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  • 1.
    Abelin, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet, Avdelningen för lingvistik, logik och vetenskapsteori.
    The perceptual weight of word stress, quantity and tonal word accent in Swedish2018In: Phonology in Protolanguage and Interlanguage / [ed] Babatsouli, Elena & Ingram, David, Sheffield: Equinox Publishing, 2018, p. 316-341Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wherever migration or travelling takes place, people need to learn new languages. This learning entails a variety of interlanguages. Irrespective of whether you are a learner or a teacher of a language, you need to decide how to allocate time and effort for learning and teaching into developing different sub-skills of the language. Four skills are considered in second language teaching and learning; listening, reading, speaking and writing. Proficiency in speaking requires sub-competences, such as pragmatic competence, fluency or making a clear pronunciation. Even having each of these sub-competences for speaking require having sub-skills. For example, to have a "good" pronunciation, one needs to well realise segmental features: phonemes, phonotactics, assimilations, and prosodic features: rhythm and intonation. Most of the time, young children learning their first language (L1) as well as additional languages (L2's) acquire these pronunciation skills without formal training and often reach a native-like speech also in additional languages. By contrast, adult learners of an additional language seldom reach nativelikeness in their pronunciation of the language. However, ideally, they still can achieve a fluent, intelligible and well-received pronunciation of the language. The present paper is concerned with the pronunciation of Swedish as an additional language, in particular, three phonemic prosodic contrasts, namely stress contrast, quantity contrast and tonal word accent contrast. We attempt to find out, among these three prosodic contrasts, which is more crucial than the others for making one's speech intelligible. That is, if the second language learner cannot acquire all of them perfectly, which of them should be given more priority in learning and teaching Swedish pronunciation? We also want to study whether or not a pronunciation lacking one or two of these contrasts can still be well understood.

  • 2.
    Abelin, Åsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    The Perceptual Weight of Word Stress, Quantity and Tonal Word Accent in Swedish2017In: Phonology in Protolanguage and Interlanguage / [ed] Elena Babatsouli and David Ingram, Equinox Publishing, 2017, p. 316-341Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When teaching the pronunciation of an additional language, the teacher should know which properties to give high priority and which to give lower priority. The present study aims at ranking the perceptual weight among the three phonemic prosodic contrasts of Swedish, namely word stress, quantity and tonal word accent. In two experiments, native Swedish subjects were presented with several disyllabic sequences; intact words, nonsense words and words that were distorted with respect to the three prosodic contrasts. The distorted words were not members of minimal pairs. In addition to intact words and non-word distractors, subjects heard originally trochaic words pronounced with iambic stress pattern and vice versa, originally /VːC/ words pronounced as /VCː/ and originally accent I words pronounced with accent II and vice versa. Listeners should decide whether the words were real words or not. The result shows that words with changed word accent category were rather easy to identify, words with changed stress pattern harder to identify, and changed quantity category caused most problems.

  • 3.
    Abelin, Åsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    The relative perceptual weight of two Swedish prosodic contrasts2015In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Monolingual and Bilingual Speech 2015 / [ed] Elena Babatsouli, David Ingram, Chania 73100, Greece: Institute of Monolingual and Bilingual Speech , 2015, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. In addition to 9 vowel and 18 consonant phonemes, Swedish has three prosodic phonemic contrasts: word stress, quantity and tonal word accent. There are also examples of distinctive phrase or sentence stress, where a verb can be followed by either an unstressed preposition or a stressed particle. This study focuses on word level and more specifically on word stress and tonal word accent in disyllabic words. When making curriculums for second language learners, teachers are helped by knowing which phonetic or phonological features are more or less crucial for the intelligibility of speech and there are some structural and anecdotal evidence that word stress should play a more important role for intelligibility of Swedish, than the tonal word accent. The Swedish word stress is about prominence contrasts between syllables, mainly signaled by syllable duration, while the tonal word accent is signaled mainly by pitch contour. The word stress contrast, as in armen [´arːmən] ‘the arm’ - armén [ar´meːn] ‘the army’, the first word trochaic and the second iambic, is present in all regional varieties of Swedish, and realized with roughly the same acoustic cues, while the tonal word accent, as in anden [´anːdən] ‘the duck’ - anden [`anːdən] ‘the spirit’ is absent in some dialects (as well as in singing), and also signaled with a variety of tonal patterns depending on region. The present study aims at comparing the respective perceptual weight of the two mentioned contrasts. Two lexical decision tests were carried out where in total 34 native Swedish listeners should decide whether a stimulus was a real word or a non-word. Real words of all mentioned categories were mixed with nonsense words and words that were mispronounced with opposite stress pattern or opposite tonal word accent category. The results show that distorted word stress caused more non-word judgments and more loss, than distorted word accent. Our conclusion is that intelligibility of Swedish is more sensitive to distorted word stress pattern than to distorted tonal word accent pattern. This is in compliance with the structural arguments presented above, and also with our own intuition.

