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  • 1.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet.
    Lexical and morphosyntactic features of a lexically driven in-group code2017In: Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages ( Print), ISSN 0920-9034, E-ISSN 1569-9870, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 75-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper focuses on the speech of a rural Afro-Brazilian community called Cafundó, situated 150 km from São Paulo. In 1978, when linguistic data were collected, the community constituted approximately eighty individuals, descendants of two slave women who inherited their owners’ proprieties. According to earlier studies, when the inhabitants of Cafundó spoke in their supposed ‘African language,’ Cupópia, they used structures borrowed from Portuguese and a vocabulary of possible African origin. A lexical analysis shows that the etymologies match historical and demographical data, indicating that speakers of varieties of Kimbundu, Kikongo and Umbundu dominated in the community. Through a morphosyntactic analysis, specific features were found in the data, such as copula absence and variable agreement patterns. By showing that some of Cupópia’s specific grammatical features are not derived from the Portuguese spoken by the same speakers but are instead shared with more restructured varieties, this paper defends the hypothesis that this lexically driven in-group code is not simply a regional variety of Portuguese with a number of African-derived words.

  • 2.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholms universitet.
    Concordância de número no SN do português L2 falado em Cabo Verde2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholms universitet.
    Concordância de número no SN no português de Moçambique num contexto comparativo2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholms universitet.
    Concordância variável de número at variedades populares de português de  Moçambique and de Cabo Verde2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholms universitet.
    Concordância variável de número no SN no português L2 de Moçambique – algumas explicações sociais e linguísticas2010In: Journal of Portuguese and Spanish Lexically Based Creoles, ISSN 1646-7000, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 28-50Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Concordância variável de número no SN no português L2 de Moçambique – algumas explicações sociais e linguísticas2010In: Revista de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola, ISSN 1646-7000, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 28-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [pt]

    Neste artigo são analisadas, de forma quantitativa, algumas variáveis sociais e

    linguísticas que regem a concordância variável de número no sintagma nominal no

    português L2 falado em Maputo, Moçambique. Os falantes de português L2 no estudo

    têm uma língua bantu como L1. A partir da análise e da comparação com estudos

    anteriores de concordância variável de número no sintagma nominal (SN) em

    variedades africanas e brasileiras de português, discutem-se algumas explicações

    anteriormente postuladas para este fenómeno. Os resultados da análise das variáveis

    sociais idade de início da aquisição de português e idade indicam que a concordância

    variável de número no SN no português em Moçambique é um fenómeno ligado ao

    contacto linguístico. A análise da variável linguística posição em relação ao

    núcleo/posição linear serve para discutir a hipótese de influência de línguas bantu em

    certas estruturas sintácticas da concordância variável de número. Os resultados

    anteriores apoiam esta hipótese. A comparação com dados de português sem substrato

    bantu levanta a necessidade de considerar também influência de outras línguas

    africanas e/ou explicações mais gerais de contacto linguístico.

  • 7.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Concordância variável de número no SN no português L2 de Moçambique – algumas explicações sociais e linguísticas2010In: Journal of Portuguese and Spanish Lexically Based Creoles, ISSN 1646-7000, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 28-50Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholms universitet.
    Estudo comparativo de concordância nominal and verbal em quatro variedades do português falado2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Learnability as an explanation of language change in contact settings2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated language change in contact settings, especially language shift, has commonly been attributed to innovation during the second language acquisition process (Weinreich, 1979; Thomason & Kaufman, 1988). The role of second language speakers in contact-induced change is investigated quantitatively by Bentz et al. (2013) who find negative correlations between the proportions of L2 speakers and morphosyntactic complexity in synchronic cross-linguistic data. At the same time, evolutionary models and experiments have revealed learnability as a general force in language evolution (Kirby 2001, Kirby et al. 2008), suggesting that more learnable features (such as morphological simplicity or compositionality) would be favored by language acquisition in general and not only by second language acquisition. The aim of this paper is to use agent-based modeling and simulations in order to test if diffusion of linguistic innovation in a language shift setting may result from a general acquisition effect reinforced by large proportions of learners, or if special weight needs to be attributed to second language acquisition. The models’ predictions are compared to linguistic and demographic diachronic data from the ongoing language shift from Bantu languages to Portuguese in Maputo, Mozambique.

