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  • 1. Ahlgren, B.
    et al.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Ngai, E. C. -H
    Internet of Things for Smart Cities: Interoperability and Open Data2016In: IEEE Internet Computing, ISSN 1089-7801, E-ISSN 1941-0131, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 52-56, article id 7781549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has become a promising technology for addressing societal challenges by connecting smart devices and leveraging Big Data analytics to create smart cities worldwide. As the IoT scales up, it's important to provide interoperability among different devices. Yet current simple standard protocols lack sufficient openness and interoperability. IoT for smart cities needs to guarantee the accessibility of open data and cloud services to allow industries and citizens to develop new services and applications. Here, the authors provide a case study of the GreenIoT platform in Uppsala, Sweden, to demonstrate the idea of interoperability and open data for smart cities.

  • 2. Csaszar, Andras
    et al.
    Enyedi, Gabor
    Retveri, Gabor
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Converging the evolution of router architectures and IP networks2007In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although IP is widely recognized as the platform for next-generation converged networks, unfortunately, it is heavily burdened by its heritage of almost 30 years. Nowadays, network operators must devote significant resources to perform essential tasks, such as traffic engineering, policy enforcement, and security. In this article, we argue that one of the principal reasons for this is the way control and forwarding planes are interspersed in IP networks today. We review the architectural. developments that led to the current situation, and we reason that centralization of network control functionality can constitute a solution to the pressing problems of the contemporary Internet.

  • 3.
    Hagsand, Olof
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Design and implementation of a distributed router2005In: 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT), Vols 1 and 2, 2005, p. 227-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements on 1P routers are increasing for every new generation of designs. The driving forces are growing traffic volumes and demands for new services. We argue that a decentralized modular system design would improve the scalability. flexibility, and reliability of future routers. We have designed and implemented such a distributed router. based on physical separation between different junctional modules for control and forwarding plane operations. This paper presents the design and implementation, focusing on the internal communication protocols and implementation aspects of the control plane.

  • 4.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Decentralized Modular Router Architectures2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet grows extremely fast in terms of number of users and traffic volume, as well as in the number of services that must be supported. This development results in new requirements on routers—the main building blocks of the Internet. Existing router designs suffer from architectural limitations that make it difficult to meet future requirements, and the purpose of this thesis is to explore new ways of building routers.

    We take the approach to investigate distributed and modular router designs, where routers are composed of multiple modules that can be mapped onto different processing elements. The modules communicate through open well-defined interfaces over an internal network. Our overall hypothesis is that such a combination of modularization and decentralization is a promising way to improve scalability, flexibility, and robustness of Internet routers—properties that will be critical for new generations of routers.

    Our research methodology is based on design, implementation, and experimental verification. The design work has two main results: an overall system design and a distributed router control plane. The system design consists of interfaces, protocols, and internal mechanisms for physically separation of different components of a router. The distributed control plane is a decomposition of control software into independent modules mapped onto multiple distributed processing elements. Our design is evaluated and verified through the implementation of a prototype system.

    The experimental part of the work deals with two key issues. First, transport mechanisms for communication of internal control information between processing elements are evaluated. In particular, we investigate the use of reliable multicast protocols in this context. Results regarding communication overhead as well as overall performance of routing table dissemination and installation are presented. The results show that even though there are certain costs associated with using reliable multicast, there are large performance gains to be made when the number of processing elements increases. Second, we present performance results of processing routing information in a distributed control plane. These results show that the processing time can be significantly reduced by distributing the workload over multiple processing elements. This indicates that considerable performance improvements can be made through the use of the distributed control plane architecture proposed in this thesis.

  • 5.
    Hidell, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hagsand, Olof
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Distributed Control for Decentralized Modular Routers2004In: 2nd Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop, SNCNW 2004, Karlstad, Sweden, 2004, p. 9-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements on IP routers continue to increase, both from the control plane and the forwarding plane perspectives. To improve scalability, flexibility, and availability we investigate new ways to build future routers. This paper presents a system model of a decentralized and modular router architecture. Design alternatives and implementation aspects are discussed, and a system implementation is presented.

  • 6.
    Hidell, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Performance of NACK-Oriented Reliable Multicast in distributed routers2006In: HPSR: 2006 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, 2006, p. 241-247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate a decentralized modular system design for routers, where functional modules are connected to a high-performance network. In such a distributed system internal reliable dissemination of data to multiple receivers is an important issue. We study the use of a reliable multicast protocol (NORM-NACK-Oriented Reliable Multicast) for routing table dissemination in a distributed router, which has been designed and implemented in our networking laboratory. Experimental results of using both file- and stream-oriented transport services in NORM are presented and compared. We also compare the use of reliable multicast with an ideal "hand-tuned" multicast dissemination. We find that NORM is useful for this application, but that there is a certain cost in terms of overhead.

  • 7.
    Hidell, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hagsand, Olof
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Control and forwarding plane interaction in distributed routers2005In: NETWORKING 2005: NETWORKING TECHNOLOGIES, SERVICES, AND PROTOCOLS; PERFORMANCE OF COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS; MOBILE AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS / [ed] Boutaba, R; Almeroth, K; Puigjaner, R; Shen, S; Black, JP, 2005, Vol. 3462, p. 1339-1342Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements on IP routers continue to increase, both from the control plane and the forwarding plane perspectives. To improve scalability, flexibility, and availability new ways to build future routers need to be investigated. This paper suggests a decentralized, modular system design for routers, based on control elements for functionalities like routing, and forwarding elements for packet processing. Further, we present measurements on the distribution of large routing tables in an experimental platform consisting of one control element and up to 16 forwarding elements.