  • 4.
    Abelin, Åsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    What affects recognition most – wrong wordstress or wrong word accent?2015In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2015, Lund University, Sweden / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis and Joost van de Weijer, 2015, Vol. 55, p. 7-10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to find out which of the two Swedish prosodic contrasts of 1) wordstress pattern and 2) tonal word accent category has the greatest communicative weight, a lexical decision experiment was conducted: in one part word stress pattern was changed from trochaic to iambic, and in the other part trochaic accentII words were changed to accent I.Native Swedish listeners were asked to decide whether the distorted words werereal words or ‘non-words’. A clear tendency is that listeners preferred to give more‘non-word’ responses when the stress pattern was shifted, compared to when wordaccent category was shifted. This could have implications for priority of phonological features when teaching Swedish as a second language.

  • 5. Jeong, H.
    et al.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Othman, J.
    Mutual intelligibility of Malay- and Swedish-accented English: An experimental study2017In: Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2301-9468, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In using English as an international language (EIL), one important issue is mutual intelligibility among EIL speakers from different language backgrounds. The present study investigates the crosslinguistic intelligibility of Malay-accented English and Swedish-accented English, regarding the three phonetic features – word stress pattern, consonant clusters, and long vowel in particular. We prepared 15 English statements that are evidently true or false if understood, and examined to what extent the three phonetic features are related to 30 Swedish and 38 Malaysian listeners’ understandings of the statements read by a speaker from the other language group. We compared the Malaysian and Swedish listeners’ answers given with understanding as well as processing time to respond. The listeners’ own accounts of their struggles in understanding the speakers’ pronunciations were also analyzed. Results show that Malaysian listeners easily understood Swedish-accented English, while Swedish listeners struggled to understand Malay-accented English. The difference between the two groups of listeners seems to be closely related to the degree of the realization of the three phonetic features by the speakers as well as to the degree of the use of these features as perceptual cues by the listeners. Based on the findings, we discuss potential phonetic core features of EIL for intelligibility and some pedagogical implications for teaching English pronunciation to the learners of the language.

  • 6.
    Jeong, Hyeseung
    et al.
    Language & Literacy Education Department, Faculty of Education, University Malaya, Malaysia.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Do Malay and Swedish speakers of English understand each other well? Cross-linguistic comparison for using English as an international language (EIL) [i] Malaysia is a multilingual country where other languages beside Malay, the official language, are spoken. In our study we focus on Malaysian English users whose first language is Malay.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In using English as an international language (EIL), one important issue is the mutual intelligibility of the pronunciations of EIL speakers from different language backgrounds. The present study examines the cross-linguistic intelligibility of Malay English and Swedish English. We prepared 15 English statements (evidently true or false if understood), and examined how well 30 Swedish and 38 Malay listeners understand the statements spoken by a speaker from the other language group by comparing the number of correct answers and processing time. We also analyzed the listeners’ own accounts of their struggles in understanding the speakers’ pronunciations. Results show that Swedish listeners struggled significantly more to understand the Malaysian speaker compared to Malaysians listening to the Swedish speaker. This seems to be because the Malaysian speaker did not clearly realize certain phonetic features, such as word stress pattern, consonant cluster and long vowel. Based on the findings, we discuss the core features of EIL pronunciation for intelligibility, and suggest further attestation and investigation on the concerned matter.