    To model linguistic interaction, I adapted Jansson et al. (2015)’s model of creole formation. Speakers interact pairwise and chose a variant of a linguistic feature based on their probability distribution of usage. Each agent modifies their distribution of usage based on what they heard. The simulation starts with a conservative linguistic variant fixed. After a round of interactions, population turnover occurs with some individuals dying and new first and second language speakers entering. New individuals are assigned with a probability of introducing a novel variant during a period of acquisition.  Experienced speakers accommodate less to learners than vice versa.  To investigate the role of first and second language acquisition, we test if a rate of innovation low enough not to spread in a situation with no recruitment of second language speakers, may result in the observed spread of reduced verbal morphology in Maputo Portuguese when demographic parameters are fixed to data on the number of first and second language speakers in Maputo over the period 1975-2007. The linguistic data comprehend recordings with 20 participants in similar circumstances from two time points (1993 & 2007), where variation between the conservative pre-contact variant (full verbal plural agreement) and the innovative variant (deletion of verbal plural suffix) is quantified. Results show it is possible to account for a stable low level of use of the new variant with standard population turnover, as well as to account for the diffusion of the new variant when the proportion of learners increases due to language shift. With parameters set to demographic data on language shift from Bantu languages to Portuguese in Mozambique, changes in proportions of learners are sufficiently high to account for the spread of new variants. The model where all learners introduce the new variant is a better fit to data than the one where only second language learners introduce the new variant. This suggests that learnability This qualitative deviation suggests that mechanisms included in recent models for replicator-neutral language change may also be important to account for contact-driven change where some variants are inherently favored.

  • 10.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Modeling the effect of learnability in contact-induced language change2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Language contact, especially language shift, is known to accelerate language change. This has commonly been attributed to innovations during the second language acquisition process. At the same time, cultural evolution experiments and models have revealed learnability as a general constraint in language evolution, suggesting that more learnable features (such as morphological simplicity), would be favored by language acquisition in general and not only by second language acquisition. I use multi-agent simulations to test if diffusion of linguistic innovation in language shift may result from a general acquisition effect reinforced by large proportions of learners compared to experienced speakers. Learners introduce a new variant, and experienced speakers accommodate less to learners than vice versa. Results show that this way it is possible to account for a stable low level of use of the new variant with standard population turnover, as well as account for the diffusion of the new variant when the proportion of learners increases due to language shift. With parameters set to demographic data on language shift from Bantu languages to Portuguese in Mozambique, changes in proportions of learners are sufficiently high to account for the spread of new variants but the trajectory of change differs from linguistic data. This qualitative deviation suggests that mechanisms included in recent models for replicator-neutral language change may also be important to account for contact-driven change where some variants are inherently favored.

  • 11.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholms universitet.
    NP number agreement in Mozambican Portuguese in a comparative context2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Högskolan Dalarna, Sverige.
    Sekvenser gör människan unik2018In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 1, p. 40-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet.
    Tendências comuns na marcação de plural at variedades africanas and brasileiras do português2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet.
    Tendências universais na marcação de plural at variedades africanas and brasileiras do português2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholms universitet.
    Uma perspectiva nova sobre a concordância no português falado2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Variação, contato e mudança linguística em Moçambique e Cabo Verde: A concordância variável de número em sintagmas nominais do português2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates variable noun phrase number agreement (VNA) in two second language varieties of Portuguese, spoken in Maputo, Mozambique and in Mindelo, Cape Verde. Quantitative VARBRUL analysis is carried out based on recordings made in Maputo and Mindelo 2007 and 2008.

    Previous quantitative studies on VNA in varieties of Brazilian Portuguese (Guy, 1981; Lopes, 2001; Andrade, 2003) as well as on VNA in first and second language varieties of Portuguese from São Tomé (Baxter, 2004; Figueiredo, 2008, 2010) indicate contact between Portuguese and African languages as the main origin of this phenomenon. VNA in Brazilian Portuguese is, however, interpreted by Scherre (1988) and Naro & Scherre (1993, 2007) as the result of language internal drift.

    Varieties of Portuguese from Mozambique and Cape Verde are particularly interesting to contrast in order to investigate influences from African languages on VNA, as in Mozambique Bantu languages are first languages of the vast majority of Portuguese speakers, whereas in Cape Verde, practically all Portuguese speakers are first language speakers of Cape Verdean Creole, whose substrates are West African, and not Bantu, languages. Comparison is also made with previous studies from Brazil and São Tomé.