  • 8.
    Hidell, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Hagsand, Olof
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    NACK-Oriented Reliable Multicast for Routing Table Distribution in Decentralized Routers2005In: 3rd Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop, SNCNW 2005, Halmstad, Sweden, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements on IP routers are increasing for every new generation of designs. The driving forces behind this development are growing traffic volumes and demands for new services. We believe that a modular decentralized router design is well-suited to meet future requirements. However, a distributed design may, compared to a centralized system, introduce an additional cost for internal communication between the elements. In this paper we evaluate different transaction mechanisms for the internal communication. We study the suitability of reliable multicast for the internal distribution of large amounts of routing information. In particular, we evaluate NORM (NACK-Oriented Reliable Multicast) as a candidate protocol for our purposes.

  • 9.
    Hidell, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Hagsand, Olof
    KTH.
    Reliable multicast for control in distributed routers2005In: 2005 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2005, p. 133-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing traffic volumes and demands for new services rapidly increase the requirements imposed on network systems, such as IP routers. We argue that a decentralized modular system design would improve the scalability, flexibility, and reliability of future routers. We have designed an implemented such a distributed router, based on physical separation between control and forwarding elements. One challenge with the design concerns the internal communication between the elements constituting the router. This paper presents performance measurements of different internal transaction mechanisms between the control and forwarding planes. In particular, an existing protocol for reliable multicast has been integrated and evaluated in our experimental prototype. The prototype consists of one control element and up to 16 forwarding elements, interconnected by an internal control network based on Ethernet switches.

  • 10.
    Hidell, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Klockar, Tomas
    Carr-Motyckova, Lenka
    A Modularized Control Plane for BGP2007In: PDCS '07 Proceedings of the 19th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and System, Anaheim, CA, USA: ACTA Press, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of new services and protocols required in IP routers is steadily growing. This adds to the complexity of the router control plane and increases the amount of work that has to be performed by the control processor. Accordingly, the trend of augmenting the router functionality has an important impact on control plane performance and robustness. Traditionally, router control software is intertwined into a single complex system in a centralized fashion. In this paper, we put forward a new way to design the control plane, based on modularization of control software into independent modules that can be decentralized to multiple processing elements and executed concurrently. We have applied this design approach on BGP (Border Gateway Protocol), with the main purpose to do an experimental performance evaluation of distributed control plane processing. We find that the time to process and install a large number of BGP routes, for instance during start-up of BGP, can be significantly reduced if the workload is spread over multiple processing units. We also identify several approaches for improving robustness through the use of a modular decentralized control plane. Finally, we demonstrate that such a system can be realized using unmodified open source routing software.

  • 11.
    Manjate, Juvencio Arnaldo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Sjodin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Energy-efficient networks under coordinated and uncoordinated sleeping approaches2015In: 2015 23rd International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks, SoftCOM 2015, IEEE , 2015, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wired IP networks handle the bulk of today's communication. These networks are built with over-provisioning and redundancy of devices to support critical activities. However, the activities can vary significantly, resulting in unused network online waste of power. In this study, we examine two existing power-saving approaches for wired IP networks: i) uncoordinated sleeping and (ii) coordinated sleeping. The uncoordinated and coordinated sleeping algorithms investigated are respectively Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE) and Energy-Aware Routing (EAR) for green OSPF. In addition, we investigate the combination of coordinated and uncoordinated sleeping algorithms, EEE and EAR for green OSPF. The energy performance of the two algorithms and their combination is evaluated in two networks of different dimensions under varying traffic loads. The investigation shows that EEE, EAR for green OSPF and the combination significantly reduce the energy consumption of a network. However, the highest peak of energy conservation is achieved when EAR for green OSPF is activated in an EEE network during lower traffic load periods and deactivated during high traffic load periods. © 2015 University of Split, FESB.

  • 12.
    Manjate, Juvencio Arnaldo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Network Energy Efficiency through Matching and Reconfiguration2018In: IEEE 2018 INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON CYBERMATICS / 2018 IEEE CONFERENCES ON INTERNET OF THINGS, GREEN COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATIONS, CYBER, PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL COMPUTING, SMART DATA, BLOCKCHAIN, COMPUTER AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, IEEE , 2018, p. 244-250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency has become a major concern in the design and operation of fixed networks. Energy-Efficient Ethernet (EEE) came as a response to reduce the energy consumption of Ethernet technology. The performance of EEE depends on the link utilization and may degrade when the utilization increases. This is especially true when an energy-aware routing (EAR) protocol is deployed on top of EEE as it tends to aggregate traffic over a subset of links, thereby increasing their utilization. This behavior introduces a tradeoff between EEE and EAR. As network traffic patterns change frequently, it requires a significant effort to configure the EAR protocol on an EEE network in order to reduce the downside effects of the tradeoff, thus benefiting from both the EEE and EAR energy efficiency. In this work, we propose a network matching and reconfiguration algorithm (NetRec), which dynamically adapts the topology control (ESTOP) settings of an EEE network to increase energy savings. Our reasoning is that larger energy savings can be obtained if the network topology is dynamically reconfigured according to traffic demand. NetRec is designed in the context of Software-Defined Networking (SDN). We evaluate NetRec's energy performance in networks of different sizes under varying traffic conditions.