  • 7.
    Jeong, Hyeseung
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Thorén, Bosse
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Evaluating the lingua franca core and functional load principle based on Swedish listeners' perception on L2 speakers’ English phoneme realisation2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In teaching and assessing pronunciation of English as an international lingua franca (ELF), intelligibility is more relevant than nativelikeness (Jenkins, 2015). As guidelines for intelligible ELF pronunciation, the Lingua Franca Core (LFC) syllabus (Jenkins, 2002) and relative functional load (FL) of phonemic contrasts (e.g., Catford, 1987) have been used (e.g., Jeong et al., 2018; Rahimi & Ruzrokh, 2016; Sewell, 2017).The paper examines phonemic details in the LFC and relative FL, based on the intelligibility of second language speakers’ phoneme realisation for Swedish university students. Using the perception of a group of Swedish youths for the study can be rationalised that they are known to have very high proficient English skills as a second language (Norrby, 2015). Speech data with IPA transcriptions were from the Speech Accent Archive (http://accent.gmu.edu/index.php), comprising nine speakers’ readings of the same text, whose first languages were Arabic, French, German, Japanese, Russian, Somali, Thai, Turkish and Urdu respectively. Each of seventy-five Swedish students taking university courses chose and transcribed one of the nine speakers in English orthography. Through comparing errors in the listeners’ transcriptions, their accounts, and the speakers’ segmental features deviating from either American or British English phoneme inventory, we firstly analysed whether, and to what extent such deviation affected intelligibility. From this analysis, some details of the LFC and relative FL were questioned. For example, while the LFC denotes that all consonants besides interdental fricatives need to be realised as in Standard American/British English, replacing some consonants with others, like plural marking /z/ with /s/ or alveolar /ɹ/ with uvular / ʁ/, did not compromise intelligibility. Likewise, while the ɔ/oʊ contrast is known to have high FL, replacing one with the other did not cause misunderstanding (e.g. realising ‘only’ as [ɔnli]). The findings suggest further scrutinising and developing the LFC and relative FL.

  • 8.
    Jeong, Hyeseung
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Thorén, Bosse
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Intelligibility of the alveolar [s] replacing theinitial interdental /θ/ in English words2018In: Proceedings of the Fonetik 2018: The XXXth Swedish Phonetics Conference / [ed] Åsa Abelin & Yasuko Nagano-Madsen, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2018, p. 39-42Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines the intelligibility of a German speaker's replacement of the initial interdental /θ/ with the alveolar fricative [s] in words that occurred in her reading of a short English text. Twenty nine students in university English courses in Sweden listened to, and transcribed the whole reading, where substituting theinitial /θ/ of a word with [s]appeared four times. The result shows that the phoneme substitution by the German speaker did not cause misunderstanding in three instances, but it considerably misled the listeners' understanding of a phrase in one occasion. We discuss this finding in relation to the functional load of the initial θ/scontrast (Catford, 1987), and Jenkins' (2002, 2015) Lingua Franca Core syllabus.

  • 9.
    Jeong, Hyeseung
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Thorén, Bosse
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Othman, Juliana
    University of Malaya, Department of Language and Literacy Education, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Effect of altering three phonetic features on intelligibility of English as a lingua franca: a Malaysian speaker and Swedish listeners2018In: Asian Englishes, ISSN 1348-8678, E-ISSN 2331-2548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our previous study examined the mutual intelligibility of Malaysian English to Swedish listeners and Swedish English to Malaysian listeners. The results showed that Swedish listeners did not understand the Malaysian speaker well. In the present study, the Malaysian speaker was trained to alter her realization of the word stress, consonant clusters and long vowels in a way that previous research has found intelligible for both native and non-native English speakers. The audible and measurable alteration significantly increased the intelligibility of the speaker for Swedish listeners. This indicates that the three phonetic features are important for intelligibility in international contexts and suggests including the word stress in the Lingua Franca Phonetic Core. Moreover, we discuss that Malaysian English being a dialect and Swedish English being a similect may be relevant to their mutual intelligibility and relate the discussion to teaching English pronunciation in countries where English has been localized.

  • 10.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Andraspråkstalares realisering av svenskans kvantitetsdistinktion2006In: Svenskans beskrivning 28: Förhandlingar vid tjugoåttonde sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning - Örebro den 14-15 oktober 2005, 2006, p. 369-378Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie utgår från de behov som finns inom undervisningen i svenska som andraspråk,

    t.ex. vilka fonologiska kontraster och vilka fonetiska korrelat som är viktigast för att göra sig

    förstådd. Hur kan man beskriva de viktiga fonologiska/fonetiska egenskaperna så att de blir

    hanterliga för lärare och inlärare?

