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  • 1.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Iana, Vassileva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wester, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Introducing a demand-based electricity distribution tariff in the residential sector: demand response and customer perception2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 5008-5025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demand response is essential to fully exploit the Swedish power system, which in turn is an absolute prerequisite for meeting political goals related to energy efficiency and climate change. Demand response programs are, nonetheless, still exceptional in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market, one contributory factor being lack of knowledge about the extent of the potential gains. In light of these circumstances, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the scope of households’ response to, and assessing customers’ perception of, a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff. The results show that households as a whole have a fairly high opinion of the demand-based tariff and act on its intrinsic price signals by decreasing peak demand in peak periods and shifting electricity use from peak to off-peak periods.

  • 2.
    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Active buildings in smart grids - Exploring the views of the Swedish energy and buildings sectors2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 117, p. 185-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smart grids is expected to shift the role of buildings in power networks from passive consumers to active players that trade on power markets in real-time and participate in the operation of networks. Although there are several studies that report on consumer views on buildings with smart grid features, there is a gap in the literature about the views of the energy and buildings sectors, two important sectors for the development. This study fills this gap by presenting the views of key stakeholders from the Swedish energy and buildings sectors on the active building concept with the help of interviews and a web survey. The findings indicate that the active building concept is associated more with energy use flexibility than self-generation of electricity. The barriers to development were identified to be primarily financial due to the combination of the current low electricity prices and the high costs of technologies. Business models that reduce the financial burdens and risks related to investments can contribute to the development of smart grid technologies in buildings, which, according to the majority of respondents from the energy and buildings sectors, are to be financed by housing companies and building owners. 

  • 3.
    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Buildings in the future energy system: Perspectives of the Swedish energy and buildings sectors on current energy challenges2015In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 107, p. 254-263, article id Article number 6090Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings are expected to play a key role in the development and operation of future smart energy systems through real-time energy trade, energy demand flexibility, self-generation of electricity, and energy storage capabilities. Shifting the role of buildings from passive consumers to active players in the energy networks, however, may require closer cooperation between the energy and buildings sectors than there is today. Based on 23 semi-structured interviews and a web survey answered by key stakeholders, this study presents the views of the energy and buildings sectors on the current energy challenges in a comparative approach. Despite conflicting viewpoints on some of the issues, the energy and buildings sectors have similar perspectives on many of the current energy challenges. Reducing CO2 emissions is a shared concern between the energy and buildings sectors that can serve as a departure point for inter-sectoral cooperation for carbon-reducing developments, including the deployment of smart energy systems. The prominent energy challenges were identified to be related to low flexibilities in energy supply and use, which limit mutually beneficial cases, and hence cooperation, between the energy and buildings sectors today.

  • 4.
    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Cooperation for climate-friendly developments: An analysis of the relationship between the energy and buildings sectors in Sweden2016In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 353-370Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings account for more than 40 % of the total energy demand in the European Union (EU). The energy sector is responsible for 80 % of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the EU, of which more than a third are emitted as a result of energy use in buildings. Given these numbers and the large potential for energy savings in buildings, the energy and buildings sectors emerged as key contributors to fulfilling the European climate targets. Effective cooperation between these two key sectors can contribute significantly to the efficacy of the European climate strategy. However, there may be factors that negatively impact the relationship between the energy and buildings sectors and put cooperation in climate-friendly developments at risk. Based on 23 semi-structured interviews and a web survey answered by key stakeholders, this paper provides a snapshot of the current level of cooperation between the energy and buildings sectors in Sweden and identifies factors that impact the interdependencies between the two sectors.

    The findings show that the current business models in energy supply and the regulations in place limit the development of mutually beneficial cases between the energy and buildings sectors. This paper contributes to improved knowledge for policymaking that affects both sectors and highlights issues for further study.

  • 5.
    Campillo, Javier
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Barberis, Stefano
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Traverso, Alberto
    University of Genoa, Italy.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Open-Source Modelling and Simulation of Microgrids and Active Distribution Networks2015In: Sustainable Places 2015, Conference Proceedings, Sigma Orionis , 2015, p. 91-99Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed generation, and active distribution networks constitute an economic and technically viable alternative for reducing green house gases emissions and increase the use of renewable energy sources in local distribution grids. These active networks allow replacing large generators, usually located far from the consumption loads, thus considerably minimizing distribution losses and increase renewable energy penetration. However, designing and successfully controlling these complex networks, becomes a great engineering challenge; most computational modeling and simulation tools available for these systems are either focused on the individual generation components themselves, or the economic dispatch of multiple generators. Moreover, these tools often rely on closed source commercial software that use manufacturers' data for predefining the parameters of the models' components. This approach does not provide enough flexibility to users, since often is not possible to adjust these parameters. This paper presents object- oriented, component-based, open software components for simulating and optimizing the operation of active distribution networks, including multiple distributed generators and energy using the Modelica open-source modeling language. 

  • 6.
    Campillo, Javier
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Technology capacity assessment tool for developing city action plans to increase efficiency in mid-sized cities in Europe2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition towards energy efficient cities requires an effective upgrade of all the different areas of urban energy production, distribution and use. The paper presents a method for collecting the information required for analysing the technical variation of strengths and weaknesses in infrastructure capabilities in European medium-sized cities, as well as to help identify best practices and tools for enhancing the energy performance of city energy systems.

  • 7.
    Campillo, Javier
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Is real-time electricity pricing suitable for residential users without demand-side management?2016In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 109, p. 310-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The smart metering infrastructure in Sweden allows electricity providers to offer electricity RTP (real time pricing) to homeowners, together with other dynamic pricing contracts across the country. These contracts are supposed to encourage users to shift power consumption during peak hours to help balance the load in the power system. Of all the available contracts in Sweden, monthly-average price holds the largest share, in response to the low electricity prices during the last three years. It is not clear if RTP will become a popular dynamic pricing scheme since daily price fluctuations might keep customers away from this type of contract. Literature review suggests that RTP adoption is only beneficial when combined with the use of customer demand flexibility, but it does not provide enough information about users adopting RTP without changing their electricity usage profile. This paper studies the economic impact if customers would shift to RTP contracts without adopting demand-side management. To achieve this, electricity costs from a large group of households were calculated and compared between both pricing schemes using the hourly consumption data of a 7-year period. Results suggest that the RTP electricity contract offer a considerable economic savings potential even without enabling consumer demand-side management. 