  • 13.
    Manjate, Juvencio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    Energy-Efficient Networks under Coordinated andUncoordinated Sleeping Approaches2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wired IP networks handle the bulk of today’scommunication. These networks are built with over-provisioningand redundancy of devices to support critical activities. However,the activities can vary significantly, resulting in unused networkonline waste of power. In this study, we examine two existingpower-saving approaches for wired IP networks: i) uncoordinatedsleeping and (ii) coordinated sleeping. The uncoordinated andcoordinated sleeping algorithms investigated are respectively En-ergy Efficient Ethernet (EEE) and Energy-Aware Routing (EAR)for green OSPF. In addition, we investigate the combination ofcoordinated and uncoordinated sleeping algorithms, EEE andEAR for green OSPF. The energy performance of the twoalgorithms and their combination is evaluated in two networksof different dimensions under varying traffic loads.The investigation shows that EEE, EAR for green OSPF andthe combination significantly reduce the energy consumption ofa network. However, the highest peak of energy conservationis achieved when EAR for green OSPF is activated in an EEEnetwork during lower traffic load periods and deactivated duringhigh traffic load periods.

  • 14. Onur, E
    et al.
    Sfakiankis, E
    Papagianni, C
    Karagiannis, G
    Kontos, T
    Niemegeers, I
    Heemstra de Groot, S.
    Chochliouros, I
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Cinkler, T
    Maliosz, M
    Kaklamani, D
    Carapinha, J
    Belesioti, M
    Fytros, E
    Intelligent End-To-End Resource Virtualization Using Service Oriented Architecture2009In: 2009 IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, 2009, p. 345-350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-oriented architecture can be considered as a philosophy or paradigm in organizing and utilizing services and capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains. Virtualization provides abstraction and isolation of lower level functionalities, enabling portability of higher level functions and sharing of physical resources. However, dynamics, environmental conditions and increasing complexity / heterogeneity of underlying resources call for adaptive resource handling. In this view an intelligent distributed architecture that enables dynamic user management and control on network-wide resource sharing by using the service oriented architecture concept is presented. Additionally, the proposed architecture supports trading of resources that will enable the transformation of traditional business models.

  • 15. Papagianni, C.
    et al.
    Karagiannis, G.
    Tselikas, N.
    Sfakianakis, E.
    Chochliouros, D.
    Kabilafkas, D.
    Cinkler, T.
    Westberg, L.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Hidell, Markus
    Twente Institute for Wireless and Mobile Communication, Enschede, Netherlands.
    Heemstra de Groot, S.
    Kontos, T.
    Katsigiannis, C.
    Pappas, C.
    Antonakopoulou, A.
    Venieris, I.
    Supporting end-to-end resource virtualization for web 2.0 applications using service oriented architecture2008In: IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, technologies have been introduced offering a large amount of computing and networking resources. New applications such as Google AdSense and BitTorrent can profit from the use of these resources. An efficient way of discovering and reserving these resources is by using the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) concept. SOA can be considered as a philosophy or paradigm in organizing and utilizing services and capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains. This paper presents an architecture that can be used to support end-to-end resource virtualization for Web 2.0 applications and in particular for peer-to-peer applications by using the Service Oriented Architecture concept.

  • 16.
    Rathore, M. Siraj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Performance Evaluation of Open Virtual Routers2010In: 2010 IEEE GLOBECOM WORKSHOPS, IEEE , 2010, p. 288-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge in network virtualization is to virtualize the components constituting the network, in particular the routers. In the work presented here, we focus on how to use open source Linux software in combination with commodity hardware to build open virtual routers. A general approach in open router virtualization is to run multiple virtual operating systems in parallel on the same PC hardware. This means that overhead in terms of additional packet processing is introduced along the data path through the router. In this paper, we investigate these performance penalties and suggest how best to combine software modules to form an open virtual router.

  • 17.
    Rathore, M. Siraj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Towards Performance Guarantees for Virtualized Network Functions2017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend of consolidating network functions from specialized hardware to software running on virtualization servers brings significant advantages for reducing costs and simplifying service deployment.  However, virtualization techniques have significant limitations when it comes to networking as there is no support for guaranteeing that network functions meet their service requirements. In this paper, we present a design for providing service guarantees to virtualized network functions based on rate control. The design is a combination of rate regulation through token bucket filters and the regular scheduling mechanisms in operating systems.  It has the attractive property that traffic profiles are maintained throughout a series of network functions, which makes it well suited for service function chaining.

    We discuss implementation alternatives for the design, and demonstrated how it can be implemented on two virtualization platforms: LXC containers and with the KVM hypervisor. To evaluate the design, we conduct experiments where we measure throughput and latency using IP forwarders as virtual network functions. Two significant factors for performance are investigated: the design of token buckets and the packet clustering effect that comes from scheduling. We implement a token bucket filter at the network device level, which is found to give better performance than the regular token bucket in Linux traffic control. The clustering effect adds burstiness, which in turn increases latency and limits the traffic profiles that can be supported. The effect is significant with KVM, but not with LXC. Finally, we demonstrate how performance guarantees are achieved for multiple virtual routers under different scenarios.

  • 18.
    Rathore, Muhammad Siraj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Peter, Sjödin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Data Plane Optimizations in Open Virtual Routers2011In: IFIP Networking 2011, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg , 2011, p. 379-392Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge in network virtualization is to virtualize the components constituting the network, in particular the routers. In the work presented here, we focus on how to use open source Linux software in combination with commodity hardware to build open virtual routers. A general approach in open router virtualization is to run multiple virtual instances in parallel on the same PC hardware. This means that virtual components are combined in the router’s data plane, which can result in performance penalty. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the design of virtual network devices on router performance in Linux namespace environment. We identify performance bottlenecks along the packet data path. We suggest design changes to improve performance. In particular, we investigate modifications of the ―macvlan‖ device, and analyze the performance improvements in terms of packet forwarding. We also investigate how the number of virtual routers and virtual devices within a physical machine influence performance.

