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  • 1.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Emotions in time: Moral emotions appear more intense with temporal distance2012In: Social cognition, ISSN 0278-016X, E-ISSN 1943-2798, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 181-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University.
    Gender differences in implicit moral orientation associations: The justice and care debate revisited2011In: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 17, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing new measures (Implicit Association Test) to study the classic issue of moralorientations, we predicted and found gender differences in implicit associations to the conceptsof justice and care. Specifically, we found that men more strongly associate justice vs. care withimportance and with themselves than women. However, participants’ explicit ratings did notreveal any clear patterns of gender differences, which is consistent with previous studies.Implications for social psychological theory and research on morality are discussed.

  • 3.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Look at yourself!: Visual perspective influences moral judgment by level of mental construal2013In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 42-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research (Libby, Shaeffer, & Eibach, 2009) has established that a third-person (external) visual perspective elicitsmore abstract processing than a first-person (inner) perspective. Because many moral principles constitute abstract psychological constructs,we predicted that they should weigh more heavily when people adopt a third-person visual perspective. In two experiments weshow that a third- (vs. first-) person visual perspective leads to harsher judgments of one’s own morally questionable actions. Moreover,we demonstrate that this effect can be partially explained by level of mental construal. The present research suggests that simple visualperspective techniques may be used to promote moral behavior.

  • 4.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold and Incompetent Eric: A harsh equation of real-life hiring discrimination2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Warm and competent Hassan = Cold and incompetent Eric: A Harsh equation of real-life hiring discrimination2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about how individuating information about job applicants influences ethnic discrimination. In the present field experiment, we sent out 5,636 job applications varying how Swedish (in-group) and Arab (out-group) applicants presented themselves in terms of two fundamental dimensions of social judgment: warmth and competence. Results indicate substantial discrimination where Arab applicants receive fewer invitations to job interviews. Furthermore, conveying a warmer or more competent personality increases invitations. However, appearing both warm and competent seems to be especially important for Arab applicants. In conclusion, the results show that Arab applicants need to appear warmer and more competent than Swedish applicants to be invited equally often. The practical importance of signaling warmth and competence in labor market contexts is discussed.

  • 6.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold And Incompetent Eric: The Harsh Equation of Real-life Hiring Discrimination2012In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we sent out 5,636 job applications varying how Swedish (in-group) and Arab (out-group) applicants presented themselves in terms of two fundamental dimensions of social judgment: warmth and competence. Results indicate substantial discrimination where Arab applicants receive fewer invitations to job interviews. Conveying a warmer or more competent personality increases invitations. However, appearing both warm and competent seems to be especially important for Arab applicants. Arab applicants need to appear warmer and more competent than Swedish applicants to be invited equally often. The practical importance of signaling warmth and competence in labor market contexts is discussed.

  • 7.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has established that physical height matters in hiring contexts, it is less clear through which channels height exerts its effect. The current research examines several potential components of the height premium: warmth, competence, job competency for a leadership position, physical health, and attractiveness. We made target individuals taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by real recruiters. The results show that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, job competency, and health, whereas warmth and attractiveness seem to matter less.

  • 8.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Descriptive social norms and charitable giving: the power of local norms2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By conducting a field experiment, we examined whether conveying descriptive social norms (e.g., “this is what most people do”) leads to more charitable giving compared to industry standard appeals. Moreover, we examined whether people are more likely to conform to the local norms of one’s immediate environment than to more global norms extending beyond one’s local environment. University students received a charity organization’s information brochure and were asked for a monetary contribution. An experimental descriptive norm manipulation was embedded in the brochure. We found that providing people with descriptive norms increased charitable giving substantially compared with industry standard altruistic appeals (control condition). Moreover, conveying local norms were more effective in increasing charitable giving than conveying global norms. Practical implications for charity organizations and marketing are proposed.

  • 9.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using descriptive social norms to increase charitable giving: The power of local norms2016In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 52, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we examined whether conveying descriptive social norms (e.g., "this is what most people do") increases charitable giving. Additionally, we examined whether people are more likely to conform to the local norms of one's immediate environment than to more global norms extending beyond one's local environment. University students received a charity organization's information brochure and were asked for a monetary contribution. An experimentaldescriptive norm manipulation was embedded in the brochure. We found that providing people with descriptive norms increased charitable giving substantially compared with industry standard altruistic appeals (control condition). Moreover, conveying local norms were more effective in increasing charitable givingthan conveying global norms. Practical implications for charity organizations and marketing are proposed.