  • 8.
    Campillo, Javier
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lundström, Lukas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thyghesen, Richard
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Beyond the building–understanding building renovations in relation to urban energy systems2016In: Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning, ISSN 2069-3419, Vol. 2016, no Spec. Iss. 5, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 35% of Europe’s building stock is over 50 years old and consumes about 175 kWh/m2 for heating, between 3-5 times the amount required by the newly constructed buildings. Annually, between1 and 1.5% new buildings are built and only between 0.2 and 0.5% are removed, therefore the focus needs to be put on the renovation of the existing building stock. The implementation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) in the residential sector becomes a very important strategy to meet the EU´s 20% energy consumption reduction of the 20-20-20 goals. The main challenge, however, is to determine which of the ECMs strategies are the best to provide not just with the best energy consumption reduction, but also with the best environmental impact and economic benefits. This paper addresses this issue and analyses the impact of different ECMs by focusing not only on the buildings themselves, but on the energy supply network and the overall energy system as a whole. To achieve this, we review five case studies in Sweden that use different ECMs as well as other alternatives, such as: distributed generation (DG) and energy storage. Results suggest that although there is no standard protocol that would fit all renovation projects, the existing methodologies fall short to provide the best overall impact on the energy system and that a broader analysis of the local conditions should be carried out before performing large building renovation projects.

  • 9.
    Campillo, Javier
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Torstensson, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar, Cartagena, Colomb.
    Energy Demand Model Design for Forecasting Electricity Consumption and Simulating Demand Response Scenarios in Sweden2012In: / [ed] J. Yan, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of a deregulated power system market and development of smart-metering technologies in Sweden, bring new opportunities for fully exploiting its power system efficiency and reliability, such as price-based demand response (DR) programs at a large scale for household, commercial and industrial users. 

    The deployments of these DR programs require, however, very accurate demand forecasting models. The traditional approach of obtaining the total energy use and peak demand does not offer the required detailed information. This article reviews several methodologies for forecasting electricity consumption from a bottom-up perspective in order to define the required parameters and structure for obtaining an energy model. This model will finally include energy usage data, behavioural parameters obtained from a survey conducted with 5 000 end-users in different Swedish distribution system operators’ areas, and physical conditions for the facilities (internal/external temperatures and insulation materials). This information is provided from previous research studies performed at Mälardalen University and Swedish electric utilities companies. 

    The obtained model should be able to adjust its parameters dynamically in order to simulate several demand-response scenarios based on four different strategies: time of use pricing, use of curtailable/interruptible rates, imposition of penalties for usage beyond predetermined levels, and real time pricing.

  • 10.
    Campillo, Javier
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Economic Impact of Dynamic Electricity Pricing Mechanisms Adoption fo rHouseholds in Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global smart metering market growth has increased significantly over the past few years and the trend is expected to continue. Smart metering technology enables energy consumption feedback and the adoption of dynamic pricing mechanisms that encourages users to shift power consumption from peak-use times to lower-use times, in order to help balance the load in the power system. In Sweden particularly, the introduction of the new legislation and adoption of remote meters in 2009, in combination with more flexible pricing schemes, offer a great opportunity for users to reduce energy consumption during peak times, increase their energy efficiency and therefore reduce their overall cost. More recently, in 2012, Swedish energy providers started offering hourly spot-based electricity price to homeowners in order give them access to pricing mechanisms that are closer to the real cost of electricity supply. Additionally to hourly pricing, other dynamic pricing contracts are available for consumers all across the country; however, conventional agreements that use fixed-rates for electricity are still the most common. This paper analyzes the economic impact for consumers, if dynamic pricing, enabled through smart metering technologies, is adopted. To achieve this, electricity costs from a large group of households were calculated, using users’ hourly consumption data with both conventional fixed rates and real time pricing, in order to understand their impact on customers’ bills. Obtained results suggest that real time pricing has great savings potential, especially for years where summer rainfall and winter conditions are within average. However, in order to increase savings and have them consistent year after year, changes in user time-of-use consumption profile are required. Moreover, this research work leads to further analysis on dynamic pricing combined with demand response in order to optimize electricity costs.

  • 11.
    Campillo, Javier
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Electricity Demand Impact from Increased use of Ground Sourced Heat Pumps2012In: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe, 2012, p. Artnr. 6465876-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ground-sourced heat pumps as main heating systems has increased in Sweden in the last fifteen years to the point that it is the country with the highest amount of GSHP in Europe. Heat pumps are chosen by many households due to their economic savings value; In contrast, electricity prices in Sweden have almost doubled since 2006, threatening their economic benefits. It is therefore, essential to understand GSHPs impact on the user´s electricity consumption and provide suitable demand-response programs that could help develop a model capable of forecasting consumption and provide decision support information to make the best use of the technology. This paper analyses questionnaire surveys and consumption patterns were evaluated for 322 households with installed GSHPs and different pricing schemes in order to increase the understanding of mass use of this type of heating system.

  • 12.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lundström, Lukas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Energy efficiency improvements by renovation actions: in Lagersberg and Råbergstorp, Stoke on Trent and Allingsås2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers evaluation of some renovation projects and compares energy saving effects versus renovation costs.

