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  • 1.
    Adolphs, Svenja
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Clark, Leigh
    University College Dublin, School of Information and Communication Studies, Dublin, Ireland.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Glover, Tony
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Muir, Christine
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK.
    Sánchez-Lozano, Enrique
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Valstar, Michel
    University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Jubilee Campus, NG8 1BB, UK.
    Digital innovations in L2 motivation: Harnessing the power of the Ideal L2 Self2018Ingår i: System (Linköping), ISSN 0346-251X, E-ISSN 1879-3282, Vol. 78, s. 173-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustained motivation is crucial to learning a second language (L2), and one way to support this can be through the mental visualisation of ideal L2 selves (Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014). This paper reports on an exploratory study which investigated the possibility of using technology to create representations of language learners' ideal L2 selves digitally. Nine Chinese learners of L2 English were invited to three semi-structured interviews to discuss their ideal L2 selves and their future language goals, as well as their opinions on several different technological approaches to representing their ideal L2 selves. Three approaches were shown to participants: (a) 2D and 3D animations, (b) Facial Overlay, and (c) Facial Mask. Within these, several iterations were also included (e.g. with/without background or context). Results indicate that 3D animation currently offers the best approach in terms of realism and animation of facial features, and improvements to Facial Overlay could lead to beneficial results in the future. Approaches using the 2D animations and the Facial Mask approach appeared to have little future potential. The descriptive details of learners' ideal L2 selves also provide preliminary directions for the development of content that might be included in future technology-based interventions.

  • 2.
    Andersson Hval, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Henry, AlastairHögskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.Walker Bergström, CatharineHögskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Postcolonial texts and events: cultural narratives from the English-speaking world2013Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Chan, Letty
    et al.
    University of Nottingham.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    School of English, University of Nottingham.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Learner archetypes and signature dynamics in the language classroom: A retrodictive qualitative modelling approach to studying L2 motivation2014Ingår i: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, s. 238-259Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the use of ‘retrodictive qualitative modelling’ (RQM), a novel approach described for L2 research by Dörnyei (2014) that involves the identification of learner archetypes and motivational patterns in empirical research. The method reverses the traditional way of conducting research; it first examines the outcome – that is, the end-states – and then traces back the developmental trajectories leading to this outcome. Situated in a Hong Kong secondary school, we started our project by first asking a teacher focus group to identify salient learner archetypes in their classrooms (Years 7 to 9), and on the basis of these we then conducted in-depth interviews with one prototypical learner from each group. As a result, we gained insights into the ‘signature dynamics’ of the motivational system associated with each prototype. Our focus in this chapter is on evaluating RQM in action. First we report on the processes in which teachers identified learner archetypes and thereafter offer an in-depth analysis of the system dynamics of one of these students. In the final discussion, we list the main methodological lessons that we have learnt from applying RQM.

  • 4.
    Dörnyei, Zoltan
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, School of English, United Kingdom .
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Muir, Christine
    University of Nottingham, School of English, United Kingdom .
    Motivational currents in language learning: Frameworks for focused interventions2016Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on Zoltán Dörnyei's authoritative work in the field of learner motivation, this book introduces a new conceptualization-Directed Motivational Currents (DMCs)-and sets out the defining aspects of what they are, what they are not, and how they are related to language learning motivation. Going beyond focused behavior in a single activity, DMCs concern intensive long-term motivation. The distinctive feature of the theory is that it views motivation not simply as a springboard for action but also as a uniquely self-renewing and sustainable process. It is this energizing capacity which distinguishes DMCs from almost every other motivational construct described in the research literature. Motivational Currents in Language Learning offers new insights, valuable both to motivation researchers and classroom practitioners. The accessible style, along with plentiful illustrations and practical suggestions for promoting sustained learning, invite readers to think about motivation in a different way. Highly relevant for language teachers, teachers-in-training, teacher educators, and researchers in TESOL and applied linguistics, the book explains how the DMC construct can be integrated into course structures and teaching methodologies, and encourages teachers to try out novel methods for harnessing motivational power in classroom settings. © 2016 Taylor and Francis