  • 10.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Etnicitet och övervikt: implicita arbetsrelaterade fördomar i Sverige2007Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A closer look at the discrimination outcomes in the IAT literature2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 278-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent the IAT (Implicit Association Test, Greenwald et al., 1998) predicts racial and ethnic discrimination is a heavily debated issue. The latest meta-analysis by Oswald et al. (2013) suggests a very weak association. In the present meta-analysis, we switched the focus from the predictor to the criterion, by taking a closer look at the discrimination outcomes. We discovered that many of these outcomes were not actually operationalizations of discrimination, but rather of other related, but distinct, concepts, such as brain activity and voting preferences. When we meta-analyzed the main effects of discrimination among the remaining discrimination outcomes, the overall effect was close to zero and highly inconsistent across studies. Taken together, it is doubtful whether the amalgamation of these outcomes is relevant criteria for assessing the IAT's predictive validity of discrimination. Accordingly, there is also little evidence that the IAT can meaningfully predict discrimination, and we thus strongly caution against any practical applications of the IAT that rest on this assumption. However, provided that the application is thoroughly informed by the current state of the literature, we believe the IAT can still be a useful tool for researchers, educators, managers, and students who are interested in attitudes, prejudices, stereotypes, and discrimination.

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A closer look at the discrimination outcomes in the IAT literature2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent the IAT predicts racial and ethnic discrimination is a heavily debated issue.The latest meta-analysis by Oswald et al. (2013) suggests a very weak association. In the present meta-analysis, we took a closer look at the discrimination outcomes, and found that many of the outcomes were unsuitable operationalizations of discrimination. Furthermore, we found virtually no overall discrimination for the IAT to predict. Hence, the IAT has not yet been given a chance to prove its true worth. Indeed, evaluating the predictive validity of the IAT against these outcomes is similar to evaluating raincoats on sunny days; we should not besurprised if the raincoats receive a bad score, but this does not invalidate their usefulness in rainy weather. Given the current state of affairs, it would thus be premature if researchers, educators, and managers simply were to remove the IAT from their toolbox.

  • 13.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Methodological issues in predicting discrimination from attitudes, prejudices, and stereotypes2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A central question for social psychologists is to what extent attitudes, prejudice, and stereotypes are precursors of ethnic and racial discrimination. Operationalized, this question can be framed as the extent measures of such constructs predict differential treatment of individuals from one group compared to a comparison group. Yet, in the literature, it is common to substitute this operationalization for a simpler one: measures predicting behavior toward a single group. We argue that this simpler operationalization lacks validity and yields uninformative effect sizes. We provide several suggestions on how to include, and make most use of, comparison groups, when predicting discrimination.

  • 14.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Backlash and hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion, and gender2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men asagentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001)suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive genderstereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails therisk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive genderstereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs whenapplying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender,agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labormarket. The dependent variable was whether the applicationresulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do notoffer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in therecruitment process.

  • 15.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Testing for Backlash in Hiring: A Field Experiment on Agency, Communion, and Gender2014In: Journal of Personnel Psychology, ISSN 1866-5888, E-ISSN 2190-5150, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 204-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men as agentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001) suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive gender stereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails the risk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive gender stereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs when applying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender, agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of 5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labor market. The dependent variable was whether the application resulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do not offer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in the recruitment process.

  • 16.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Testing for backlash in hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion,and gender2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that women (men) who appear agentic (communal) when applying for jobs suffer a backlash in the form of reduced chances of being hired. However, the evidence of backlash is mainly restricted to simulated hiring decisions with undergraduates as participants. To examine whether backlash occurs when men and women apply for real jobs in the labor market, we conducted a field experiment. Gender, agentic and communal traits were manipulated in the applications. Whether or not the applications resulted in a job interview invitation constituted the dependent variable. We find no evidence of backlash, suggesting that women are not punished for presenting themselves as agentic in their job applications, nor are men punished for appearing communal.