    It can be seen that advanced renovation to passive house standard is significantly more expensive than “normal” renovation, but also gives significant improvement by a 62 % reduction of total energy and 85 % reduction in heat demand. The cost associated with the renovation is somewhere in the range of 130–570 €/m2, depending on how the total renovation costs are split between energy and other aspects. Probably somewhere in-between is most correct. This can be compared to mostly better heat control by measuring temperature in every third apartment and controlling heat supply to keep a constant temperature. This gives the possibility to have a significantly lower set point, 21 ºC instead of 24 ºC as earlier. Together with some other actions, 34 % energy savings were achieved at a cost of 28 €/m2. Also renovations with significantly more actions were evaluated, where the cost also is in-between.

    From this we can conclude that with more advanced and costly renovations we can achieve very strong reductions, which may be feasible if the renovation demand is high anyhow, while cheap and low cost actions can be good enough for quite good buildings.

    Also behavior with respect to energy use was evaluated. We here can see that the use is very different in different apartments depending on behavior. Energy information actions were giving positive effects on energy demand for the majority of investigated tenants, while approximately 25 % did not reduce or even increased their consumption.

  • 13.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    How to save energy to reach a balance between production and consumption of heat, electricity and fuels for vehicles2011In: International Green Energy Conference (IGEC-6) Anadolu University / [ed] Hikmet Karakoc, Eskeshir, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a potential to utilize a significant amount of renewable energy in Sweden and EU. Biomass can fulfil some 8 500- 12 500 TWh/y in EU, while the total utilization was 16 084 TWh/y 2009. Even though there is a significant amount of wind power, hydro power and potentially also solar power, it still is most economical to reduce the consumption of heat, electricity and fuels for vehicles. A saved kWh is normally cheaper than to produce one extra. In this paper different opportunities for saving energy will be discussed. This includes manufacturing industries, process industries, power plants and energy systems including distribution of power and smart grids, food production and transportation. There is also a major potential to save energy in buildings, both in the north where it is cold, and in the south where it can be very hot summertime. Here the potential is to avoid cooling instead. Technical solutions as well as economic incentives will be covered. Environmental aspects will be addressed, so that the solutions will be long term sustainable.

     

  • 14.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    How to save energy to reach a balance between production and consumptionof heat, electricity and fuels for vehicles2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 16-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a potential to utilize a significant amount of renewable energy in Sweden and European union(EU). Biomass can fulfil some 8500e12,500 TW h/y in EU, while the total utilization was 16,084 TW h/y2009. Even though there is a significant amount of wind power, hydro power and potentially also solarpower, it still is most economical to reduce the consumption of heat, electricity and fuels for vehicles. Asaved kWh is normally cheaper than to produce one extra. In this paper different opportunities for savingenergy will be discussed. This includes manufacturing industries, process industries, power plants andenergy systems including distribution of power and smart grids, food production and transportation.There is also a major potential to save energy in buildings, both in the north where it is cold, and in thesouth where it can be very hot summer time. Here the potential is to avoid cooling instead. Technicalsolutions as well as economic incentives are covered. Environmental aspects are addressed, so that thesolutions will be long term sustainable.

  • 15.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    OPTIMIZATION OF THE ENERGY SYSTEM TO ACHIEVE A NATIONAL BALANCE WITHOUT FOSSIL FUELS2011In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 684-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the overall energy balance for Sweden and to some extent EU27 is discussed. It deals with the reduction of the total consumption in industrial, transport, and domestic sectors through more efficient vehicles, industrial processes, and buildings and individual behavior. The conclusion is that it should be relatively easy for Sweden to reach a sustainable society if the political will, in the form of policies and incentives, is present. It would also be possible for the EU27 to reach a sustainable society, although it would be more demanding (challenging?).

  • 16.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Optimization of the energy system to achieve a national balance without fossil fuels2010In: International Green Energy Conference, IGEC-V June 1-3, 2010, Waterlo, Ontario, Canada / [ed] Xianguo Li, Waterloo,Canda: University publications , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss the overall balance for Sweden and to some extent EU27 with respect to both power and heat production in relation to how the energy is utilized. This includes transportation, where we compare the system of today with a possible future system with hybrid-electric vehicles, renewable fuels and reductions of total consumption, through both better vehicles, as well as better logistics for transportation of goods. Concerning industry use energy improvements through more efficient industrial processes is discussed. For households, offices and manufacturing industries energy efficient buildings and individual behavior with respect to energy use is discussed. New sources for power will be less stable, like wind and solar power. A special focus is on biomass utilization and production. This also includes food. The situation today is compared to the potential balance after implementation of the actions discussed in the paper. The overall conclusion is that it should be relatively easy for Sweden to reach a sustainable society, if just the political will is present. It is also shown that there is a good potential also for the complete EU 27, but the actions are significantly more demanding to reach the balance, although in no way impossible.

  • 17.
    Ding, Y.
    et al.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Decker, C.
    INIT GmbH, Germany.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Beigl, M.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    A Smart Energy system: Distributed resource management, control and optimization2011In: IEEE PES Innovative. Smart Grid Technol. Conf. Europe, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel concept of distributed energy resource and consumption management, which proposes to design a networked and embedded platform for realizing a dynamic energy mix and optimizing the energy consumption dynamically. Based on heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and a local Web of Things platform, the environmental parameters and energy data can be acquired and processed in a distributed manner in real time. In order to improve understanding on how different environmental factors and user behaviors influence the end use of energy, we propose a User Profiling module to investigate the characterization of user's goals and behaviors in terms of energy consumption. Besides the wireless sensor networks, the User Profiling module acquires data also from a questionnaire which mainly concerns four categories, i.e. characteristics of the residents, electrical appliances, attitudes towards energy and building structural information. Furthermore, based on the real-time information from the sensor network platform and the user profiling module, an embedded Resource and Consumption Controller will then adapt automatically for instance the regulation processes of energy consumption in a household locally for the users, so that the costs of all energy resources will not exceed the predetermined budget and be regulated in a user-preferred way. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 18.
    Javed, F.
    et al.
    LUMS School of Science and Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Arshad, N.
    LUMS School of Science and Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    An adaptive optimization model for power conservation in the smart grid2010In: Conference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2010, 2010, p. 1563-1570Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamically adaptive systems (DAS) such as smart grids, cloud computing applications, sensor networks and P2P networks tend to change their structure at runtime. T herefore, design-time modeling for such systems are sometimes not enough to incorporate self-* properties. To this end, we have developed a dynamic mathematical modeling framework for runtime optimizations for DAS. In this paper, we describe how our system engineers a linear programming model by using a smart-grid application for power distribution as a case-study. At runtime whenever an optimization is desired this modeling framework captures the state of the system, converts it into an appropriate linear programming model, plan the changes using mathematical manipulations and apply the changes to the actual system. Our results show that this framework is able to capture accurate runtime models of large power systems and is able to adapt itself with the change in the size or structure of the system.

