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  • 1.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för omvårdnad, hälsa och kultur, Avd för hälsa, kultur och pedagogik.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Klapp, Alli
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Betygens prognosförmåga och effekter på lärande2014Ingår i: Resultatdialog 2014, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2014, s. 51-60Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Korp, Helena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Anna
    Karlstad University, Karlstad.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivational Strategies and the Reframing of English: Activity Design and Challenges for Teachers in Contexts of Extensive Extramural Encounters2018Ingår i: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, nr 2, s. 247-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational strategies are underresearched, and studies so far conducted have been in sociolinguistic contexts where English is not extensively encountered outside the classroom. Given also that little is known about strategies relating to the design and content of classroom activities, the purpose of this study is to identify and critically evaluate strategies focusing on activity design and content in classroom activities that, in a setting where students have extensive extramural English encounters, teachers have found to be effective in generating motivation. Using Dörnyei's (2001) taxonomy of motivational strategies as an analytical tool, 112 descriptions of motivational activities provided by a randomly drawn sample of secondary EFL teachers in Sweden (N = 252) were content-analyzed with a focus on design and content. Providing support for Dörnyei's proposals, the results reveal the prominence of activities that enable students to work with authentic materials (cultural artefacts produced for a purpose other than teaching) and in ways that can be experienced as authentic. Activities involving digital technologies which provide opportunities for creativity are also prominent. Use of authentic materials places high demands on teachers' pedagogical and linguistic skills. In contexts where students respond positively to such activities, teachers' language awareness skills become of significant importance.

  • 3.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Korp, Helena
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Motivational strategies and the reframing of English: Activity design and challenges for teachers in contexts of extensive extramural encounters2018Ingår i: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 247-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational strategies are underresearched, and studies so far conducted have been in sociolinguistic contexts where English is not extensively encountered outside the classroom. Given also that little is known about strategies relating to the design and content of classroom activities, the purpose of this study is to identify and critically evaluate strategies focusing on activity design and content in classroom activities that, in a setting where students have extensive extramural English encounters, teachers have found to be effective in generating motivation. Using Dörnyei’s (2001) taxonomy of motivational strategies as an analytical tool, 112 descriptions of motivational activities provided by a randomly drawn sample of secondary EFL teachers in Sweden (N = 252) were content-analyzed with a focus on design and content. Providing support for D€ornyei’s proposals, the results reveal the prominence of activities that enable students to work with authentic materials (cultural artefacts produced for a purpose other than teaching) and in ways that can be experienced as authentic. Activities involving digital technologies which provide opportunities for creativity are also prominent. Use of authentic materials places high demands on teachers’ pedagogical and linguistic skills. In contexts where students respond positively to such activities, teachers’ language awareness skills become of significant importance.

  • 4.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Critical Perspectives2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 315-320Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur, Karlstads universitet.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivational Practice: Insights from the Classroom2018Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Disaffection and agentic engagement: ‘Redesigning’ activities to enable authentic self-expression2018Ingår i: Language Teaching Research, ISSN 1362-1688, E-ISSN 1477-0954Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Demotivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011) and non-participation (Norton, 2001) characterise negative responses to classroom practice of a generally chronic nature. In this article, focus is directed to negativity that emerges within the context of a particular language developing activity, and which can be understood as a situated response to the activity's demands. In conceptualizing negative responses at the activity level, disaffection – the negative face of engagement – is a construct of central importance. Drawing on data from a large-scale ethnographic project in secondary English classrooms in Sweden, in this exploratory case study disaffection (Skinner, 2016) is examined in the context of two language developing activities. Analyses reveal that disaffection can transform into active engagement, and that when called upon to perform an inauthentic identity, students can 'redesign' activities in ways that enable them to act authentically.

  • 7.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivation and funds of knowledge2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 161-186Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivation and the importance of teacher–student relationships2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 105-130Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Teachers' self-disclosures and influences on students' motivation: A relational perspective2018Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While teacher–student relationships are of central importance for students' motivation, they remain under-investigated. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach and focusing on the 'relationality' of teacher–student relationships, this study examines the identity-work that takes place when a teacher makes visible an aspect of identity not normally salient in the classroom. Framing self-disclosure as a relational practice, and drawing on ethnographic data that includes observations of English lessons (N = 258) in Swedish secondary schools, a relational conceptualization of the motivational influences of teacher identity-work is offered. Since language teachers are sensitive to the psychology of learning–teaching processes, relationally-grounded perspectives on motivation can be of particular importance in shaping classroom practices.