  • 5.
    Dörnyei, Zoltán
    et al.
    School of English, University of Nottingham.
    MacIntyre, Peter D.Cape Breton University.Henry, AlastairHögskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivational dynamics in language learning2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Dörnyei, Zoltán
    et al.
    School of English, University of Nottingham.
    McIntyre, Peter D.
    Cape Breton University.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Introduction: Applying Complex Dynamic Systems Principles to Empirical Research on L2 Motivation2014Ingår i: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, s. 1-7Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Goddard, Angela
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk. York St John University, Programme for Languages & Linguistics.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    English language learning for international employability2013Ingår i: For the Love of Learning: Innovations from Outstanding University Teachers / [ed] Bilham, Tim, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1, s. 247-253Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Goddard, Angela
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk. York St John University, Languages and Linguistics.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Mondor, Monika
    Gothenburg University.
    Van Der Laaken, Manon
    University of Amsterdam.
    Have you ever been to England? You know, they speak really weird English there'.: Some implications of the growth of English as a global language for the teaching of English in the UK2013Ingår i: English in Education, ISSN 0425-0494, E-ISSN 1754-8845, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 79-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes two inter-related research projects concerned with the teaching and learning of English in contemporary contexts, where English is changing its status from being the first language of specific groups of speakers to becoming a global lingua franca. Focussing respectively on learners of English as a second language (L2 users) in the Netherlands and Sweden, and on native speakers (L1 users) in the UK, our research reveals what English as a lingua franca means to some of its European users, and considers ways for L1 teachers and learners to remain connected internationally.

  • 9.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    A drama of selves: Investigating teacher identity development from dialogical and complexity perspectives2019Ingår i: Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, ISSN 2083-5205, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 263-285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Identity is of increasing interest in teacher education. Crucial for resilience, the development of a coherent professional identity has been characterized as emerging from tensions between multiple and sometimes conflicting conceptions of what it means to be someone who teaches (Akkerman & Meijer, 2011). While light is being shed on these often antagonistic relations, less is known about the dynamics of identity formation and transformation. Providing a contribution to work on language teacher identity, in this single case study Hermans’ (2008) concept of the dialogical self is combined with complexity principles in an investigation of changes in the emerging professional identity of a pre-service English teacher during a practicum. Drawing on intra- and inter-personal data, experiences of learning to become a person who teaches English are conceptualized as a drama that is played out between different and sometimes unaligned selves. Analyses show how this inner drama maps onto the landscape of an emerging teacher identity, how tensions can be understood systemically, and how a teacher identity system can have a signature dynamic.

  • 10.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Att vara ett global medborgare: skapandet av språkliga identiteter i och utanför skolan2014Ingår i: Att förstå ungdomars identitetsskapande: en inspirations- och metodbok / [ed] Sorbring, Emma, Andersson, Åsa & Molin, Martin, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, 1, s. 276-305Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet beskrivs språk som en kontext, och fokus är på identitetsskapande som kan kopplas till inlärning av främmande språk och språkanvändning.

  • 11.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Challenges in bridging between cultures of English experience2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 289-313Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Conceptualizing Teacher Identity as a Complex Dynamic System: The Inner Dynamics of Transformations During a Practicum2016Ingår i: Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0022-4871, E-ISSN 1552-7816, Vol. 67, nr 4, s. 291-305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the inner dynamics of teacher identity transformations remain a “black box.” Conceptualizing preservice teacher identity as a complex dynamic system, and the notion of “being someone who teaches” in dialogical terms as involving shifts between different teacher voices, the study investigates the dynamical processes at play when transitions between identities occur. Using a single-case design, and drawing on intra- and inter-personal data collected across three timescales, the identity transformations of a preservice teacher during a practicum are examined as a process in motion. The study offers a systemic account of the participant’s teacher identity experiences, analyses revealing oscillations between two identity positions and a pattern of multi-stability. It is suggested that complexity approaches can be valuably used in mentoring processes to help students make sense of identity transformations and the conditions under which they occur. In the longer term, support of this kind can have a positive impact on teacher retention.