  • 19.
    Rathore, Muhammad Siraj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Data Plane Optimization in Open Virtual Routers2011In: NETWORKING 2011, PT I / [ed] DomingoPascual, J Manzoni, P Palazzo, S Pont, A Scoglio, C, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2011, p. 379-392Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge in network virtualization is to virtualize the components constituting the network, in particular the routers. In the work presented here, we focus on how to use open source Linux software in combination with commodity hardware to build open virtual routers. A general approach in open router virtualization is to run multiple virtual instances in parallel on the same PC hardware. This means that virtual components are combined in the router's data plane, which can result in performance penalty. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the design of virtual network devices on router performance in Linux namespace environment. We identify performance bottlenecks along the packet data path. We suggest design changes to improve performance. In particular, we investigate modifications of the "macvlan" device, and analyze the performance improvements in terms of packet forwarding. We also investigate how the number of virtual routers and virtual devices within a physical machine influence performance.

  • 20.
    Rathore, Muhammad Siraj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    KVM vs. LXC: Comparing Performance and Isolation of Hardware-assisted Virtual Routers2013In: American Journal of Networks and Communications, ISSN 2326-893X, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns have been raised about the performance of PC-based virtual routers as they do packet processing in software. Furthermore, it becomes challenging to maintain isolation among virtual routers due to resource contention in a shared environment. Hardware vendors recognize this issue and PC hardware with virtualization support (SR-IOV and Intel-VTd) has been introduced in recent years. In this paper, we investigate how such hardware features can be integrated with two different virtualization technologies (LXC and KVM) to enhance performance and isolation of virtual routers on shared environments. We compare LXC and KVM and our results indicate that KVM in combination with hardware support can provide better trade-offs between performance and isolation. We notice that KVM has slightly lower throughput, but has superior isolation properties by providing more explicit control of CPU resources. We demonstrate that KVM allows defining a CPU share for a virtual router, something that is difficult to achieve in LXC, where packet forwarding is done in a kernel shared by all virtual routers.

  • 21.
    Rathore, Muhammad Siraj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Razzaq, Adil
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Site-to-Site VPN Technologies: A Survey2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a popular way to build private networks using shared network infrastructure. A variety of VPN technologies exist today operating on different layers of OSI model. This paper presents a detailed survey and provides a classification of various types of VPNs. Layer 1 VPN is also included which is an emerging technology. Services offered by each VPN with implementation methods are described. Protocols, tunneling mechanisms and hardware components used for the deployment are also explored.

  • 22.
    Rathore, Siraj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    PC-based Router Virtualization with Hardware Support2012In: Proceedings - International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA, IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 573-580Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on how to use open source Linux software in combination with PC hardware to build high speed virtual routers. Router virtualization means that multiple virtual router instances will run in parallel on the same hardware. To enable this, virtual components are combined in the router's data plane. This can result in performance penalties. Furthermore, an overloaded virtual router can affect the performance of other virtual routers running in parallel. Achieving high performance and strong performance isolation in a virtualized environment is challenging. We investigate how hardware can help to achieve these goals in the Linux Namespaces environment. We propose a forwarding architecture for virtual routers based on multi-core hardware where virtual routers can run in parallel on different CPU cores. This reduces resource contention among virtual routers and results in improved performance and isolation. To enable this architecture, we find that hardware based I/O virtualization support is essential. We demonstrate this by making a comparison with a software based I/O virtualization approach. We also show that hardware assisted virtual routers can achieve better aggregate throughput than a non-virtualized router on a multi-core platform.

  • 23.
    Razzaq, Adil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Virtual Network Embedding: A Hybrid Vertex Mapping Solution for Dynamic Resource Allocation2012In: Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ISSN 2090-0147, E-ISSN 2090-0155, no Article ID:358647, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual network embedding (VNE) is a key area in network virtualization, and the overall purpose of VNE is to map virtualnetworks onto an underlying physical network referred to as a substrate. Typically, the virtual networks have certain demands,such as resource requirements, that need to be satisfied by the mapping process. A virtual network (VN) can be described in termsof vertices (nodes) and edges (links) with certain resource requirements, and, to embed a VN, substrate resources are assigned tothese vertices and edges. Substrate networks have finite resources and utilizing them efficiently is an important objective for a VNEmethod. This paper analyzes two existing vertex mapping approaches—one which only considers if enough node resources areavailable for the current VN mapping and one which considers to what degree a node already is utilized by existing VN embeddingsbefore doing the vertex mapping. The paper also proposes a new vertex mapping approach which minimizes complete exhaustionof substrate nodes while still providing good overall resource utilization. Experimental results are presented to show under whatcircumstances the proposed vertex mapping approach can provide superior VN embedding properties compared to the otherapproaches.