  • 17.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Williams, Donald
    Univ Calif Davis, USA.
    Burns, Gary N.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Florida Inst Technol, USA.
    A Primer on the benefits of differential treatment analysis when predicting discriminatory behavior2018In: Quantitative Methods for Psychology, E-ISSN 2292-1354, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central question in social psychology is to what extent individual differences in attitudes, prejudices, and stereotypes can predict discriminatory behavior. This is often studied by simply regressing a measure of behavior toward a single group (e.g., behavior toward Black people only) onto the predictors (e.g., attitude measures). In the present paper, we remind researchers that an analysis focusing on predicting the differential treatment (e.g., behavior towards Black people vs. White people) has a higher conceptual validity and will result in more informative effect sizes. The paper is concluded with a list of suggestions for future research on the link between attitudes, prejudices, stereotypes and discrimination.

  • 18.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Implicit stereotype content: Mixed stereotypes can be measured with the Implicit Association Test2010In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stereotype content model (SCM) postulates that stereotype content can be mixed in terms of diverging evaluations on the warmth and competence dimensions. The present study is the first to demonstrate this with implicit measures. Two Implicit Associations Tests (IATs) were developed, one capturing the warmth dimension and the other the competence dimension. Both IATs compared preschool teachers (stereotypically warm and incompetent) with lawyers (stereotypically cold and competent). As predicted, two samples of students from various areas of study showed the mixed implicit stereotypes, while a group of preschool-teacher students showed a univalent positive implicit stereotype of their own group, suggesting in-group favoritism. The results support the SCM.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Bäckström, Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    Mixed discriminatory judgments of individuals’ warmth and competence related abilities2012In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 160-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although several studies have demonstrated that stereotypes can be mixed in terms of warmth and competence (e.g., cold but competent), the possibility of mixed discrimination has received very little attention so far. To this end, the present study investigated mixed discriminatory judgments of individuals. In two studies, the participants judged the empathic (warmth) and the cognitive (competence) ability of individuals who differed only in whether they belonged to a group typically stereotyped as warm but incompetent or cold but competent. Study 1 compared Greeks with Germans (nationality) and Study 2 preschool teachers with lawyers (occupation). In both studies, the judgments were discriminatory in a mixed pattern consistent with the groups’ stereotype content.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Is teacher attrition a poor estimate of the value of teacher education? A Swedish case.2019In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 243-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Far from all who complete teacher education end up working as teachers throughout their entire career. At first sight the value of teacher education, in terms of efficiency, seems to be a failure. In the present article we argue that teacher attrition, when defined as whether one is working as teacher or not, is a too blunt measure to gauge whether teacher education has been valuable. With a unique dataset, where we have detailed information on 87 Swedish teacher graduates’ working life across 23 years, we can consider whether activities and/or experiences point to an apparent use of teacher education. In conclusion, we find that in order to get informative estimates of its value it is important to consider it from different perspectives and to consider attrition related to the total working time spent in educational settings across a career rather than percentage leaving teaching after a set of years.

  • 21.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schimmack, Ulrich
    University of Toronto Mississauga, Canada.
    Williams, Donald
    University of California Davis, USA.
    Bürkner, Paul-Christian
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Bayes Factors From Pooled Data Are No Substitute for Bayesian Meta-Analysis: Commentary on Scheibehenne, Jamil, and Wagenmakers (2016)2017In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 1694-1697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scheibehenne, Jamil, and Wagenmakers (2016; SJW) recently introduced Bayesian evidence synthesis (BES). They used it to combine evidence from seven published studies that examined the influence of social-norm messages on hotel towel reuse rates. Although most of the original studies provided non-significant results (p-value > .05), BES provided strong support for the effect (Bayes factor = 37). We think that this conclusion is wrong. We demonstrate that BES is inherently flawed because it pools data in a way that is vulnerable to a Simpson’s paradox, and that a Bayesian meta-analysis that avoids this problem produces weaker evidence. 

  • 22.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schimmack, Ulrich
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Williams, Donald R.
    University of California, USA.
    Bürkner, Paul-Christian
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Bayesian evidence synthesis is no substitute for meta-analysis: a re-analysis of Scheibehenne, Jamil and Wagenmakers (2016)2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scheibehenne, Jamil, and Wagenmakers (2016; SJW) recently introduced Bayesian evidence synthesis (BES). They applied it to a set of original studies that examined the influence of social norms on towel reuse at hotels. While most of the original studies provided nonsignificant results (p > .05), BES provided “strong support” (p. 3) for the effect. Due to methodological limitations, we think that this conclusion is wrong and that BES suffers from several problems. Combining frequentist and Bayesian approaches, we: illustrate the perilsof pooling data; assess publication bias, and conduct a Bayesian meta-analysis.