    The results of this study comment previously postulated explanations for VNA in Portuguese in various ways. The analysis of the variables onset age and age stratum indicates that VNA in the analyzed varieties is a phenomenon linked to the acquisition of Portuguese as a second language and/or language contact rather than the result of internal drift. The fact that all the compared varieties tend to mark plural on pre-head components contradicts Bantu transfer as an explanation for this pattern, and raises the need to also consider more general explanations based on language contact. The basic structural similarity between the compared varieties suggests the existence of a grammatical restructuring continuum.

  • 17.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. University of Pennsylvania, United States of America .
    A model of contact-induced language change: Testing the role of second language speakers in the evolution of Mozambican Portuguese2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0212303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language change is accelerated by language contact, especially by contact that occurs when a group of speakers shifts from one language to another. This has commonly been explained by linguistic innovation occurring during second language acquisition. This hypothesis is based on historical reconstructions of instances of contact and has not been formally tested on empirical data. In this paper, we construct an agent-based model to formalize the hypothesis that second language speakers are responsible for accelerated language change during language shift. We compare model predictions to a unique combination of diachronic linguistic and demographic data from Maputu, Mozambique. The model correctly predicts an increased proportional use of the novel linguistic variants during the period we study. We find that a modified version of the model is a better fit to one of our two datasets and discuss plausible reasons for this. As a general conclusion concerning typological differences between contact-induced and non-contact-induced language change, we suggest that multiple introductions of a new linguistic variant by different individuals may be the mechanism by which language contact accelerates language change.

  • 18.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholm University.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    A model of contact-induced language change: Testing the role of second language speakers in the evolution of Mozambican Portuguese2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0212303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language change is accelerated by language contact, especially by contact that occurs when a group of speakers shifts from one language to another. This has commonly been explained by linguistic innovation occurring during second language acquisition. This hypothesis is based on historical reconstructions of instances of contact and has not been formally tested on empirical data. In this paper, we construct an agent-based model to formalize the hypothesis that second language speakers are responsible for accelerated language change during language shift. We compare model predictions to a unique combination of diachronic linguistic and demographic data from Maputu, Mozambique. The model correctly predicts an increased proportional use of the novel linguistic variants during the period we study. We find that a modified version of the model is a better fit to one of our two datasets and discuss plausible reasons for this. As a general conclusion concerning typological differences between contact-induced and non-contact-induced language change, we suggest that multiple introductions of a new linguistic variant by different individuals may be the mechanism by which language contact accelerates language change.

  • 19.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    Modeling language change triggered by language shift2016In: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference (EVOLANG11) / [ed] S.G. Roberts, C. Cuskley, L. McCrohon, L. Barceló-Coblijn, O. Fehér & T. Verhoef, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    Modeling language change triggered by language shift2016In: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference (EVOLANG11) / [ed] S.G. Roberts, C. Cuskley, L. McCrohon, L. Barceló-Coblijn, O. Feher, T. Verhoef, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    City University of New York.
    Modelling contact-induced language change in Angolan Portuguese2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a model for simulating language change in an expanding speech population using evolutionary game theory, in order to comment on earlier assumptions about linguistic transmission and change in language shift situations. It has largely been assumed that when a group shifts from one language to another, first generation second language (L2) speakers introduce the changes that are stabilized in the second generation of first language (L1) speakers (Fishman 1991: 9; Thomason and Kaufman 1988). Our empirical point of departure is the ongoing language shift from Bantu languages to Portuguese in Angola, which has occurred mainly after independence in 1974. We believe that a realistic model for linguistic innovation and spread needs to include transmission within generations as well as between them and should consider interaction between L1 and L2 varieties. Our computational model attempts to simulate the growth of the Portuguese speaking population in Angola since 1974, as well as the introduction and spread of a possibly contact related linguistic variant (using omission of preposition in locative phrases as an example). The population grows by recruitment of L2 speakers and birth of L1 speakers. For the linguistic feature the simulation starts with the original variant fixed. We add the probability of some individuals introducing the new variant and then allow individuals to interact and update their probabilities of using one variant or the other. By varying the weight for different kinds of interactions and population growth rates for L1 and L2 speakers, the simulation enables us to formalize hypotheses concerning the conditions required for the spread of the new linguistic variant. The outcomes of the simulations will later be compared to data from Cabinda in northern Angola that will be collected in June 2014.

    Preliminary results indicate that at least one of the following two conditions needs to be fulfilled for a variant introduced by L2 speakers to spread: (i) recruitment rate of L2 speakers exceeds birth rate for L1 speakers; (ii) L1 speakers are equally influenced by interactions with L2 and L1 speakers. If birth rate of L1 speakers exceeds recruitment rate for L2 speakers and L1 speakers are less influenced by interaction with L2 speakers than with L1 speakers, the new variant does not spread in the population.