  • 24.
    Razzaq, Adil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Minimizing bottleneck nodes of a substrate in virtual network embedding2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network virtualization has been proposed as a way to increase the flexibility of the Internet. This could enable the provisioning of many desired services in the current architecture and allow effective sharing and use of resources. Providing virtual networks (VNs) means that virtual nodes and links need to be embedded in the underlying shared infrastructure. This embedding process, where VNs with resource demands are mapped onto a substrate with finite resources is a challenging and NP-hard problem. In this paper the focus is on mapping the VNs in such a way that node resources in the substrate are not completely exhausted. To achieve this objective, an approach referred to as bottleneck node reduced mapping is presented. This method is evaluated and compared with an approach, where resource exhaustion is not considered.

  • 25.
    Sjödin, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hagsand, Olof
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Router architectures2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Su, Gang
    et al.
    Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    Communication Networks and Systems Laboratory, Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    Communication Networks and Systems Laboratory, Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Li, Dan
    Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Xu, Ke
    Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University.
    Resource management in radio access and IP-based core networks for IMT Advanced and Beyond2013In: Science China Information Sciences, ISSN 1674-733X, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 169-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased capacity needs, primarily driven by content distribution, and the vision of Internet-of-Things with billions of connected devices pose radically new demands on future wireless and mobile systems. In general the increased diversity and scale result in complex resource management and optimization problems in both radio access networks and the wired core network infrastructure. We summarize results in this area from a collaborative Sino-Swedish project within IMT Advanced and Beyond, covering adaptive radio resource management, energy-aware routing, Open Flow-based network virtualization, data center networking, and access network caching for TV on demand.

  • 27.
    Szegedi, Peter
    et al.
    Trans-European Research and Education Networking Association.
    Riera, Jordi Ferrer
    Fundació i2CAT.
    Garcia-Espin, Joan Antoni
    Fundació i2CAT.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Söderman, Pehr
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Ruffini, Marco
    Trinity College Dublin.
    O’Mahony, Donal
    Trinity College Dublin.
    Bianco, Andrea
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Giraudo, Luca
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Ponce de Leon, Miguel
    Waterford Institute of Technology.
    Power, Gemma
    Waterford Institute of Technology.
    Cervelló-Pastor, Cristina
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    López, Víctor
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
    Naegele-Jackson, Susanne
    Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
    Enabling future internet research: the FEDERICA case2011In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet, undoubtedly, is the most influential technical invention of the 20th century that affects and constantly changes all aspects of our day-to-day lives nowadays. Although it is hard to predict its long-term consequences, the potential future of the Internet definitely relies on future Internet research. Prior to every development and deployment project, an extensive and comprehensive research study must be performed in order to design, model, analyze, and evaluate all impacts of the new initiative on the existing environment. Taking the ever-growing size of the Internet and the increasing complexity of novel Internet-based applications and services into account, the evaluation and validation of new ideas cannot be effectively carried out over local test beds and small experimental networks. The gap which exists between the small-scale pilots in academic and research test beds and the realize validations and actual deployments in production networks can be bridged by using virtual infrastructures. FEDERICA is one of the facilities, based on virtualization capabilities in both network and computing resources, which creates custom-made virtual environments and makes them available for Future Internet Researchers. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research projects that have been using the virtual infrastructure slices of FEDERICA in order to validate their research concepts, even when they are disruptive to the test bed’s infrastructure, to obtain results in realistic network environments.

  • 28.
    Söderman, Pehr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Eklund, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Handover in the Wild: The feasibility of vertical handover in commodity smartphones2013In: Communications (ICC), 2013 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 6401-6406Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today commodity mobile devices are equipped withmultiple wireless access technologies. To enable continuous connectivityit is vital that these terminals provide for vertical handover between different technologies. Particularly, they should provide a vertical handover that complies with the timeliness requirements of soft real-time applications. Considering aspects such as cost- and ease-of-deployment, application neutrality, and, not least, the emergence of transport protocols that support multi-homing such as mobile SCTP and multi-path TCP, we think it would be beneficial to handle vertical handover in thetransport layer of the mobile terminal. This paper demonstrates through several real-world experiments, the feasibility of using a lightweight vertical handover scheme in smart mobile terminals for live video streaming. The vertical handover criteria is basedon the received signal strength. Our experiments suggest that thescheme indeed provides for seamless vertical handover at walking speed – our target scenario. However, the experiments also suggest that the scheme gives significant reductions in handovertime, as compared to mobile SCTP without improvements, at higher speeds.

  • 29.
    Söderman, Pehr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Distributed Systems and Communications Research Group (DISCO).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Evaluating Buffer Management Algorithms for Delay Tolerant Wireless Sensor NetworksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges in Delay Tolerant Wireless Sensor Networks (DT-WSN), is to handle situations where the available buffer space is insufficient. This is the buffer management problem. In this work, we the buffer management problem, with focus on algorithms to decide what data to discard when buffers are full. We simulate a wide range of network configurations, using a full factorial experiment design. The simulations let us investigate both the relative performance of four buffer management algorithms and the effect of different factors on buffer management performance. The four algorithms we investigate are the two well-known algorithms FIFO and Random Discard, and two Quality of Information based algorithms: an exponential moving average forecasting-based algorithm and the SmartGap algorithm. Our results indicate that certain factors, including mobility model and routing algorithm, have larger influence on relative performance than factors such as link speed and lifetime of data. We also find that the SmartGap buffer management algorithm provides significantly better QoI compared to the alternative algorithms.