    Långvarigt arbete med undervisning, studier samt diskussioner med lärare och forskare har lett till

    slutsatsen att framförallt betoning och kvantitet är avgörande för att man ska göra sig förstådd.

    Forskning inom svensk prosodi ger stöd för tanken att duration (fysisk längd) är den viktigaste

    perceptuella ledtråden till både betoningen och kvantiteten i svenska.

    Svenskans ordbetoning kan illustreras med ordpar som kallas-kalas, racket-raket m.fl. medan

    kvantitetsdistinktion enklast illustreras med ordpar som tal-tall, vila-villa etc. Mitt avhandlingsarbete

    handlar främst om durationens roll som förmedlare av svenskans kvantitet, och om durationens

    samspel med vokalljudens spektrala egenskaper (klangfärg). Den komplementära konsonantlängden,

    som är nödvändig för generell förlängning av betonade stavelser spelar också en central roll i min

    forskning.

    Infödda svenskars realisering av kvantitetsdistinktionen är känd för att bestå av ett intrikat samspel

    mellan duration, spektrum och diftongering, för att skilja mellan lång och kort vokalallofon. Detta

    samspel skiljer sig mellan olika vokalfonem och dessutom mellan olika regionala varianter/dialekter.

    På grund av den nämnda komplexiteten kan man vänta sig att en andraspråkstalare medvetet eller

    omedvetet väljer en mindre komplex realisering och tar fasta på någon av de nämnda parametrarna

    på bekostnad av övriga. På grund av den dominans som durationen har som korrelat hos infödda

    talare, inom såväl vokalinventariet som det geografiska språkområdet, kan man förvänta att

    andraspråkstalare använder sig mer av duration än av klangfärgsskillnader och diftongering.

    Huvudfrågor för den aktuella studien är:

    • Hur gör framgångsrika andraspråkstalare rent fonetiskt/akustiskt för att förmedla svenskans

    kvantitetsdistinktion?

    • Har de framgångsrika talarnas förstaspråk fonologisk kvantitet i högre grad än icke

    framgångsrika talares?

    33 andraspråkstalare med 18 olika förstaspråk spelades in när de uttalade testorden gratis, matta,

    vila, sillen, mäta och etta. Orden uttalades i bärfrasen ”Det var ……… jag menade”. 10 infödda

    svenska talare, 5 män och 5 kvinnor, spelades in som referensmaterial. Durationer för hela

    yttranden, testorden, betonad vokal och efterföljande konsonant mättes och några relativa mått

    beräknades. Då gratis och matta är det ordpar där infödda svenskar oftast har klart hörbar spektral

    skillnad mellan lång och kort vokalallofon, mättes för dessa ord även värdet hos första och andra

    formanten, som är det gängse akustiska måttet på skillnaden i vokalspektrum i dimensionerna

    främre-bakre samt öppen-sluten. För ordparet vila-sillen undersöktes även graden av

    diftongering/palatalisering hos lång vokalallofon, som är ett typiskt drag i central standardsvenska.

    Analysen skedde med hjälp av lyssning, oscillogram och spektrogram i talanalysprogrammet Praat.

    Den huvudsakliga studien jämför andraspråkstalarnas lyckade uttal av testorden dels med de

    misslyckade uttalen och dels med de infödda svenska talarnas uttal av samma ord. Resultatet visar

    att de andraspråkstalare som fått ”godkänt” av samtliga 10 infödda svenska lyssnare, använde

    duration i ungefär samma utsträckning som de svenska talarna och spektrum/diftongering i betydligt

    mindre utsträckning.

    Modersmålets nyttjande av fonologisk kvantitet hade i detta material inte någon nämnvärd inverkan

    på hur talarna lyckades förmedla kvantiteten i svenska.