  • 19.
    Javed, F.
    et al.
    School of Science and Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Arshad, N.
    School of Science and Engineering, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Engineering optimization models at runtime for dynamically adaptive systems2010In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems, ICECCS, 2010, p. 253-254Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamically adaptive systems (DAS), such as smart grids, cloud computing applications, sensor networks and P2P networks tend to change their structure at runtime. Therefore, design-time modeling for such systems are sometimes not enough for self-management. To this end, we have developed a dynamic mathematical modeling framework for runtime modeling for DAS. In this paper, we describe how our system engineers a linear programming model for self-optimization by using a smart-grid application for power distribution as a case-study. At runtime whenever, an optimization is desired this modeling framework captures the state of the system, converts it into an appropriate linear programming model, plan the changes using mathematical manipulations and apply the changes to the actual system. Our initial simulation results show that this framework is able to capture accurate runtime models of large power systems and is able to adapt itself with the change in the size or structure of the system by constructing a succinct model which is faster and more efficient than a design time model.

  • 20.
    Javed, Fahad
    et al.
    LUMS Sch Sci & Engn, Dept Comp Sci, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Arshad, Naveed
    LUMS Sch Sci & Engn, Dept Comp Sci, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Forecasting for demand response in smart grids: An analysis on use of anthropologic and structural data and short term multiple loads forecasting2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 96, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric grid is changing. With the smart grid the demand response (DR) programs will hopefully make the grid more resilient and cost efficient. However, a scheme where consumers can directly participate in demand management requires new efforts for forecasting the electric loads of individual consumers. In this paper we try to find answers to two main questions for forecasting loads for individual consumers: First, can current short term load forecasting (STLF) models work efficiently for forecasting individual households? Second, do the anthropologic and structural variables enhance the forecasting accuracy of individual consumer loads? Our analysis show that a single multi-dimensional model forecasting for all houses using anthropologic and structural data variables is more efficient than a forecast based on traditional global measures. We have provided an extensive empirical evidence to support our claims.

  • 21.
    Lundh, M.
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wäckelgård, E.
    Comparison between hot water measurements and modelled profiles for Swedish households2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Torstensson, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Large-Scale Energy Intervention Scenarios as a method investigating demand response potentials2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often stated that electricity systems need further development in order to include the ambitious amount of renewable energy. Smart Grids are seen as an enabler for an electricity market with increased benefits for both consumers and environment. From a system level perspective, many advantages could be achieved by implementing these innovative technologies. Smart Grids are expected to be more flexible and could result in that expensive investments can be avoided. Furthermore, implementing smart metering could give consumers possibilities to obtain a better understanding of their own electricity consumption. The information could also help consumers to react on price signals by adjusting their consumption patterns. Increased knowledge usually increase awareness and could therefore be positive for energy efficiency activities.

    In order to investigate the potential for increased consumer participation in the electricity market with respect to demand-response and micro generation, a new evaluation method is proposed. In the project “Increased consumer power on the Nordic electricity market” large-scale energy intervention scenarios are being applied.

    The purpose of this it paper is to describe this methodology, its’ relation to other methods and the foreseen benefits to increase knowledge on the potential of demand-side participation in wider areas (e.g. cities and regions). In the experiment different social, economic and environmental incentives are evaluated in order to understand how they influence electricity consumption behaviour in the short term. The design of this new methodology is based on vast experiences of energy consumption surveys in residential consumer segment, feedback studies, focus groups and other consumer interaction methods.

  • 23.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Characterization of household energy consumption in Sweden: energy savings potential and feedback approaches2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption is on a constant rise with domestic use contributing substantially to the overall consumption. The population growth along with ever increasing comfort levels and daily appliance usage are driving the domestic electricity demand to higher levels. Targeting domestic consumption is thus of great importance if global consumption is to be lowered. This involves understanding and changing consumers’ behaviour, awareness and increasing their knowledge on the subject of energy use.

    In this thesis various factors determining household energy consumption such as dwelling size, income and number of occupants have been found alongside consumer behaviour to influence consumption the most.

    Energy awareness, related interest and knowledge have also been considered when trying to explain differences in household consumption patterns.

    Despite all possible characteristics and factors, the largest differences in energy consumption are found between individual households.

    Providing feedback and information to households has been proven effective when addressing the issue of reducing domestic energy use. In this thesis, the effectiveness of three of the most popular ways of currently delivering feedback and information on energy consumption (displays, websites and bills) have been investigated by analyzing consumption patterns before and after their implementation. Consumers living in apartments that followed their consumption through the web based feedback were the ones that achieved the greatest electricity reductions (17,5%) when compared to the years before the website.

    In order to provide effective feedback, with long lasting results that would keep consumers interested, several parameters have been proposed to be included when developing feedback and information. The type of dwelling (house or apartment), the age of the occupants, their level of education, income and their energy awareness and interest are the main determinants of feedback preferences.

    The findings presented in this thesis contribute to a better understanding of households’ energy consumption patterns closely related to their characteristics, behaviour, interest and awareness, and also provide ways of improving the development of consumption feedback and information.

