. We verify the proposed approach with simulations and experiments that are performed on a PR2 robot, which has two 7 degrees of freedom (DoF) arms and a 3 DoF mobile base.

  • 46.
    Wang, Yuquan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Karayiannidis, Ioannis
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Cooperative control of a serial-to-parallel structure using a virtual kinematic chain in a mobile dual-arm manipulation application2015In: Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, Hamburg, Germany: IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, 2015, p. 2372-2379Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the future mobile dual-arm robots are expected to perform many tasks. Kinematically, the configuration of two manipulators that branch from the same common mobile base results in a serial-to-parallel kinematic structure, which makes inverse kinematic computations non-trivial. The motion of the base has to be decided in a trade-off, taking the needs of both arms into account. We propose to use a Virtual Kinematic Chain (VKC) to specify the common motion of the parallel manipulators, instead of using the two manipulators kinematics directly. With this VKC, we formulate a constraint based programming solution for the robot to respond to external disturbances during task execution. The proposed approach is experimentally verified both in a noise-free illustrative simulation and a real human robot co-manipulation task.

  • 47.
    Wang, Yuquan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Vina, Francisco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Karayiannidis, Yiannis
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Whole body control of a dual-arm mobile robot using a virtual kinematic chain2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Wang, Yuquan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Singularity analysis of closed-loop inverse kinematics algorithms with respect to manipulator geometric uncertainties2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Wang, Yuquan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Colledanchise, Michele
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    Marzinotto, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computer Vision and Active Perception, CVAP.
    A Distributed Convergent Solution to the Ambulance Positioning Problem on a Streetmap Graph2014In: / [ed] Boje, Edward, Xia, Xiaohua, IFAC Papers Online, 2014, Vol. 19, p. 9190-9196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we combine ideas from multi-agent cooperative coverage control, with problem formulations from the resource allocation field, to create a distributed convergent approach to the ambulance positioning problem. Inspired by coverage control we use the graph version of so-called Voronoi regions, making the solution distributed and reactive, thereby freeing computational resources. The solution is distributed in the sense that each vehicle only needs to know the positions of its neighbors, and the computations of each vehicle only depend on the size of its Voronoi region/set. This implies that considering a problem of twice the size, using twice the number of vehicles will leave the computational load per vehicle unchanged. The freed resources are used to capture the allocation problem in more detail: maximizing an estimate of the victim survival probability instead of more coarse measures of ambulance availability. Using real city street map data from OpenStreetMap (OSM), we provide simulation results illustrating the applicability of our approach. Finally, we prove that the proposed distributed algorithm is convergent in the sense that it finds a local optimum in finite time.

  • 50.
    Ögren, Petter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Formations and Obstacle Avoidance in Mobile Robot Control2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four independent papers concerningthe control of mobile robots in the context of obstacleavoidance and formation keeping.

    The first paper describes a new theoreticallyv erifiableapproach to obstacle avoidance. It merges the ideas of twoprevious methods, with complementaryprop erties, byusing acombined control Lyapunov function (CLF) and model predictivecontrol (MPC) framework.

    The second paper investigates the problem of moving a fixedformation of vehicles through a partiallykno wn environmentwith obstacles. Using an input to state (ISS) formulation theconcept of configuration space obstacles is generalized toleader follower formations. This generalization then makes itpossible to convert the problem into a standard single vehicleobstacle avoidance problem, such as the one considered in thefirst paper. The properties of goal convergence and safetyth uscarries over to the formation obstacle avoidance case.

    In the third paper, coordination along trajectories of anonhomogenuos set of vehicles is considered. Byusing a controlLyapunov function approach, properties such as boundedformation error and finite completion time is shown.

    Finally, the fourth paper applies a generalized version ofthe control in the third paper to translate,rotate and expanda formation. It is furthermore shown how a partial decouplingof formation keeping and formation mission can be achieved. Theapproach is then applied to a scenario of underwater vehiclesclimbing gradients in search for specific thermal/biologicalregions of interest. The sensor data fusion problem fordifferent formation configurations is investigated and anoptimal formation geometryis proposed.

    Keywords:Mobile Robots, Robot Control, ObstacleAvoidance, Multirobot System, Formation Control, NavigationFunction, Lyapunov Function, Model Predictive Control, RecedingHorizon Control, Gradient Climbing, Gradient Estimation.

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