  • 30.
    Söderman, Pehr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Mind the SmartGap: A Buffer Management Algorithm For Delay Tolerant Wireless Sensor Networks2015In: Wireless Sensor Networks: 12th European Conference, EWSN 2015, Porto, Portugal, February 9-11, 2015. Proceedings / [ed] Tarek Abdelzaher, Nuno Pereira, Eduardo Tovar, Springer, 2015, Vol. 8965, p. 104-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited memory capacity is one of the major constraints in Delay Tolerant Wireless Sensor Networks. Efficient management of the memory is critical to the performance of the network. This paper proposes a novel buffer management algorithm, SmartGap, a Quality of Information (QoI) targeted buffer management algorithm. That is, in a wireless sensor network that continuously measures a parameter which changes over time, such as temperature, the value of a single packet is governed by an estimation of its contribution to the recreation of the original signal. Attractive features of SmartGap include a low computational complexity and a simplified reconstruction of the original signal. An analysis and simulations in which the performance of SmartGap is compared with the performance of several commonly used buffer management algorithms in wireless sensor networks are provided in the paper. The simulations suggest that SmartGap indeed provides significantly improved QoI compared the other evaluated algorithms.

  • 31.
    Söderman, Pehr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Grinnemo, K. -J
    Brunström, A.
    Sub-second transport layer vertical handover using mSCTP in Android mobile devices2012In: Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), 2012 International Symposium on, IEEE , 2012, p. 661-665Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are increasingly equipped with multiple network interfaces that enable automatic vertical handover between heterogeneous wireless networks including WiFi and cellular 3G and 4G networks. However, the employed vertical handover schemes are mostly quite simple, and incur non-negligible service disruptions to ongoing sessions, e.g., video streaming and live conferencing sessions. A number of improved mobility management frameworks for these lightweight mobile devices have been proposed in the past recent years. Although these may result in negligible service disruptions, the vast majority of them are network- or integrated network- and link-layer based, and require support in the infrastructure to be successfully deployed. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using an infrastructure-independent, transport-level vertical handover scheme on a smartphone for an application as demanding as video streaming. In our study, we used a previously developed Android-based mobility framework. The study shows that a standardized mobility solution based on the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and its extension for Dynamic Address Reconfiguration (DAR), incurs a service disruption on par with comparable proposed network- and link-layer solutions.

  • 32.
    Söderman, Pehr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    SCTP: Fast Transport Layer Vertical Handover in Android Mobile Devices2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are increasingly equipped with multiple network interfaces that enable automatic vertical handover between heterogeneous wireless networks including WiFi and cellular 3G and 4G networks. However, the employed vertical handover schemes are mostly quite simple, and incur non-negligible service disruptions to ongoing sessions, e.g., video streaming and live conferencing sessions. A number of improved mobility management frameworks for these lightweight mobile devices have been proposed in the past recent years. Although these may result in negligible service disruptions, the vast majority of them are network- or integrated network- and link-layer based, and require support in the infrastructure to be successfully deployed. In this paper, we demonstrate, through the use of an Android-based mobility framework, the feasibility of using an infrastructure-independent, transport-level vertical handover scheme on a smartphone for an application as demanding as video streaming. Particularly, we show that a standardized mobility solution based on the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and its extension for Dynamic Address Reconfiguration (DAR) incurs a service disruption on par with comparable proposed network- and link- layer solutions.

  • 33.
    Söderman, Pehr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Using metadata to improve experiment reliability in shared environments2012In: Traffic monitoring and analysis, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7189 LNCS, p. 129-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental network research is subject to challenges since the experiment outcomes can be influenced by undesired effects from other activities in the network. In shared experiment networks, control over resources is often limited and QoS guarantees might not be available. When the network conditions vary during a series of experiment unwanted artifacts can be introduced in the experimental results, reducing the reliability of the experiments. We propose a novel, systematic, methodology where network conditions are monitored during the experiments and information about the network is collected. This information, known as metadata, is analyzed statistically to identify periods during the experiments when the network conditions have been similar. Data points collected during these periods are valid for comparison. Our hypothesis is that this methodology can make experiments more reliable. We present a proof-of-concept implementation of our method, deployed in the FEDERICA and PlanetLab networks.

  • 34.
    Söderman, Pehr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab.
    Using Metadata to Improve Repeatability in Shared Environments2011In: 7th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop SNCNW 2011, Linköping, June 13-14, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental network research is subject to challenges when it comes to undesired effects on the experiment outcomes from the platform. In shared experiment networks the control over the network is limited, and QoS guarantees might not be available. The lack of predictability means that unwanted artifacts can be introduced in the measurements, reducing repeatability of experiments. We propose a novel, systematic, approach based on statistical analysis of metadata to deal with undesired effects on the measurements. Our proposal is a methodology where analysis of background measurements are used to identify comparable periods of network behavior. This can provide improved repeatability of an experiment and also reduce the required sample sizes. We present a proof-of-concept implementation of our method, deployed in the FEDERICA network.

  • 35.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Energy-Efficient Fixed Network Infrastructures: A Survey2012In: SNCNW 2012, 2012, p. 21-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency has gained interests in the research community over the recent years thanks to the rising concerns around the globe for the greener future.With the increasing electricity price, there is also a strong economic incentive to make the network infrastructure more energy-efficient.Traditionally, the fixed network infrastructures are built with the mindset to deliver high performance and availability resulting in power-demanding network infrastructures.This paper summarizes the work done so far in the area of energy efficiency in fixed network infrastructures. We define the taxonomy of these approaches to be node level, link level, and network-wide level and give an overview of the key techniques in each category.

  • 36.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Improving PC-based Open Flow switching performance2010In: Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems, 2010, p. 5623840-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose an architectural design to improve lookup performance of OpenFlow switching in Linux using a standard commodity network interface card based on the Intel 82599 Gigabit Ethernet controller. We describe our design and report our preliminary results that show packet switching throughput increasing up to 25 percent compared to the throughput of regular software-based OpenFlow switching.