  • 13.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Contexts of possibility in simultaneous language learning: using the L2 Motivational Self System to assess the impact of global English2010Ingår i: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 149-162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation in simultaneous L2 learning situations is an area of research largely overlooked and studies from contexts where people are engaged in learning more than one L2 are rare. In their large-scale Hungarian research, Dornyei, Csizer and Nemeth found that pupils' positive attitudes to one L2 could cause interferences with attitudes to others, with English being the greatest source of such interference. In this article it is suggested that, as an alternative to interference, Markus and Nurius' theory of the working self-concept may offer a theoretically more coherent explanation for between-language effects in situations of simultaneous learning. Using a specially designed instrument, three hypotheses were tested for a sample of Swedish pupils actively engaged in learning two L2s. First, it was hypothesised that learners would have separate L2 self-concepts as speakers of different L2s, secondly, that FL self-concepts would be interpreted negatively in relation to English self-concepts and, finally, that a high degree of FL-to-English negative self-concept referencing would be associated with low FL motivation. Whilst tentative support was found for all three hypotheses, with negative effects of English being most noticeable among boys, the results need to be followed up by further research employing more exacting methodologies.

  • 14.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Digital games and ELT: bridging the authenticity gap2013Ingår i: International perspectives on motivation: language learning and professional challenges / [ed] Ushioda, Ema, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1, s. 133-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I will suggest that in cultural contexts such as Sweden where English is an integral part of young people’s everyday lives and is encountered and used in a range of out-of-school domains, a particular challenge facing teachers is not so much generating motivation to succeed in long-term competency goals, but rather engaging students in day-to-day classroom activities. Based on the idea that self-authenticity can have a motivating force (Gecas 1991; Vannini 2006; Vannini and Burgess 2009) and drawing on James Paul Gee’s recent work on affinity spaces (Gee 2005; Hayes and Gee 2010), I will argue that teachers of English need to create learning opportunities where students can experience the types of creative and self-relevant interaction commonplace in digital gaming. This does not mean that teachers should look to leisure-time domains with an eye to the wholesale import of youth culture content into the classroom, but, rather, that greater scope should be given to aesthetic and personal expression in activity design. In arguing that there is a growing authenticity gap between the English students learn in school and the English they use outside, I will begin the chapter by looking at the sorts of things young people in Sweden do in their free time.

     

  • 15.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Enablements and constraints: Inventorying affordances associated with lingua franca English2016Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 488-510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcultural flows of capital, culture and communication have created conditions for the widespread movement of people around the globe, leading to increasing diversity in countries of destination. In contexts of global migration lingua franca English is indispensable in initial and survival communication. For migrants to northern European countries where lingua franca English functions as a 'contact language' in 'contact zone encounters', it is of value not only as a communication medium, but also as a resource for learning typologically similar host-country languages. Drawing on the concept of affordances, the purpose of this study is to create an inventory of the ways in which English can facilitate, but also constrain social interaction and the acquisition of Swedish. Interviews conducted with 14 recently arrived migrants with English in their repertoires revealed the presence of enabling and constraining affordances in social, classroom, material and cognitive domains. Discussing the study findings, it is suggested that the ways in which the individual attunes to an affordance associated with English, perceiving it as either enabling or constraining, is dependent on their current motivational and affective state and in-the-moment cognitive processing

  • 16.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Examining the impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A case study2011Ingår i: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 235-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous L2 (English) and L3 (Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves approach was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a larger dataset (n=101). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis techniques. In analysing the data Markus and Nurius’ (1986) theory of the working self-concept was used to examine experiences of and cognitive responses to the presence of L2 English in L3 learning situations. The results indicate that for these individuals an L2 English self-concept is an active constituent with a referential function in working self-concepts activated in L3 learning situations. To offset the potentially negative effects of the incursion of L2 English, some of the individuals recruited different forms of positive self-knowledge into the working self-concept. For one participant the powerful referential effect of English was such that it became difficult to sustain a viable L3-speaking/using self. The results suggest that the inclusion of a working self-concept component in possible selves motivational research may be methodologically rewarding, particularly in multilingual settings and/or where contextual or process factors are in focus.    