  • 24.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Differences in electricity and hot water consumption in apartments of different sizes2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. KTH, Stockholm.
    Interactions between power producers and customers2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the future we can expect new types of more interactive communications between singlecustomers and groups of customers towards the energy market companies. These can be developas a result of the introduction of individual metering of electricity, and then utilize thisinformation both for information to the customers, as well as different kind of control of thepower system. The information can be through interactive displays where instant and aggregatedenergy and power utilization is presented, but also with a possibility to react to differences inprices by e.g. shutting of some power consumers to avoid high costs. Different types ofinteractions are discussed in the paper.

  • 26.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    A simulation model of the interactions between power producers and customers2008In: Conference proceedings SIMS 2008 in Oslo, October 7-8, 2008 / [ed] Bernt Lie, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have had a strong mechanism for interaction between power production companies and the power trading/supplier companies for a number of years by now. In the future we can expect new types of more interactive communications between single customers and groups of customers towards the energy market companies. We can expect a stronger request side from customers to buy only green energy, only nuclear etc.

    Power (kW) will be a part aside of energy (kWh) and there will be new possibilities to buy energy when it is as cheap as possible. This may include new applications like charging batteries for your car when the electricity price is low. Differentiation of price may be not only as a direct function of time, but also energy availability like when it is windy, as wind power becomes a major part of many energy systems. Energy storage will be more important and perhaps we will get new possibilities to buy shares in central energy storages like you buy space at servers for your web-pages etc.

    Other type of functions may develop as a result of the introduction of individual metering of first electricity and later on hot water and temperature. By metering the individual consumption and invoicing just what has been spent, you will have a driving force also to do actions like shutting of high demand functions like “infra-heating”, “large screen TV” and similar, when other usages are on, and the price is high. We expect displays with interaction possibilities in all homes, where you can see your consumption and pricing information.

    These new type of systems will put new demands on both hardware for supply and software to handle the services/functions. As part of developing this, mathematical modelling of the systems and tests with simulators will be an important tool. Also new soft ware functions will be developed to support the actual services, like simulators giving information on how different actions you make as a user will influence your energy consumption in the future, both short term and more long term. For the more long term case, new investments in new hardware and software may be proposed and evaluated for you in both technical and economic terms.

    In this paper the system aspects including the costs is analysed through a simulation model. This includes the physical system as well as the user behaviour and possible effects of different price models, like a combination of kW and kWh. The effect on the users, the distributors and the power producers are evaluated.

  • 27.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tecnol Bolivar Univ, Fac Engn, Cartagena 130001, Colombia..
    Adoption barriers for electric vehicles: Experiences from early adopters in Sweden2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 120, p. 632-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles are considered as one of the most effective technologies for reducing current greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. Although in many countries, local and national governments have introduced incentives and subsidies to facilitate the electric vehicle market penetration, in Sweden, such benefits have been limited. Results from a survey carried out among private owners of electric vehicles are presented in this paper, including the analysis of the respondents socio-demographic characteristics, reasons for choosing an electric vehicle, charging locations and driving preferences, among others. The main results characterize current electric vehicle drivers as male, well-educated, with medium-high income; electric vehicles are used mainly for private purposes and charged at home during night time. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of the impact of large-scale penetration of electric vehicles on existing power distribution systems. The findings presented in this paper provide important insights for assuring a sustainable large-scale penetration of electric vehicles by learning from the experiences of early adopters of the technology and by analyzing the impact of different EV penetration scenarios on the power distribution grid.

  • 28.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Consumers' Perspective on Full-Scale Adoption of Smart Meters: A Case Study in Vasteras, Sweden2016In: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale deployment of reliable smart electricity metering networks has been considered as the first step towards a smart, integrated and efficient grid. On the consumer's side, however, the real impact is still uncertain and limited. This paper evaluates the consumer's perspective in the city of Vasteras, Sweden, where full implementation of smart meters has been reached. New services, such as consumption feedback and the possibility to choose dynamic electricity pricing contracts, have been available from the adoption of this infrastructure. A web-based survey evaluating customers' perception of these new services was carried out. The survey included consumers' personal information, preferences about the type of information and the frequency of delivery and the preference for electricity pricing contracts. The results showed that the electricity consumption information offered by distribution system operators (DSOs) today is not detailed enough for customers to react accordingly. Additionally, while variable pricing contracts are becoming more popular, the available pricing schemes do not encourage customers to increase their consumption flexibility. Therefore, more detailed information from the smart meters should be made available, including disaggregated electricity consumption per appliance that would allow consumers to have more control over their energy consumption activities.

  • 29.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Eskilstuna (Sweden) as an example of a smart city from an energy efficiency perspective.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Increasing energy efficiency in low-income households through targeting awareness and behavioral change2014In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 67, p. 59-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of energy awareness among energy consumers has been the main obstacle when it comes to domestic energy savings. In countries like Sweden where wages are high, energy awareness is based mainly on environmental concerns. However, energy awareness is usually amongst consumers with low income or foreign background.

    This article presents the results of the analysis of two groups of households, located in different cities in Sweden, all characterized by having low income. The obtained results and experience will be applied to some of the implementation stages of measures targeting different sustainability issues in other low-income neighborhoods in Sweden. Consumers are informed about different solutions and possibilities to save energy and tap-hot water with low cost or no cost measures. Results show that choosing households with high energy saving potential and selecting the most suitable (based on households' characteristics and needs) ways of providing energy consumption feedback, within the group are essential since consumption levels tend to increase when consumers realize they consume less than similar households. The majority of the consumers are retired or families with more than 2 children and their average annual electricity consumption is approximately 2000 kWh. It was found that the consumers' preferred ways for receiving consumption feedback were mainly letters and in-home displays; both environmental factors as well as money are important motivational factors to save energy; consumers are striving to reduce their electricity consumption and have the knowledge necessary to maintain low consumption, despite not being very interested in energy related topics. The main differences when comparing the answered questionnaires sent to all households were found between the groups (with different locations) rather than within the groups. The location of the households groups, the age of the consumers and the presence of children in the group affect the levels of energy related knowledge and should be considered when introducing domestic energy saving and efficiency strategies.