  • 11.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Dags att skrota "lång och kort vokal" inom svenska som andraspråk2013In: Svenskans beskrivning 32, 2011 / [ed] Björn Bihl, Peter Andersson, Lena Lötmarker, Karlstad, 2013, p. 296-304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I sektionsföredraget presenteras argument för att se svenskans långa och korta språkljud ur ett betoningsperspektiv snarare än ur ett vokalperspektiv, när svenskt uttal undervisas för andraspråksinlärare. Argument som presenteras är av pedagogisk-strategisk och av strukturell-empirisk karaktär. Så till exempel tar jag upp att andraspråksinlärare som ska lära sig svenskt uttal kan ha andra behov än svenska barn (med ett perfekt infött uttal) som ska lära sig stava. De infödda svenska barnen har en inlärd känsla för hur längd fördelas mellan vokal och konsonant i betonade stavelser. Därför kan fokus på ”lång/kort vokal” vara en framkomlig väg när dessa barn ska lära sig enkel- och dubbelteckning av konsonanter i skrift.  Vidare är det genom studier och ”anekdotisk konsensus” känt att svenska ord med korrekt ljudföljd blir i stort sett obegripliga då betoningen hamnar på fel stavelse. Detta har undersökts av främst Bannert (1987) men många känner till ramsor i stil med ”mulétt, kulétt, illá vulétt idé dödáss vilórum” som är ett försök att transkribera en konsekvent felbetoning av ”mulet, kulet illa vulet i de dödas vilorum”. Slutsatsen av Bannerts försök och den upplevda obegripligheten hos felbetonade ord är att betoning av rätt stavelse i ord bör prioriteras högt inom uttalsundervisningen.

     

    Ett antal studier genom tiderna visar att ordbetoning i svenska realiseras främst genom ökad varaktighet hos betonade stavelser i jämförelse med obetonade. Den ökade varaktigheten gäller naturligtvis även stavelser med fonologiskt kort vokal, varvid den komplementära vokal-konsonantlängden i betonade svenska stavelser gör att första stavelsen i t.ex. händerna förlängs med hjälp av /n/-ljudet. Eftersom svenskans betoning så tydligt realiseras genom ömsom vokal- och ömsom konsonantlängd, faller det sig naturligare att betrakta längden som något som följer av betoning och inte först och främst en egenskap hos svenska vokaler.

     

    Vidare sätts det svenska betonings- och längdsystemet in i ett tvärspråkligt perpektiv, där vi påminns om att många språk dels har ”fast betoning”, dels kanske inte har någon distinktiv längd alls, eller i många fall en distinktiv längd som inte överensstämmer med det svenska systemet.

     

    Ytterligare argument och forskningsresultat kommer att framföras för att även tona ner den pedagogiska betydelsen av den välkända spektrala kvalitetsskillnaden mellan lång och kort vokalallofon. Denna är beroende av regional varietet och även av vilka vokalfonem det gäller. Till sist presenteras en tänkbar undervisningsstrategi baserad på de rön som redovisats.

     

    Referenser

    Bannert, R. (1987), From Prominent Syllables to a Skeleton of Meaning: a Model of Prosodically Guided Speech Recognition. In Proceedings of the XIth ICPhS Tallinn, (s 73-76)

  • 12.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Durations of phonologically long segments in native and foreign accented Swedish2010In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2010, Lund, June 2-4, 2010 / [ed] Schötz, Susanne; Ambrazaitis, Gilbert, Lund, 2010, Vol. 54, p. 103-106Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Funderingar och forskning kring en basprosodisk undervisningsstrategi för uttalsundervisning i svenska som andraspråk2007In: Språklig mångfald och hållbar samhällsutveckling: Rapport från ASLA:s höstsymposium Eskilstuna, 9-10 november 2006, 2007, p. 265-284Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    In all teaching, some parts of the material probably is more important than others. It can be felt that for a long time all phonetic features in the field of Swedish as an L2, have been considered equally important for an acceptable L2-speech. In the late 70:s, however, distinct ideas of priority developed: A research project in Lund, conducted by Eva Gårding and Robert Bannert, aimed at optimizing Swedish pronunciation, concluded that prosody is a prerequisite for making oneself understood in spoken Swedish. Olle Kjellin (1978) contributed with the book Svensk prosodi i praktiken ’Swedish prosody in practice’. Here prosody was described in an easily comprehensible and consistent way..

    Some 30 years later many teaching media have adopted a simplified method for prosody marking in texts, that mostly is manifested in the underlining of letters that correspond to phonologically long segments, e.g. mata ‘feed’ – matta ‘carpet’, instead of just marking long or short vowel. This simple strategy contains – among others – the following assumptions:

    · Stressed syllables have longer duration than unstressed ones, and the extra length lies in the vowel or the postvocalic consonant.

    · Lengthening the correct segment in stressed syllables is the primary way of realizing both stress and quantity – vowel and consonant durations are equally important.