  • 37.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Improving Performance in a Combined Router/Server2012In: 2012 IEEE 13th International Conference on High Performance Switching and Routing, HPSR 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 52-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modern PC-based router can provide as competitive service as a specialized hardware router while offering more flexibility and possibility to extend beyond routing. We focus on a use case in which the PC-based router also functions as a server. In this paper, we propose a multi-core based architecture for a combined router/server that efficiently provides simultaneous packet forwarding and server processing. We improve the overall performance by creating a fast path for packet forwarding through caching flow entries in on-board classification hardware on the NIC. We propose a generic design based on multi-core processors and multi-queue network interface cards. We describe a prototype implementation and present an experimental evaluation of this design. We also devise a strategy for how to efficiently map packet forwarding and application processing tasks onto the multi-core architecture.

  • 38.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Offloading Packet Processing in a Combined Router/Server2011In: SNCNW 2011, Linköping, 2011, p. 34-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the performance limitation with minimum-sized packet processing, a modern PC-based router can provide as competitive service as a specialized hardware router while offering more flexibility and possibility to extend beyond routing. We focus on a use case in which the PC-based router also functions as a server. In this paper, we propose an architecture to boost overall performance of the PC-based router by offloading packet processing tasks to the NIC. We introduce a fast path for packet forwarding based on caching of flow entries in on-board classification hardware on the NIC. We describe our design and present an experimental evaluation.

  • 39.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Telecommunication Systems Laboratory, TSLab (closed 2012-01-01).
    Using hardware classification to improve PC-based OpenFlow switching2011In: 2011 IEEE 12th International Conference on High Performance Switching and Routing, HPSR 2011, New York: IEEE , 2011, p. 215-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OpenFlow is a promising technology that offers a flexible flow-based forwarding scheme based on multiple fields in the packet headers of different protocol layers. It provides a feasibility to adopt new network protocols and innovations thanks to a more flexible forwarding compared to traditional IP forwarding. In this paper, we propose an architectural design to improve lookup performance of PC-based OpenFlow switching in Linux using a standard commodity network interface card based on the Intel 82599 Gigabit Ethernet controller. We introduce a fast data path based on caching of flow table entries in on-board classification hardware on the NIC. We describe our design, and we present an experimental evaluation of its performance. Our results show that the throughput of our fast path gives over 40 percent higher throughput compared to the regular software-based OpenFlow switching.

  • 40.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Olsson, Robert
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Cho, Jeong Woo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    IoT-grid: IoT Communication for Smart DC Grids2016In: 2016 IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2016 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, article id 7841917Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IoT technology is considered an essential imperative for Smart Grids (SGs). However, IoT devices have inherently limited responsiveness that may not be sufficient for a time critical SG with stringent demands on communication delay. In practice, it remains an outstanding problem to combine IoT technology with existing grids. To facilitate deployment of IoT-based grids in domestic environments, we propose IoT-grid, a programmable, small-scale, direct current (DC) grid, that can be easily implemented with low-power hardware with limited processing capacity. The proposed grid adopts relatively cheap DC-DC converters which not only provide high conversion efficiency but also accommodate existing small-scale DC power systems (e.g. solar panels). We then explore the communication aspects of IoT-grid, namely, control and monitoring functions. We observe that processing delays of IoT devices have large impact on IoT-grid, which cause a chain of control commands to take considerable longer time as the number of commands increases. To mitigate this problem, we propose a mechanism based on sending burst commands with scheduled responses. Our experimental results show that, in the presence of processing delays, this method can significantly reduce the overall response time.

  • 41.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Olsson, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    RISE SICS.
    Implementation and Deployment of an Outdoor IoT-based Air Quality Monitoring Testbed2018In: 2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, article id 8647287Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an outdoor IoT-based air quality monitoring testbed deployed in the city of Uppsala, Sweden. Our IoT sensing unit is designed and developed using low-cost hardware components and open source software, which makes it easy to replicate. We demonstrate that it can serve as an affordable solution for real-time measurements and has potentials to complement traditional monitoring to cover larger areas. We use low-power communication based on IEEE 802.15.4, RPL, and MQTT, and achieve high end-to-end delivery ratio (>98%) in an outdoor setting. Moreover, we carry out network analysis of our testbed and provide detailed insights into its characteristics.

  • 42.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Olsson, Robert
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Pehrson, Björn
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Design and Implementation of an IoT-controlled DC-DC Converter2013In: 2013 Sustainable Internet and ICT for Sustainability, SustainIT 2013, IEEE , 2013, p. 6685199-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the shift towards renewable energy, small-scale solar panels have become commonly available. Solar panels are intermittent energy sources producing direct current, and DC-DC converters are needed to convert between different voltage levels, both for different power loads and for storing energy. DC-DC converters typically have a very limited functionality and are statically configured for specific voltage levels. In this paper, we propose a new generation of flexible DC-DC converters with software and communication support (through Contiki and CoAP) for remote power monitoring and control. We present a prototype design and implementation of a DC-DC converter including a microprocessor, a lean operating system, and networking support. With such a DC-DC converter, controlled over the Internet, we can address various types of power and energy related issues and advance the state-of-the-art of green networked applications.