  • 10.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Teacher-Student Relationships and L2 Motivation2018Ingår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 102, nr 1, s. 218-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive relationships with teachers are important for students’ second language motivation. However, little is known about how interpersonal interactions stimulate motivated behavior. Drawing on studies of teacher-student relationships, theories from positive psychology, and the psychology of unconscious self-regulation, this case study examines moments of teacher-student interaction and explores influences on students’ engagement and motivation. Observations (N = 15) were carried out in 2 classrooms, and interviews with the focal teacher of this study and her students were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory ethnography approach. Findings indicate that moments of close personal contact and their influences may differ in emerging and mature teacher-student relationships. While in emerging relationships moments of contact can have immediate influences on engagement and motivation, in mature relationships influences on learning behavior may be less pronounced and involve unconscious motivational processes. The study’s methodological limitations are discussed and proposals are made for future ethnographic and experimental work.

  • 11.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    The Ideal Multilingual Self: Validity, Influences on Motivation, and Role in a Multilingual Education2018Ingår i: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 349-364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    L2 motivation research has a longstanding monolingual bias. Recently, however, the motivational systems of a multilingual’s different languages have been conceptualized as constituting a multilingual motivational system, and it has been suggested that interactions between the ideal Lx self and the ideal Ly self can lead to the emergence of an ideal multilingual self. While the notion of an ideal multilingual self chimes with research on multilinguals’ identity experiences, it has not been investigated empirically. The purpose of this study is to establish whether there is empirical support for the proposed ideal multilingual self construct, and whether it influences motivation to learn a second foreign language. A questionnaire containing items measuring the ideal L2 self and the ideal multilingual self was administered to a sample of secondary students (N=324) at two schools in Sweden with international profiles. Using structural equation modeling, analyses yielded discriminant validity for the ideal multilingual self construct, and revealed an indirect influence on intended effort mediated via the ideal L2 self. On the strength of these results, a case is made for future research into people’s motivation to be or become multilingual, and educational interventions focused on developing students’ ideal multilingual selves.   

     

  • 12.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Weaving webs of connection: Empathy, perspective taking, and students' motivation2019Ingår i: Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, ISSN 2083-5205, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 31-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    L2 motivation is a relational phenomenon, shaped by teacher responsiveness (Lamb, 2017; Ushioda, 2009). Little, however, is known about the practices in which responsiveness is manifested. Drawing on research from the culturally responsive teaching paradigm (Petrone, 2013), and highlighting the role of empathy and perspective taking (Warren, 2018), the aim of this ethnographic case study of two lessons with a focus on poetry is to develop a relational understanding of the evolution of motivation. Analyses reveal how perspective taking has instructional and interactional dimensions, and how connections between lesson content and funds of knowledge with origins in students' interactions with popular culture bring additional layers of meaning to learning. It is suggested that while connections that arise through perspective taking practices shape students' in-the-moment motivational responses, they also accumulate in ways that lead to enduring motivational dispositions.

  • 13.
    Korp, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstads universitet.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Differences in English teachers’ approaches to pupils’ out-of-school English encounters in relation to school and pupil demographic factors2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this questionnaire-based study is to investigate whether differences in ways in which teachers of English view the challenge of generating pupil motivation, and the nature and qualities of the activities they regard as motivational, are related to (i) school-type and (ii) pupil demographics. The study is part of a larger project investigating ways in which teachers relate to pupils’ increasing encounters with English in out-of-school contexts as observed recently in the Nordic countries (Simensen, 2010; Sundqvist, 2009). The study draws on responses of teachers (n = 111) who completed an online survey sent in 2014 to a randomly-drawn sample of grade 6 – 9 English teachers (N =250). The questionnaire comprised Likert-scale items focusing on factors identified as having a positive impact on language learning motivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011; Henry, 2013). These were: (i) self-reported recognition of the value of youth culture in goal-directed teaching, (ii) knowledge and use of digital medias, (iii) creation of networked environments, (iv) creation of activities emphasizing creativity and self-expression, and (v) attempts to link out-of-school English experiences with in-school learning. The questionnaire additionally included an open-ended question inviting teachers to describe a task they found particularly motivated their pupils. Mean scores were calculated for the scales and cluster analysis was used to identify teachers with differing approaches to generating motivation. Responses to the open question were content analyzed and quantitatively coded. Preliminary analyses indicate that teachers who report types of practice that draw on pupils’ out-of-school encounters with English, create learning activities that engage with pupils’ interests and identities and which embody features of networked communication are overrepresented in (i) independent schools and (ii) schools with relatively high proportions of pupils from academic home backgrounds and a low share of pupils with minority backgrounds. In that performance is mediated by motivation (Dörnyei, 2009), the presence of such patterns sheds light on school- and pupil-related differences in attainment found in Nordic and other settings.