  • 31.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Increasing energy efficiency in low- income Swedish households through targeting awareness and behavior2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Technology assessment of the two most relevant aspects for improving urban energy efficiency identified in six mid-sized European cities from case studies in Sweden2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 94, p. 808-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing population living in cities is leading to higher resource utilization, which strains the cities’ability to focus on sustainability. Adoption of different technologies can transform cities into ‘‘smartcities” that utilize energy in a more efficiently.This paper presents results from a technology assessment tool developed together with six mid-sizedEuropean cities. The main areas of focus have been evaluated based on the cities’ priorities: transportation(both public and private) and consumers’ perspectives on the use of smart electricity meters. The useof electric vehicles in Sweden, and a techno-economic evaluation of biogas-derived biomethane and electricityuse in public transportation have been analyzed. The main conclusions show an overall higher efficiencyfor biogas-derived electricity use in electric buses; a need for higher consumer engagementthrough more detailed information provision for both increasing EV market penetration and electricitysavings; and a need to establish detailed technology assessments for successful technology adoption incities.

  • 33.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    COMPARING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT HIGH-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS IN ORDER TO IMPROVE ENERGY AWARENESS STRATEGIES2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Analysis of the influence of individual payment and tenants’ behavior on electricity consumption2010In: Conference proceedings 3rd International Scientific Conference on“Energy systems with IT” at Alvsjö fair in association with Energitinget March 16-17 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Economical savings through lowering energy consumption in rented apartments: A case study in Västerås area2008In: Journal of Numerical and Applied Mathematics, ISSN 0868-6912, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 234-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity and heat consumption were recorded for 24 apartments distributed in two buildings over a 2-year monitoring period. The consumption of different built-form groups (according to their floor area) is also investigated. In general buildings located in Västerås (Sweden) are characterized by the fact that energy costs are included in the rent and therefore tenants are not encouraged to save energy. Data obtained from the company renting out apartments, Mimer was analyzed in order to find out if there were any general trends describing the connection between energy use, the level of surface area and number of rooms, or the main driving force behind is the individual behaviour of tenants (since in these two buildings tenants pay themselves for the total energy consumption). It was found that the analysis by various parameters is as important as analysis of each individual apartment. Some tendencies were well defined such as increase of total electricity consumption during the winter months and lowest both electricity and hot water consumption in June and July. The number of rooms at equal surface area could not be accepted as a pattern of electricity consumption. Bearing in mind the interactive contact between the energy distributor companies and the respective tenants, a positive trend of lowering both studied parameters was well manifested when a comparison of data obtained during 2005 and 2006 was carried out. This study shows that the economical savings for both buildings for the period 2005-2006, are 8000 SEK for electricity and 2300 SEK for district heating. Further improvements in company-tenants relations in terms of more detailed mutual information would probably change tenants’ behaviour thus improving energy and economic saving tendency in both buildings. We strongly believe that similar research approaches should be further included in larger programmes aimed at developing efficiency measures to quantify energy savings advantages in economic terms. Therefore, it would be economically reasonable for owners and housing promoters to invest in energy-saving measures.

     

  • 36.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The citizens' role in energy smart city development2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 200-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper was to investigate citizens' experiences and feedback related to strategies and products targeting energy savings and emission reduction in Sweden. Survey results presented in this paper showed that consumers did not make use of the advantages of the smart meters and that tailored feedback is necessary to help them save electricity. Moreover, despite the high satisfaction levels among electric vehicles owners, additional improvements (e.g. reliable charging infrastructure) and information are needed to attract potential owners. Effective information dissemination is thus a crucial part of increasing urban sustainability. 

  • 37.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Lundh, Magdalena
    Efficiency of interactive information on energy consumption in households in Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of electricity, hot water consumption and indoor temperatures were carried out in 24 apartments during the years 2005 and 2006. Buildings located in Västerås (Sweden) are characterized by the fact that energy costs are included in the rent. Data obtained from the company renting out apartments, “MIMER”, was analyzed in order to find out if there were any general trends describing the connection between the level of surface area, number of rooms, or the main driving force behind is the individual behaviour of tenants. It was found that the analysis by various parameters is as important as the analysis of each individual apartment. Some tendencies were well defined such as increase of total electricity consumption during the winter months and lowest both electricity and hot water consumption in June and July. The number of rooms at equal surface area could not be accepted as a pattern of electricity consumption. Bearing in mind the interactive contact between the energy company and the respective tenants, a positive trend of lowering both studied parameters was well manifested when a comparison of data obtained during 2005 and 2006 was carried out. Our results confirmed the importance of indoor temperature measurements as well. Further improvements in company-tenants relations in terms of more detailed mutual information would probably change tenants’ behaviour thus improving energy saving tendency in both buildings.

  • 38.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Energy consumption feedback devices’ impact evaluation on domestic energy use2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 106, p. 314-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Household energy accounts for one of the major contributors to the countries energy balances. It has been shown, that an effective way to achieve energy saving in that sector, is by providing consumers with information and feedback. This measure increases home inhabitants’ awareness that leads to behavioral changes, and could help reduce energy consumption between 15% and 25% in some cases. Inhabitants’ energy use awareness is also crucial for the success of demand response programs; one of the most important features of smart-grid adoption for the current and upcoming smart cities.

    The effects of different feedback strategies and information devices in households located in different cities in Sweden have been evaluated in this paper, since the impact on users’ behavior of this feedback information vary depending on the way it is provided.

    Mobile text messages (SMSs) and digital displays placed in the building’s common areas did not cause any noticeable behavioral changes, while the use of a TV channel and personal in-home displays were the most popular devices amongst households with high incomes.