  • 22.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    Modelling contact-induced language change in Angolan Portuguese2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Developing a pidgin corpus2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Is Language Less Cumulative than Other Culture? Indicators of Breakdown and Build-up of Complexityin Pidgins, Creoles and Non-contact Languages2018In: Applications in Cultural Evolution: Arts, Languages, Technologies: Conference abstracts, 2018, p. 18-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study of cultural evolution, human culture is generally assumed to be cumulative, implying increasing complexity and diversity over time (Enquist et al. 2011, Lewis & Laland 2012). Recent studies suggest that evolutionary mechanisms operate differently in different cultural domains (Tamariz et al. 2016), but it has not been discussed whether all mechanisms result in cumulativity. Experiments have shown that compositional language structure emerge as a trade-off between learnability and expressivity (Kirby et al. 2008, 2015), but there is no evidence of languages generally becoming more compositional, or regular, over time. As all modern natural languages are expressive enough for human communicative needs and compressed enough for generational transmission, we suggest that linguistic complexity is 19 not currently cumulative but breaks down and builds up in cycles triggered by demographically determined variation in learnability and expressivity pressures. We focus on pidgins, a special case of natural languages where the expressivity pressure is presumably weaker and learnability pressure stronger than in other languages. We compare pidgins to creoles, where both expressivity and learnability pressures are presumably high, and non-contact languages where the learnability pressure is presumably lower, allowing for more complexity. We analyze compiled material from spoken and written pidgins, spoken creoles and non-contact languages and a parallel bible corpus, applying two complexity measures: the relation between word length and frequency, and pronominal morphology. We observe a smaller degree of exponentiality in the negative correlation between word length and frequency in pidgins than in their lexifiers, likely reflecting the loss of short and common grammatical words. Creoles expose a higher exponentiality in this correlation, which may reflect a newly built up analytical grammar. For pronouns, we observe expected reduced marking of person, number, case and gender in pidgins, increasing in creoles, being highest in non-contact languages.

  • 25.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Funcke, Alexander
    University of Pennsylvania.
    Word Length and word frequency in pidgins and creoles2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Word length and word frequency in pidgins and creoles2014In: Abstracts: SCL/SPCL/ACBLPE Conference 2014, 2014, p. 32-33Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Reite, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    A direção da mudança linguística no português de Maputo: Dados diacrônicos de uma situação de contato2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet.
    Álvarez, Laura
    Stockholms universtet.
    A Cupópia: características gramaticais and lexicais de uma afro-variedade do português no Brasi2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet.
    Álvarez, Laura
    Stockholms universitet.
    A linguagem do Cafundó: caracterização de uma afro-variedade do português2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet.
    Álvarez, Laura
    Stockholms universitet.
    Afro-Brazilian Cupópia: language contact, lexically-driven deliberate change and its grammatical outcomes2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Högskolan Dalarna, Sverige.
    Álvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Helmer, Michelle
    Cardenas, Kirenia
    Concordância variável de número no português de Cabinda: efeitos de uso e aquisição2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32. Reite, Torun
    et al.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Portuguese. Stockholms universitet.
    Oral Portuguese in Maputo from a diachronic perspective – diffusion of linguistic innovations in a language shift scenario2016In: 45th LSRL Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages volume, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Reite, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Oral Portuguese in Maputo from a diachronic perspective: Diffusion of linguistic innovations in a language shift scenario2017In: Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 12: Selected papers from the 45th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), Campinas, Brazil / [ed] Ruth E.V. Lopes, Juanito Ornelas de Avelar, Sonia M. L. Cyrino, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 199-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the diffusion of contact-induced linguistic innovations in Portuguese spoken in Maputo, Mozambique, in two datasets from 1993/4 and 2007, focusing on quantitative accounts of linguistic innovations at lexical, lexico-syntactic, syntactic and morphosyntactic levels. Overall, innovative features that registered in the two datasets are qualitatively the same. Results confirm an increase in the frequency of innovative features related to second language acquisition and language contact at all linguist levels, with particularly high diffusion rates of morphological simplifications. This increase may be related to bilingualism and changes in use of, access to, and input of Portuguese. Furthermore, the qualitative stability of features may be a sign of an emerging usage norm.

  • 34.
    Álvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Language Attitudes in Contact Settings: data from speakers of Portuguese and Bantu languages in Cabinda, Angola2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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