  • 14.
    Korp, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sjöberg, Lena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Individual Development Plans in the Swedish Comprehensive School: Supporting High Quality Learning and Equity, or Rote Learning and Social Reproduction?2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 229-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish compulsory school, individual development plans (IDPs) are mandatory for all students up to 6th grade. The purpose is to summarize and facilitate pupils' learning and tune instruction to national standards. In this study, 233 IDPs drawn up for 5th grade pupils were analyzed with focus on qualities that have been found to impact students' learning and learner identities. The results show that the IDPs rarely display the qualities that would make them effective as tools for enhancing students' learning, and that there is a gender difference in the quality of the documents, as well as differences regarding the pupils' academic background.

  • 15.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Dimensionality and Predictive validity of school grades: the relative influence of cognitive and social-behavioral aspects2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to investigate the relative influence of cognitive and social-behavioral aspects on compulsory school grades and the importance of the different dimensions for the predictive validity of grades. Data is retrieved from the Gothenburg Educational Longitudinal Database (GOLD) and the Evaluation Through Follow-up (ETF) database. The sample in Study I consisted of three cohorts each of about 100 000 students in Grade 9, in Study II of about 4000 students in Grade 9, and in Study III of about 9000 students who were followed-up through compulsory school. All analyses were conducted using structural equation modelling (SEM). Both criterion-referenced and norm-referenced compulsory school grades were found to be multidimensional, reflecting both subject-specific dimensions and a common-grade dimension, cutting across grades and teachers. The common-grade dimension, which in previous research has been found to be related to social-behavioral aspects, contributed to predict study success in upper secondary school, indicating that social-behavioral aspects partly contribute to explain the predictive power of school grades. The influence of cognitive aspects was substantial. Fluid abilities had a continuous direct influence on the development of knowledge and skills throughout compulsory school, which is in line with the predictions from Cattell's (1987) Investment theory. Substantial indirect effects of fluid abilities on school grades were found, although no direct effects. In sum the results in the present thesis show that both cognitive and social-behavioral aspects contribute to explain the predictive validity of school grades.

  • 16.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Dimensions of Norm-Referenced Compulsory School Grades and their Relative Importance for the Prediction of Upper Secondary School Grades2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 58, nr 2, s. 127-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Irrespective of the grading system, grades are the most valid instrument for predicting educational success. Previous studies have shown that criterion-referenced compulsory school grades are multidimensional, reflecting subject-specific dimensions and a common grade dimension, both of which contribute to the predictive validity of grades. This suggests that in addition to knowledge and skills, grades reflect other aspects which might have importance for the prediction of educational success. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using structured equation modeling, whether norm-referenced compulsory school grades display similar patterns of dimensionality and predictive validity to criterion-referenced grades. Possible differences due to gender and parents’ education were considered. Participants were 3855 students born in 1972. The results showed that norm-referenced grades are multidimensional, and that both the subject-specific and common grade dimensions contribute to predicting educational success. In the common grade dimension, girls and students with higher educational backgrounds were favored.

  • 17.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    The MoTiSSE project2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 89-103Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för omvårdnad, hälsa och kultur.
    Teachers’ grade assignment and the predictive validity of criterion-referenced grades.2012Ingår i: Educational Research and Evaluation, ISSN 1380-3611, E-ISSN 1744-4187, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 153-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has found that grades are the most valid instruments for predicting educational success. Why grades have better predictive validity than, for example, standardized tests is not yet fully understood. One possible explanation is that grades reflect not only subject-specific knowledge and skills but also individual differences in other aspects. The purpose was to investigate the relative importance of knowledge and skills and other aspects encapsulated in grades for the predictive validity of compulsory school grades for educational success in upper secondary school. Structural equation modelling was used. Participants were 9th-grade students from 3 birth cohorts, each comprising full populations of approximately 100,000 students. The results showed that the subject-specific factors and an additional common grade factor contributed to the predictive validity. Effects of gender and parents' education were found in the common grade factor, with girls and students with a lower educational background being advantaged.