  • 23.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund University.
    Prototypes and same-gender bias in perceptions of hiring discrimination2018In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 158, no 3, p. 285-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the relative importance of two explanations behind perceptions of gender discrimination in hiring: prototypes and same- gender bias. According to the prototype explanation, people perceive an event as discrimination to the extent that it fits their preconceptions of typical discrimination. In contrast, the same-gender bias explanation asserts that people more readily detect discrimination toward members of their own gender. In four experiments (n = 797), women and men made considerably stronger discrimination attributions, and were moderately more discouraged from seeking work, when the victim was female rather than male. Further, a series of regressions analyses showed beliefs in discrimination of women to be moderately correlated with discrimination attributions of female victims, but little added explanatory value of participant gender, stigma consciousness, or feminist identification. The results offer strong support for the prototype explanation. 

  • 24.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Prototypes and Same-Gender Bias in Attributions to Gender Discrimination in Hiring2013Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Durante, Federica
    et al.
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    Fiske, Susan T.
    Princeton University, USA.
    Gelfand, Michele
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Crippa, Franca
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    Suttora, Chiara
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    Stillwell, Amelia
    Stanford University, USA.
    Asbrock, Frank
    Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
    Aycan, Zeynep
    Koc University, Turkey.
    Bye, Hege
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Dagher, Munqith
    Independent Institute for Administration and Civil Society Studies, Jordan.
    Geller, Armando
    Scensei, Switzerland.
    Larsen, Christian Albrekt
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Latif, Abdel-Hamid Abdel
    The Egyptian Research and Training Center, Egypt.
    Mähönen, Tuuli Anna
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Teymoori, Ali
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Ambivalent stereotypes link to peace, conflict, and inequality across 38 nations2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 669-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-national study, 49 samples in 38 nations (n = 4,344), inves- tigates whether national peace and conflict reflect ambivalent warmth and competence stereotypes: High-conflict societies (Pakistan) may need clearcut, unambivalent group images distinguishing friends from foes. Highly peaceful countries (Denmark) also may need less ambivalence because most groups occupy the shared national identity, with only a few outcasts. Finally, nations with interme- diate conflict (United States) may need ambivalence to justify more complex intergroup-system stability. Using the Global Peace Index to measure conflict, a curvilinear (quadratic) relationship be- tween ambivalence and conflict highlights how both extremely peaceful and extremely conflictual countries display lower stereo- type ambivalence, whereas countries intermediate on peace-conflict present higher ambivalence. These data also replicated a linear inequality–ambivalence relationship. 