    This paper concluded that even though feedback helped reduce domestic energy consumption and induce behavioral changes, it only reaches the consumers interested in it. It is important therefore to provide customized information to the consumer and select precise feedback tools for specific household groups. Special attention should be paid to increasing the energy consumption awareness in households with low income levels.

  • 39.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Madlener, R.
    Aachen University, Germany.
    Perceptions and adoption of evs for private use and policy lessons learned2016In: Technologies and Applications for Smart Charging of Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles, Springer International Publishing , 2016, p. 283-300Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered one of the most promising solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced in the transport sector. EVs have many potential advantages (e.g., in terms of avoided local and global pollutant emissions and noise reduction), but may also create new problems (e.g., in terms of stress on the electric distribution network or congested public transport lanes). The ultimate pollution emission benefit depends strongly on the fuel mix for electricity generation. Numerous governments at all levels worldwide have started to provide monetary and other incentives to render EVs more attractive for users, including research, development, and dissemination (RD&D) support, vehicle subsidies, provision of charging infrastructure, and privileged usage of bus lanes and dedicated parking lots. This chapter presents the different barriers explaining the slow market penetration of EVs so far, consumer perceptions and misconceptions, as well as lessons learned by policy makers and new empirical evidence and insights. Early adopter characteristics and selected examples where EV uptake has been particularly fast are also described. The conclusions show that subsidy and other incentive programs need to be carefully designed in scope, contents, and duration. In light of information deficiencies and misperceptions, information provision to potential EV adopters seems to be a no-regret policy option.

  • 40.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    The impact of consumers' feedback preferences on domestic electricity consumption2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 93, no SI, p. 575-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite all initiatives introduced for maximizing energy savings domestic energy consumption is in constant increase. However, very little investigation has been carried out on the integration of household' consumption trends, the parameters influencing them and the characteristics of the provided feedback. 2000 Swedish households were included in this study. Electricity consumption data for apartments and houses has been analyzed for a 4 year period as well as possible household socio-economic factors affecting it. The data has been further compared to other households located in different cities in Sweden. The effects of the different ways of presenting feedback used for the different households groups have also been evaluated. From the results obtained from the questionnaire used, several households' characteristics were proposed together with consumers' preferences to be considered during the development of feedback. Web based feedback resulted in being the most effective (when compared to display and bills), achieving electricity savings of approximately 15% within households that visited the web-site. The monthly income is amongst the most influential factors determining electricity consumption although only in high and low income groups

  • 41.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thygesen, Richard
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    From Goals to Action: The Efforts for Increasing Energy Efficiency and Integration of Renewable Sources in Eskilstuna, Sweden2015In: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 548-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities’ energy usage accounts for two thirds of global primary energy consumption. Energy efficiency in urban areas is, therefore, one of the most important topics to consider when dealing with urban sustainability. This paper evaluates the goals for increasing energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources in the areas of transportation, buildings and consumers’ awareness, as stated in the Climate action plan, for the municipality of Eskilstuna, Sweden. The efforts of the municipality to successfully reach their energy efficiency goals, are described in this paper including future perspectives. The results show that although the municipality counts with the advantage of owning and working together with the local housing company and energy provider, in order to reach the established goals, additional strategies need to be considered. For an increased use of renewable energy sources, analysis of rooftops suitable for photovoltaic (PV) installation should be carried out as well as the integration of goals for self-consumption. In the transport field, the city needs to prepare for large-scale electric vehicle (EV) market penetration and to consider different bike or car sharing options. Finally, more specific awareness campaigns are needed to engage the citizens in reducing their energy consumption and living a more sustainable life.

  • 42.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Analytical comparison between electricity consumption and behavior characteristics of Swedish households in rented apartments2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 90, no SI, p. 182-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sufficient data of electricity consumption during large periods of time are accumulated and analyzed in order to develop appropriate electricity-saving measures. An important first step is to analyze and identify buildings/households that have an energy saving potential. In this work an evaluation of monthly electricity consumption data was conducted in identical buildings in the city of Vasteras in Sweden. Different behavioral consumption profiles have been analyzed using information from two sources: technical data of electricity consumption and behavioral parameters for each household obtained from a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was formed by three groups of questions which concerned residents' characteristics, type and usage of electrical appliances, and attitudes towards energy consumption. The results show that electricity consumption profile of individual household can be mostly related to a given parameter. For example, the total household's income resulted one of the important factors determining the consumer behavior and as a rule is related to higher electricity consumption. Another important conclusion of our questionnaire-based analysis is the necessity for more detailed information about household/tenants behavior specifying the technical features of appliances for a given household.

  • 43.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Consumption patterns today and tomorrow with respect to energy and how the energy system will be affected by this2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays we can see a high consumption of energy for transportations and in offices, for lightning, ventilation, computers etc. We also have a significant household consumption of electricity. However, in the future we can expect a trend where the houses are consuming significantly less energy for heating, with thicker insulation, four glass windows and better constructions giving less unwanted diffusion of heat due to leakages. In Vasteras city, the trend has been a reduced heat demand of approximately 1.5-2 % per year during the last 25 years. This means that the district heating sink has been reduced by 30 %. This makes district heating less competitive as the reduced heat demand give lower potential for electricity production in co-generation. Similar adequate measures should be performed in the field of household electricity consumption. As a first step and what is the aim of this report, sufficient data of electricity consumption along large periods of time should be accumulated and carefully analyzed in order to develop appropriate further electricity-saving measures. Data included in this study was collected from two buildings in Vasteras area over several years (from 2004 until 2008) and further comparatively analyzed and discussed bearing also in mind some complementary information gathered in form of a paper based questionnaires. The results of our study indicate that it is important to change patterns for ‘consumption’ of electricity. More emphasis should be made on two main research directions: a) detailed analysis of tenants’ consumption behavior; b) development of appropriate information tools that will offer the consumers a possibility to both get information about the electricity consumption in an easily accessible way, e.g. by displays with information that is easy to catch. 