    · The rhythmical properties of Swedish, i.e. stress and quantity – are more important than tonal properties e.g. the word accents 1/acute and 2/grave.

    · Segment duration, as a means of realizing quantity, is more important than spectral differences between /V:/ and /V/

    My research focuses on the duration of the postvocalic consonant, and my results imply that:

    · Duration is the main perceptual cue for quantity in Swedish, for all vowels except /ʉ/, but duration does contribute the categorization in long and short /ʉ/.

    · The duration of the postvocalic consonant helps listeners to perceive quantity category when the vowel duration is between typical values for long and short allophone.

    · Unambiguous L2-realizations of Swedish quantity and word stress always follow the temporal pattern /V:C/-/VC:/.

    · Native Swedish speakers produced longer postvocalic consonants after short vowel in English and German words, than did native speakers of English and German.

  • 14.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Inte utan konsonantlängd: Svenskt uttal i ett andraspråksperspektiv2008In: Svenskans beskrivning 30. Förhandlingar vid Trettionde sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning, Stockholm den 10 och 11 oktober 2008 / [ed] Fallk, Cecilia; Nord, Andreas; Palm, Rune, Stockholm, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta av oss har kunnat konstatera att vuxna som lär sig ett andraspråk – t.ex. svenska – får en brytning som dröjer sig kvar även om inläraren vistas i andraspråksmiljön i decennier. Denna brytning kan vara störande, knappt märkbar eller göra talet obegripligt. Bland lärare och läromedelsförfattare har en samsyn börjat växa fram angående prosodins stora betydelse för hur funktionellt ett svenskt andraspråksuttal blir. Det har visat sig att betoning av fel stavelse i ord, ger den infödde svensken stora svårigheter att förstå talet. Vad är då betoning i svenska? Den upplevda prominensen hos vissa stavelser har ett antal så kallade fonetiska korrelat, och ett av de viktigaste för svenskans betoning har visat sig vara durationen. I svenskan finns ett fenomen kallat komplementär längd, som innebär att en betonad stavelse kan förlängas på i princip två sätt: antingen förlängs stavelsens vokal som i vila, eller så förlängs stavelsens konsonant, som i villa. Om man betraktar skillnaden mellan vila och villa som enbart en fråga om vokallängd, går man miste om möjligheten att ge robusta regler för stavelseförlängning i ord med ”kort vokal”, och därmed kan andraspråksinlärarna gå miste om ett verktyg att förlänga ca hälften av alla de betonade stavelser som borde förlängas. I ett antal experiment har jag undersökt den postvokaliska konsonantens roll för att signalera både svenskans kvantitetsdistinktion (vila-villa) och ordbetoningsdistinktionen (racket-raket), och funnit att den fonologiska konsonantlängden, manifesterad som ökad duration, behövs för att ge orden ett otvetydigt uttal. En studie med svenskar som talar engelska och tyska, visar också att de svenska talarna uttalade längre postvokaliska konsonanter än infödda talare av engelska och tyska, i ord som av svenskar rimligen uppfattas som havande kort vokal. Slutsatsen av mina studier är att den komplementära vokal-konsonantlängden är ett starkt temporalt mönster i svenska, och att inkluderandet av konsonantlängd i språkbeskrivningen åtminstone inom andraspråksundervisningen, ger en mer logisk och ändamålsenlig bild av svensk prosodi än en beskrivning som enbart tar hänsyn till vokallängd. Likställandet av vokal- och konsonantlängd som uttalsmål kan förväntas främja inlärarnas behärskning av både kvantitetsdistinktionen och ordbetoningsdistinktionen. I svenskans fonologiska system och de regionala variationerna av hur prosodiska kategorier signaleras, finns dessutom grund för att prioritera temporala kontraster som betoning och kvantitet före tonala kontraster som ordaccenterna 1/akut och 2/grav (ánden-ànden). En strategi kallad Basprosodi presenteras, där svenskans temporala prosodiska system ses som den grund som andra prosodiska och segmentella drag kan bygga på.

  • 15.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Kärnan i uttalsundervisning: Vad bör lärare prioritera?2016In: Flerspråkighet som resurs – Symposium 2015 / [ed] Björn Kindenberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2016, 1, p. 55-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den som undervisar i uttal varken kan eller bör ta på sig att arbeta bort alla former av brytning. Vissa faktorer när det gäller uttal är mer prioriterade än andra, och vissa är ovidkommande för det som är överordnat vid kommunikation, nämligen förståelsen. I detta kapitel redogör författaren för vad som utmärker tal och uttal, som en bakgrund till så kallade kärnegenskaper vid uttals- undervisning.