  • 26.
    Lakens, Daniel
    et al.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Adolfi, Federico G.
    Natl Sci & Tech Res Council CONICET, Argentina;Max Planck Inst Empir Aesthet, Germany.
    Albers, Casper J.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Anvari, Farid
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Australia.
    Apps, Matthew A. J.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Argamon, Shlomo E.
    Illinois Inst Technol, USA.
    Baguley, Thom
    Nottingham Trent Univ, UK.
    Becker, Raymond B.
    Univ Bielefeld, Germany.
    Benning, Stephen D.
    Univ Nevada, USA.
    Bradford, Daniel E.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, USA.
    Buchanan, Erin M.
    Missouri State Univ, USA.
    Caldwell, Aaron R.
    Univ Arkansas, USA.
    Van Calster, Ben
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium;Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chen, Sau-Chin
    Tzu Chi Univ, Taiwan.
    Chung, Bryan
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Colling, Lincoln J.
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Collins, Gary S.
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Crook, Zander
    Univ Edinburgh, UK.
    Cross, Emily S.
    Bangor Univ, UK;Univ Glasgow, UK.
    Daniels, Sameera
    Ramsey Decis Theoret, USA.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University.
    DeBruine, Lisa
    Univ Glasgow, UK.
    Dunleavy, Daniel J.
    Florida State Univ, USA.
    Earp, Brian D.
    Yale Univ, USA.
    Feist, Michele I.
    Univ Louisiana, USA.
    Ferrell, Jason D.
    St Edwards Univ, USA;Univ Texas Austin, USA.
    Field, James G.
    Univ Virginia, USA.
    Fox, Nicholas W.
    Rutgers State Univ, USA.
    Friesen, Amanda
    Indiana Univ Purdue Univ, USA.
    Gomes, Caio
    Booking Com, Netherlands.
    Gonzalez-Marquez, Monica
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Grange, James A.
    Keele Univ, UK.
    Grieve, Andrew P.
    UCB Celltech, UK.
    Guggenberger, Robert
    Eberhard Karls Univ Tubingen, Germany.
    Grist, James
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura
    Univ Cambridge, UK.
    Hasselman, Fred
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Hochard, Kevin D.
    Univ Chester, UK.
    Hoffarth, Mark R.
    NYU, USA.
    Holmes, Nicholas P.
    Univ Nottingham, UK.
    Ingre, Michael
    Isager, Peder M.
    Linköping University.
    Isotalus, Hanna K.
    Univ Bristol, UK.
    Johansson, Christer
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Juszczyk, Konrad
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Poland.
    Kenny, David A.
    Univ Connecticut, USA.
    Khalil, Ahmed A.
    Charite, Germany;Max Planck Inst Human Cognit & Brain Sci, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Konat, Barbara
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Poland.
    Lao, Junpeng
    Univ Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Larsen, Erik Gahner
    Univ Kent, UK.
    Lodder, Gerine M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Lukavsky, Jiri
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Madan, Christopher R.
    Univ Nottingham, UK.
    Manheim, David
    RAND Corp, USA.
    Martin, Stephen R.
    Baylor Univ, USA.
    Martin, Andrea E.
    Univ Edinburgh, UK;Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Netherlands.
    Mayo, Deborah G.
    Virginia Tech, USA.
    McCarthy, Randy J.
    Northern Illinois Univ, USA.
    McConway, Kevin
    Open Univ, UK.
    McFarland, Colin
    Skyscanner, UK.
    Nio, Amanda Q. X.
    Kings Coll London, UK.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University;Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA USA.
    de Oliveira, Cilene Lino
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    de Xivry, Jean-Jacques Orban
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Parsons, Sam
    Univ Oxford, UK.
    Pfuhl, Gerit
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Norway.
    Quinn, Kimberly A.
    Depaul Univ, USA.
    Sakon, John J.
    NYU, USA.
    Saribay, S. Adil
    Bogazici Univ, Turkey.
    Schneider, Iris K.
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Selvaraju, Manojkumar
    KACST, USA;Integrated Gulf Biosyst, Saudi Arabia.
    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands;Leiden Univ,Netherlands.
    Smith, Samuel G.
    Univ Leeds, UK.
    Smits, Tim
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Spies, Jeffrey R.
    Ctr Open Sci, USA;Univ Virginia, USA.
    Sreekumar, Vishnu
    NINDS, USA.
    Steltenpohl, Crystal N.
    Univ So Indiana, USA.
    Stenhouse, Neil
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, USA.
    Swiatkowski, Wojciech
    Univ Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Vadillo, Miguel A.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands;Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Williams, Matt N.
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Williams, Samantha E.
    St Louis Univ, USA.
    Williams, Donald R.
    Univ Calif Davis, USA.
    Yarkoni, Tal
    Univ Texas Austin, USA.
    Ziano, Ignazio
    Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Zwaan, Rolf A.
    Erasmus Univ, Netherlands.
    Justify your alpha2018In: Nature Human Behaviour, E-ISSN 2397-3374, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 168-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to P ≤ 0.005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level.

  • 27.
    Lindersson, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reassessing the impact of descriptive norms on charitable giving2019In: International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, ISSN 1465-4520, E-ISSN 1479-103X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-6, article id e1617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usefulness of conveying descriptive norms (“this is what most people do”) for prosocial purposes such as environmental conservation and charitable giving has recently been called into question. Two experiments (N = 748) evaluated the hypothesis that descriptive norms increase people's intentions to donate to charity. Overall, the results supported this hypothesis. Another aim was to examine the robustness of the local norm superiority effect that proposes that the local norms of one's immediate environment are superior to other descriptive norms (global and social identity norms). This hypothesis was not supported. The results suggest that differences between different types of norms are likely to be small.