  • 44.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Understanding energy consumption behavior for future demand response strategy development2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Encouraging consumers to use less electricity through information is essential for sustainable use of energy and demand response is indeed a key component of the smart grids concept. The aim with this study is to understand differences between consumer categories and what this could mean e.g. to develop effective demand response measures. In-depth analyses of answers from a questionnaire sent out to 2000 households, contribute to a better understanding of Swedish households' energy related behavior. The households have been provided with a web-site enabling them to check their daily electricity consumption compared to previous months/years and even get advice and tips on how to reduce electricity consumption. The results show clear differences in the response rates from different type of residence, different income areas of the city and in the most preferred ways of receiving information-feedback. The web based feedback, provided by the local energy company, received more visits (and more frequently) from respondents living in houses than from apartments.

    The analysis of the answers raises questions about the effectiveness of using only one tool of providing energy consumption information to the customers (web-site, in this case) and stresses the importance of applying an individual approach to different energy users.

  • 45.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Roots, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The relation between consumption of electricity and hot water and different consumer variables2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    24 apartments of different size in Vasteras, Sweden were thoroughly investigated with respect to consumption of electricity/hot water during a period of six/two years, respectively. Questionnaires were answered by 19 of the 24 households, and correlations between their energy consumption and behaviour were determined. A total of 40 tenants occupied the apartments (mostly two persons per apartment), and no single individual was below 18 years old. Despite the similar conditions significantly large differences (up to ten times) were registered between households with the same apartment size and number of inhabitants for both hot water and electricity. Consumption patterns are presented in this work as well as how different behaviour variables determine energy saving potential. Analyzing the results, it can be concluded that the most important variable to explain the difference in energy consumption was the household income. Families with high income had high consumption while those with low income stayed at home much longer time every day, were watching TV more, but still consumed less. On the other hand, behavioural characteristics of electricity consumers are not applicable to the respective consumption of hot water. Therefore, different approach should be applied when developing saving strategies for different energy-derived products.

     

  • 46.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ding, Yong
    Research Group of Pervasive Computing Systems (TecO), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology .
    Beigl, Michael
    Research Group of Pervasive Computing Systems (TecO), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology .
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Household indicators for developing innovative feedback technologies2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have shown that households' consumption is an important part of the total energy consumed in different countries. However, there is very little work done on finding appropriate strategies of giving households' effective feedback on their energy consumption. This study analyzes several indicators that could be considered before analyzing residential overall energy consumption and providing information, feedback, or developing demand-response measures. A questionnaire sent out to 2000 households having 33% response rate shows that the total households' income and characteristics, occupants' age and users' energy attitudes and interest are the key components designing relevant energy information strategies

  • 47.
    Vassileva, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Granada.
    Serrano, Mercedes
    Univ Granada.
    Bravo, Vicente
    Univ Granada.
    Jurado, Encarnacion
    Univ Granada.
    Nikolaeva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Martos, Vanessa
    Univ Granada.
    Vassilev, Nikolay
    Multifunctional properties of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms grown on agro-industrial wastes in fermentation and soil conditions2010In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 1287-1299Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most studied approaches in solubilization of insoluble phosphates is the biological treatment of rock phosphates. In recent years, various techniques for rock phosphate solubilization have been proposed, with increasing emphasis on application of P-solubilizing microorganisms. The P-solubilizing activity is determined by the microbial biochemical ability to produce and release metabolites with metal-chelating functions. In a number of studies, we have shown that agro-industrial wastes can be efficiently used as substrates in solubilization of phosphate rocks. These processes were carried out employing various technologies including solid-state and submerged fermentations including immobilized cells. The review paper deals critically with several novel trends in exploring various properties of the above microbial/agro-wastes/rock phosphate systems. The major idea is to describe how a single P-solubilizing microorganism manifests wide range of metabolic abilities in different environments. In fermentation conditions, P-solubilizing microorganisms were found to produce various enzymes, siderophores, and plant hormones. Further introduction of the resulting biotechnological products into soil-plant systems resulted in significantly higher plant growth, enhanced soil properties, and biological (including biocontrol) activity. Application of these bio-products in bioremediation of disturbed (heavy metal contaminated and desertified) soils is based on another important part of their multifunctional properties.

  • 48.
    Vieites, Esteban
    et al.
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Arias, Juan
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    European initiatives towards improving the energy efficiency in existing and historic buildings2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1679-1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the building sector's energy efficiency while reducing CO2 emissions, constitute the main challenge that most European cities need to tackle. In Europe the building sector is responsible for nearly 40% of the total energy consumption. Considering the slow rates of constructing new buildings, a lot of attention needs to be paid to the already existing building stock. This paper presents some of the major projects carried out in Europe and their achievements regarding the integration of innovative technologies and use of different sources of renewable energy in existing buildings. Special attention has been paid to projects targeting historic buildings, since their significant cultural and historic values make their refurbishment and retrofitting process more complex.

  • 49.
    Widén, J.
    et al.
    The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundh, M.
    The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ellegård, K.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Wäckelgård, E.
    The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Constructing load profiles for household electricity and hot water from time-use data: Modelling approach and validation2009In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 753-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-use data, describing in detail the everyday life of household members as high-resolved activity sequences, have a largely unrealized potential of contributing to domestic energy demand modelling. A model for computation of daily electricity and hot-water demand profiles from time-use data was developed, using simple conversion schemes, mean appliance and water-tap data and general daylight availability distributions. Validation against detailed, end-use specific electricity measurements in a small sample of households reveals that the model for household electricity reproduces hourly load patterns with preservation of important qualitative features. The output from the model, when applied to a large data set of time use in Sweden, also shows correspondence to aggregate profiles for both household electricity and hot water from recent Swedish measurement surveys. Deviations on individual household level are predominantly due to occasionally ill-reported time-use data and on aggregate population level due to slightly non-representative samples. Future uses and developments are identified and it is suggested that modelling energy use from time-use data could be an alternative, or a complement, to energy demand measurements in households.

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