  • 43.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Rathore, M. Siraj
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Carenet: An Architecture for Home-based Healthcare Services2013In: SNCNW 2013, 2013, p. 28-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doctor shortage is a universal problem. Technologies can be used to address the issue by extending the healthcare services over the data network to virtually anywhere. In this paper, we propose Carenet architecture to extend healthcare services to the home of a patient in a robust, secure, and cost-effective manner. The prototype architecture is developed using a residential gateway (RG). The RG is built using open source software on Commodity-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware. It uses low-power components with multiple power sources to provide robustness. The healthcare services are offered over a private overlay network. Linux containers are used to provide service isolation on the RG. The data is encrypted at the application level for each service to ensure confidentiality. Resilient communication is realized based on physical redundant links from two Internet connections from different ISPs. The failover time within sub-seconds time frame is achieved using our prototype RG.

  • 44.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Rathore, M. Siraj
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Resilient Communication through Multihoming for Remote Healthcare Applications2013In: 2013 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), IEEE , 2013, p. 1335-1341Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in today's technologies make it possible to offer competitive home-based healthcare services using software routers based on open source software combined with Commodity-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware. In this paper, we propose resilient communication through multihoming for remote healthcare applications. The solution is based on Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) for fast failure detection and a customized rerouting operation. We investigate the tradeoff between short reaction times for rerouting and low probability of false alarms. This is challenging to achieve under high traffic loads since the load affects the BFD session which is formed to monitor the bidirectional forwarding capabilities. We propose a simple mechanism that provides fast failover and meanwhile maintains a very low probability of generating false alarms and unwanted rerouting decisions. The mechanism is based on allocation of system resources for processing BFD control messages, and we demonstrate through empirical results that BFD then can be used in software routers to provide average failover times within 200 ms.

  • 45.
    Tanyingyong, Voravit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Rathore, M. Siraj
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Pehrson, Björn
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Jonsson, Sven
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Groth, Kristina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Carenet: An Infrastructure for Home-Based Healthcare Services2013In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Turull, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Evaluating OpenFlow in libNetVirt2012In: The 8th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop 2012 (SNCNW 2012), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LibNetVirt, the library presented and evaluated here, proposes an architecture for a network virtualization abstraction. Network virtualization has been an important research topic for many years but still suffers from the lack of an abstraction level like the one present in virtualization of computing and storage. LibNetVirt is deployed as a library, similar to libvirt in computer virtualization, with a unified interface towards the underlying network specific drivers. The architecture allows management tools to be independent of the underlying technologies. In addition, it enables programmatic and on-demand creation of virtual networks. We have evaluated libNetVirt in an OpenFlow-enabled network in three different tests: the setup time of a flow, the behavior of the system under a Denial of Service attack and the packet losses in high rate UDP flows.

  • 47.
    Turull, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    libNetVirt: The network virtualization library2012In: 2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 5543-5547Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network virtualization has been an important research topic for many years but still suffers from the lack of an abstraction level like the one present in virtualization of computing and storage. Our work in progress presented here proposes an architecture for such a network virtualization abstraction. It is deployed as a library, similar to libvirt in computer virtualization, with a unified interface towards the underlying network specific drivers. The architecture will allow management tools to be independent of the underlying technologies. In addition, it will enable programmatic and on-demand creation of virtual networks. A common set of calls is defined to instantiate different virtual networks, using a single node view to provide the user with a suitable abstraction of the network. We describe a prototype of our proposed architecture on top of an OpenFlow-enabled network. We demonstrate its feasibility for creating isolated virtual networks in a programmatic and on demand fashion.

  • 48.
    Turull, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Performance evaluation of openflow controllers for network virtualization2014In: High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2014 IEEE 15th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 50-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates OpenFlow performance, focusing on how the delay between switch and OpenFlow controller can impact the performance of a network. We use open-source controllers that support network virtualization to evaluate how such delay impacts ICMP, TCP and UDP traffic. We compare the controllers’ flow set-up strategies and we conduct several experiments to compare their TCP and UDP performance. In ad-dition, we introduce a new metric to measure UDP packet losses at the beginning of the flow. The results of the measurements indicate that there are large differences in performance between controllers, and that performance depends on switch-controller delay and flow set-up strategy.

  • 49.
    Turull, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Using libNetVirt to control the virtual network2012In: 2012 IEEE 1st International Conference on Cloud Networking (CLOUDNET) (IEEE CloudNet’12), IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 148-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LibNetVirt proposes an architecture for a network virtualization abstraction using the single node representation model. LibNetVirt is deployed as a library, similar to libvirt in computer virtualization, with a unified interface towards the underlying network specific drivers. The architecture allows management tools to be independent of the underlying technologies. In addition, it enables programmatic and on-demand creation of virtual networks. We have evaluated libNetVirt in an OpenFlow-enabled network in three different tests: the setup time of a flow, the behavior of the system under a Denial of Service attack and the packet losses in high rate UDP flows.

  • 50.
    Zamaere, Bruce
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Hidell, Markus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Sjödin, Peter
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    CVPN: A multi-homed VPN solution for remote patient monitoring2012In: 2012 IEEE 14th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services, Healthcom 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 279-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenges of reliably, and securely, extending a healthcare provider's network into the homes of its patients in order to provide Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) services. It describes the Carenet Virtual Private Network (CVPN) solution, a multi-homed VPN solution implemented as a virtual device driver under Linux. We describe CVPN's architecture and implementation, motivating its design decisions. The initial experimental evaluation, of our proof-of-concept prototype, shows that CVPN's per packet overhead, forwarding delay, and fail-over time are reasonable for healthcare monitoring applications and time-sensitive synchronous communications.

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