  • 28.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    87 lärares rörelser till, från och inom yrket 1993-2013: En rapport från projektet Vägskäl - en longitudinell studie av val och ideal i lärares yrkesbanor2014Report (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Teacher attrition the first five years - A multifaceted image2014In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 94-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a longitudinal study on Swedish teachers' (N = 87) career trajectories this article presents a comparison between quantitative and qualitative data within the cohort and puts this in relation to general statistics on teacher attrition. The analysis indicates that caution is advised in interpreting and making use of general statistics. Teacher attrition is a more non-linear and complex phenomenon than what is typically proposed. In many cases drop-outs are temporary. Individuals not only leave, but also return to, the profession over time and their out-of-school experiences can in many cases be understood as individual initiatives to enhance teaching ability in the long run.

  • 30.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Agerström, Jens
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Svenska arbetsgivares implicita stereotyper av arabiska muslimer och överviktiga2008In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 12, no 3/4, p. 239-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Silberzahn, Raphael
    et al.
    University of Sussex Business School, UK.
    Uhlmann, Eric
    INSEAD, The Business School of the World, Asia Campus, Singapore.
    Martin, Daniel
    University of Virginia, USA.
    Anselmi, Pasquale
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Aust, Frederik
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Awtrey, Eli
    University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Bahník, Štěpán
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Bai, Feng
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Bannard, Colin
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Bonnier, Evelina
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cheung, Felix
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Christensen, Garret
    University of California, USA.
    Clay, Russ
    City University of New York, USA.
    Craig, Maureen
    New York University, USA.
    Dalla Rosa, Anna
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Dam, Lammertjan
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Evans, Mathew
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Flores Cervantes, Ismael
    Westat, USA.
    Fong, Nathan
    Temple University, USA.
    Gamez-Djokic, Monica
    Northwestern University, USA.
    Glenz, Andreas
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Gordon-McKeon, Shauna
    Washington, D.C., USA.
    Heaton, Tim
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Hederos, Karin
    Stockholm University.
    Heene, Mortiz
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany.
    Hofelich Mohr, Alicia
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Högden, Fabia
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Hui, Kent
    Xiamen University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Kalodimos, Jonathan
    Oregon State University, USA.
    Kaszubowski, Erikson
    Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Kennedy, Deanna
    University of Washington Bothell, USA.
    Lei, Ryan
    New York University, USA.
    Lindsay, Thomas
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Liverani, Silvia
    Queen Mary University of London, UK.
    Madan, Christopher
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Molden, Daniel
    Northwestern University, USA.
    Molleman, Eric
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Morey, Richard
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Mulder, Laetitia
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Nijstad, Bernard
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Pope, Nolan
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Pope, Bryson
    Brigham Young University, USA.
    Prenoveau, Jason
    Loyola University Maryland, USA.
    Rink, Floor
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Robusto, Egidio
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Roderique, Hadiya
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Sandberg, Anna
    Stockholm University.
    Schlüter, Elmar
    Justus Liebig University, Germany.
    Schönbrodt, Felix
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany.
    Sherman, Martin
    Loyola University Maryland, USA.
    Sommer, S. Amy
    United States Military Academy at West Point, USA.
    Sotak, Kristin
    State University of New York at Oswego, USA.
    Spain, Seth
    Concordia University, Canada.
    Spörlein, Christoph
    Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg, Germany.
    Stafford, Tom
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Stefanutti, Luca
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Täuber, Susanne
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Ullrich, Johannes
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Vianello, Michelangelo
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Witkowiak, Maciej
    Poznań, Poland.
    Yoon, Sangsuk
    Temple University, USA.
    Nosek, Brian
    University of Virginia, USA;Center for Open Science, USA.
    Many analysts, one dataset: Making transparent how variations in analytical choices affect results2018In: Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, ISSN 2515-2459, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 337-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-nine teams involving 61 analysts used the same dataset to address the same research question: whether soccer referees are more likely to give red cards to dark skin toned players than light skin toned players. Analytic approaches varied widely across teams, and estimated effect sizes ranged from 0.89 to 2.93 in odds ratio units, with a median of 1.31. Twenty teams (69%) found a statistically significant positive effect and nine teams (31%) observed a non-significant relationship. Overall 29 differentanalyses used 21 unique combinations of covariates. We found that neither analysts' prior beliefs about the effect, nor their level of expertise, nor peer-reviewed quality of analysis readily explained variation in analysis outcomes. This suggests that significant variation in the results of analyses of complex data may be difficult to avoid, even by experts with honest intentions. Crowdsourcing data analysis, a strategy by which numerous research teams are recruited to simultaneously investigate the same research question, makes transparent how defensible, yet subjective analytic choices influence research results.