  • 19.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Teachers' Grading Assignment and the Predictive Validity of Norm-Referenced Grades2011Ingår i: The European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Berlin, 12-16 September 2011: Urban Education, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för omvårdnad, hälsa och kultur, Avd för hälsa och kultur.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för omvårdnad, hälsa och kultur, Avd för hälsa och kultur.
    The Importance of cognitive and non-cognitive factors for the predictive validity of grades.2010Ingår i: Education and Cultural Change 2010, 23 August - 27 August, Helsinki, Finland, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Effects of Gf and Gc on the development of knowledge and skills2013Ingår i: The 15th Biennial Conference, European Association for Research and Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Munich, 27-31 August, 2013: Book of Abstracts, 2013, s. 968-969Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Investment theory (Cattell, 1987) states that learning in different fields is dependent on a general ability to reason in novel situations (Gf), and that development of knowledge and skill therefore is influenced by Gf, among other things. The Encapsulation theory (Gustafsson & Carlstedt,2006) makes the inference that Gf is encapsulated in measures of General Crystallized intelligence(Gc) and that information about Gf therefore does not add to prediction of further learning. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Gf and Gc on knowledge acquisition indifferent subjects in school. In all 9002 individuals from the Evaluation Through Follow-up longitudinal database were included. A path model was fitted to measures of Gf and Gc. Results showed that Gf had influence on measures of early and late Gc. However, there were no additional effects of Gf on subject grades, which was interpreted as providing partial support for the Encapsulation theory.

  • 22.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    University of Gothenburg.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för omvårdnad, hälsa och kultur, Avd för hälsa, kultur och pedagogik.
    The influence of fluid and crystallized intelligence on the development of knowledge and skills2014Ingår i: British Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0007-0998, E-ISSN 2044-8279, Vol. 84, nr 4, s. 556-570Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Cattell’s Gf–Gc distinction is quite generally recognized. However, the developmental part of the Gf–Gc theory of intelligence has not gained the same recognition. Results are inconsistent, but recent discussions emphasize the importance of homogeneity of samples with regard to education and language when investigating the developmental Investment theory. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Gf and Gc on the development of knowledge and skills in a sample of children in compulsory school who are homogenous with regard to level of education, age, and cultural background. Sample Totally, 9,002 individuals from the evaluation through follow-up database born in 1972 and who left compulsory school in 1988 were included. These individuals were followed up in Grades 3, 6, and 9. Methods Structural equation modelling was used, and autoregressive path models were fitted. All modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.1. Results In the first step, a path model with a simplex structure was defined. However, a second model with direct relations of Gf on Gc in Grades 6 and 9 had better model fit, suggesting a continuous influence of Gf on Gc. However, no direct influence of Gf was found for the subject grades. Conclusion Due to the continuous influence of Gf on the measures of Gc throughout compulsory school, support for Cattell’s (1987) Investment theory was found.

  • 23.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen for hälsopromotion och vårdvetenskap.
    The case of a missing person? The current L2 self and the L2Motivational Self System2017Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Dörnyei's (2009a) theorizing, motivation is conceptualized to be generated by discomfort associated with the learner's experience of a discrepancy between their current L2 self, and their ideal L2 self. However, in the L2 Motivational Self System, this discrepancy is not operationalized. A questionnaire containing measures of current L2 selves was administered to two cohorts of students learning English in Sweden, one in grade 7, and one in grade 9. Using structural equation modelling, results revealed that the discrepancy between the ideal L2 self and the current L2 selfwas greater for the grade 7 cohort. So too was the impact on a criterion variable measuring intended effort. Arguments for the operationalization of the selfdiscrepancy process in research designs are put forward. In studies tracking changes over time, it is suggested that the inclusion of a variable measuring the current L2self could provide important insights into self-discrepancy trajectories, facilitate the investigation of motivational dynamics, and bring greater sensitivity to intervention design.

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