  • 16.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Perceived quality of Swedish with a foreign accent: Comparison of speech with different temporal organization2012In: Proceedings: FONETIK 2012 / [ed] Anders Eriksson, Åsa Abelin, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2012, p. 135-138Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to study variations in perceived quality as an effect of temporally differing Swedish with a foreign accent, recordings of one Spanish and one Estonian speaker were presented to groups of native Swedish listeners. Both inter-speaker differences as well as intraspeaker differences between intact and manipulated versions were studied. Temporal manipulations refer only to the durations of phonologically long segments. Segments were lengthened in the case of the Spanish speaker and shortened in the case of the Estonian speaker. Listeners tended to rate the pronunciation of the Estonian speaker higher than that of the Spanish speaker regardless of intact or manipulated version, whereas listeners who compared intact version to manipulated version tended to rate versions with “long sounds” higher than versions with “short sounds”. A substantial part of the native Swedish listeners rated intact and manipulated versions equally, but if they rated one over the other, the “long sound ” version was always rated as bestpronunciation with respect to three quality-related variables.

  • 17.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Relative durations of post-vocalic consonants in readaloud Spanish by native Swedish L2-learners2013In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2013: The XXVIth Annual Phonetics Meeting 12–13 June 2013, Linköping University Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Robert Eklund, Linköping: Linköping universitet , 2013, p. 81-84Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prosody is said to be a persistent feature in foreign accents, particularly in the speech of adult learners. Native Swedish speakers have been reported to lengthen vowels in Spanish as well as post-vocalic consonants in English and German, more than native speakers of the respective languages. The aim of the present study is to examine whether native Swedish learners of Spanish produce increased postvocalic consonant durations in a reading aloud exercise. The text contains certain words that could be expected to trigger complementary consonant lengthening in native Swedish speakers. The result shows that there is no general tendency for native Swedes to lengthen post-vocalic consonants more than native speakers of Spanish in the present speech material. There are examples of longer consonant durations in the speech of the native,Swedish subjects, but it could be a coincidence. A conclusion is that the text used in the study, and probably Spanish as a language, contains few words that are ideal for triggering lengthening of post-vocalic consonants in native Swedish speakers.

  • 18.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Rätt betoning gör dig förstådd2009In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, Vol. -, no 1, p. 17-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Svensk fonetik för andraspråksundervisningen2014Book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Svenska som andraspråk, Svenska två, svenska för invandrare – Vad är det? Duger det inte med vanlig svenska?2010In: Lisetten, ISSN 1101-5128, no 3, p. 10-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Swedish accent: Duration of post-vocalic consonants in native swedes2007In: 16th International Conference of Phonetic Sciences: 6-10 August 2007 Saarbrücken Germany, 2007, p. 1693-1696Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In order to test the persistency of the Swedish

    complementary durational pattern of VCsequences

    in stressed syllables, a number of native

    Swedish speakers were recorded when

    pronouncing words in English and German. The

    words were of a kind that were expected to be

    perceived by Swedes as having “short vowel”.

    Swedish speakers pronounced the test words with

    significantly longer post-vocalic stop consonant /k/

    and /t/, than did native English and German

    speakers, but not when the test word contained a

    post-vocalic nasal /m/. This asymmetry was not

    found when native Swedish speakers pronounced

    Swedish words with the same segments in the VCsequence.

  • 22.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    The priority of temporal aspects in L2-Swedish prosody: Studies in perception and production2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign accent can be everything from hardly detectable to rendering the second language speech unintelligible. It is assumed that certain aspects of a specific target language contribute more to making the foreign accented speech intelligible and listener friendly, than others. The present thesis examines a teaching strategy for Swedish pronunciation in second language education. The teaching strategy “Basic prosody” or BP, gives priority to temporal aspects of Swedish prosody, which means the temporal phonological contrasts word stress and quantity, as well as the durational realizations of these contrasts. BP does not prescribe any specific tonal realizations. This standpoint is based on the great regional variety in realization and distribution of Swedish word accents. The teaching strategy consists virtually of three directives:

    · Stress the proper word in the sentence.