  • 32.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    What will I be when I grow up? The impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences2013In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the impact of gender identity threat on adolescents’ occupationalpreferences. Two hundred and ninety-seven adolescents (45% girls, M age ¼ 14.4,SD ¼ .54) participated in the experiment. There were substantial differences between boys’and girls’ occupational preferences. Importantly, adolescents who received a threat to theirgender identity became more stereotypical in job preferences, suggesting a causal linkbetween threatened gender identity and stereotypical preferences. A comparison threat toone’s capability did not have this effect, indicating a unique effect of gender identity threat.Further, individual differences in gender identity concerns predicted gender stereotypicalpreferences, and this finding was replicated with an independent sample (N ¼ 242). Inconclusion, the results suggest that threats to adolescents’ gender identity may contributeto the large gender segregation on the labor market.

  • 33.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Getting along or ahead: Effects of gender identity threat on communal and agentic self‐presentations2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 427-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When faced with a threat to gender identity, people may try to restore their gender status by acting in a more gender-typical manner. The present research investigated effects of gender identity threat on self-presentations of agentic and communal traits in a Swedish and an Argentine sample (= 242). Under threat (vs. affirmation), Swedish women deemphasized agentic traits (d [95% CI] = −0.41 [−0.93, 0.11]), Argentine women increased their emphasis on communal traits (= 0.44 [−0.08, 0.97]), and Argentine men increased their emphasis on agentic traits (= 0.49 [−0.03, 1.01]). However, Swedish men did not appear to be affected by the threat regarding agentic (= 0.04 [−0.47, 0.55]) or communal traits (= 0.23 [−0.29, 0.74]). The findings are to be considered tentative. Implications for identity threat research are discussed.

  • 34.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    The role of friends in career compromise: Same-gender friendship intensifies gender differences in educational choice2014In: Journal of Vocational Behavior, ISSN 0001-8791, E-ISSN 1095-9084, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 109-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a mechanism of how the desire to maintain friendships can intensify gender differences in educational choice. The required conditions for this mechanism would be that (1) adolescent males and females differ in their overall educational preferences, (2) wanting to stay close to friends motivates some adolescents to adjust their educational choice in line with their friends' choices, and (3) adolescents have a higher share of same-gender, than other-gender, friends. Study 1 confirmed that these criteria were met, and Study 2 found an association between friendship priority and gender typed field of study. In conclusion, adjusting educational choices in order to maintain friendships put adolescents at risk of compromising their true career interests, and also becomes an obstacle to a gender balanced labor market.

  • 35.
    Williams, Donald
    et al.
    University of California, USA.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bürkner, Paul-Christian
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Between-litter variation in developmental studies of hormones and behavior: Inflated false positives and diminished power2017In: Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (Print), ISSN 0091-3022, E-ISSN 1095-6808, Vol. 47, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental studies of hormones and behavior often include littermates—rodent siblings that share early-life experiences and genes. Due to between-litter variation (i.e., litter effects), the statistical assumption of independent observations is untenable. In two literatures—natural variation in maternal care and prenatal stress—entire litters are categorized based on maternal behavior or experimental condition. Here, we (1) review both literatures; (2) simulate false positive rates for commonly used statistical methods in each literature; and (3) characterize small sample performance of multilevel models (MLM) and generalized estimating equations (GEE). We found that the assumption of independence was routinely violated (>85%), false positives (α = 0.05) exceeded nominal levels (up to 0.70), and power (1−β) rarely surpassed 0.80 (even for optimistic sample and effect sizes). Additionally, we show that MLMs and GEEs have adequate performance for common research designs. We discuss implications for the extant literature, the field of behavioral neuroendocrinology, and provide recommendations.

1 - 35 of 35
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