    · Stress proper syllables in stressed words and make them longer.

    · Lengthen the proper segment – vowel or subsequent consonant – in the stressed syllable.

    These directives reflect the view that all phonological length is stress-induced, and that vowel length and consonant length are equally important as learning goals. BP is examined in the light of existing findings in the field of second language pronunciation and with respect to the phonetic correlates of Swedish stress and quantity. Five studies examine the relation between segment durations and the categorization made by native Swedish listeners. The results indicate that the postvocalic consonant duration contributes to quantity categorization as well as giving the proper duration to stressed syllables. Furthermore, native Swedish speakers are shown to apply the complementary /V: C/ - /VC:/ pattern also when speaking English and German, by lengthening postvocalic consonants. The correctness of the priority is not directly addressed but important aspects of BP are supported by earlier findings as well as the results from the present studies.

  • 23.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Turning a didactic experience into science and back: teaching Swedish pronunciation to adult immigrants2015In: Språkdidaktik: Researching Language Teaching and Learning / [ed] Eva Lindgren and Janet Enever, Umeå: Department of Language Studies, Umeå University , 2015, p. 105-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Thorén, Bosse
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Jeong, Hyeseung
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division for Educational Science and Languages.
    Acoustic Results of Pronunciation Training2018In: Proceedings of the Fonetik 2018: The XXXth Swedish Phonetics Conference / [ed] Åsa Abelin & Yasuko Nagano-Madsen, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2018, p. 67-72Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examaines changes in a native Malaysian’s pronunciation of word stress, vowel length and consonant clusters before and after she was tranined. Jeong & Thorén (under review) showed that this training made the speaker’s pronunciation more intelligible to native Swedish listeners. We look at the changes on an acoustic level by measuring vowel duration, word duration, f0 patterns and realization of consonant clusters. The result shows that, after training, her pronunciation improved in all the three aspects. The improvement was audible as well as measurable with acoustical changes in absolute and relative vowel duration and realization of consonant clusters. Word stress patterns were also improved but with less clear-cut acoustic correlates.

  • 25.
    Thorén, Bosse
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Jeong, Hyeseung
    Language & Literacy Education Department, Faculty of Education, University Malaya, Malaysia.
    Difference in L1 and L2 speakers’ temporal realizations of Swedish stressed syllables2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Difference in L1 and L2 speakers’ realizations of Swedish phonological length.

    Swedish has a trading temporal relation between the vowel and consonant in stressed syllables (in either form of /V:C/ or /VC:/), which makes all stressed syllables long. Displaying this stress feature correctly can be one important condition for L2 speakers of Swedish to be well understood (Abelin & Thorén 2015), since duration is the major perceptual cue for stress (Fant & Kruckenberg, 1994). The paper presents a study that examined whether there is a difference between the pronunciations of L1 and L2 Swedish speakers, in terms of the duration ratio between the phonologically long segment and the whole word. It was predicted that at least the minimum value of the variation would be greater among L1 speakers than L2 speakers. Sixty-two L2 speakers and thirty-two L1 speakers were recorded when pronouncing three Swedish words with /VC:/ quantity. The data included reading aloud by the L2-speakers and reading aloud in normal, solemn and poetic style by the L1-speakers. While the L2 speakers spoke each word once, some of the L1 speakers did plural times, producing fifty different versions. The relative duration of the phonologically long sound is a measure suggested here to be relevant for both stress and quantity realization. Although preliminary, the results confirmed the prediction: the native Swedish speakers have higher mean value for ratios than non-native speakers, and the both minimum and maximum values for L1-speakers are higher than the corresponding values for L2-speakers. This value distribution indicates that L1 Swedish speakers pronounce longer stressed syllables than L2-speakers do, when measured against the duration of the whole word. Based on the findings, the study suggests that duration exaggeration of phonologically long segments can be used when teaching pronunciation to L2 learners of Swedish, raising their awareness of both stress and quantity distinctions.

    Abelin, Å. & Thorén, B. (2015) What affects recognition most – wrong word stress or wrong word accent? Proceedings of Fonetik 2015, Working papers in General Linguistics and Phonetics, Lund, 7–10. ISSN: 0280-526X

    Fant, G. & Kruckenberg, A. (1994) Notes on stress and word accent in Swedish STL-QPSR 2-3/1994, 125-144

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