  • 17.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Gender differences in compulsory school pupils' L2 self-concepts: A longitudinal study2009Ingår i: System, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 177-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Gender differences in L2 motivation: A reassessment2011Ingår i: Gender Gap: causes, experiences & effects / [ed] Davies, Samuel A., New York: Nova Science , 2011, s. 81-101Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Along with aptitude, motivation is the primary determiner of learning outcomes in second language (L2) learning. Widely regarded as an activity especially suited to girls, empirical studies from different sociocultural contexts have, with few exceptions, revealed systematic gender differences in L2 motivation. In particular, gender differences are most apparent in relation to establishing an affinity with other L2 speakers, the ability and willingness to identify with the values associated with L2 ethnolinguistic communities and a lack of ethnocentricity. Together these attributes have been categorized as integrativeness (Gardner, 1985). Explanations for observed gender differences vary and, other than a general recognition of the impact of social norms and gender role expectations, no overarching theoretical explanation has yet been attempted. Given the recent paradigm shift in the conceptualization of L2 motivation from a social psychological approach based on identifications with other groups of speakers, to one based on the learner’s internal identification of a future language speaking ‘self’, a timely opportunity is presented to review previous findings. Following an initial discussion of the paradigm shift in L2 motivation theory and the role of gender in conceptions of the self, the literature on the gender gap in integrativeness is reviewed through the lens of self-related theories. A tentative explanation for observed differences that synthesizes the results of previous research and is theoretically consistent with a self approach is proposed. Drawing on the work of, amongst others, Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver and Surrey (1991), Markus and Kitayama (1991) and Cross and Madson (1997) it is suggested that gender differences can be understood in relation to processes involving the construction and construal of selves, where the selves of males are characterized by independence whilst those of females emphasize interdependence.

  • 19.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    ‘I wouldn’t want to travel to France either. Not even for fun’: The impact on L3 self-concepts of non-self-determined motivation2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    L2 Motivation and Multilingual Identities2017Ingår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 101, nr 3, s. 548-565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By tradition, L2 motivation research has a monolingual bias – the motivational systems of a learner’s different languages conceptualized as separate entities rather than as cognitively interconnected. At a time when multilingualism has become a new world order (Douglas Fir Group, ) and where there is evidence of powerful identity experiences connected to speaking several languages (Pavlenko, ) this is unfortunate. In alignment with the multilingual and dynamic turns in SLA (de Bot, ; May, ), and adopting a complexity thought modeling approach (Larsen–Freeman & Cameron, ), this article explores multilingual learners’ L2 motivation. It is suggested that the motivational systems of a multilingual learner’s different languages can be understood as constituting a higher-level multilingual motivational self system that is part of an ecology of interconnected and interpenetrating systems. This system contains multilingual self guides, one of which is the ideal multilingual self. Drawing on construal-level theory (Trope & Liberman, ), the manner and effects of mental representations of an ideal multilingual self are assessed. Finally, it is suggested that motivation deriving from a broader identity that encompasses but, in important ways, transcends a multilingual person’s language-specific identities has a central role to play in multilingual education.

  • 21.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    L3 Motivation2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to study secondary school students' motivation to learn a second foreign language in addition to English. In addition to the empirical investigation of L3 motivation over a program of study and the testing of the widely-held assumption that L2 English impacts negatively on L3 motivation, the aim was also to contribute to the conceptual development of self-based motivation theory by examining the evolution and development of language-speaking/using selves, and by addressing the issue of interference between different self-guides.  In Studies I and II the L3 motivational trajectories of two samples of secondary school students (n=532, n=169) were mapped across grades 4 – 6 (Study I) and grades 6 – 9 (Study II), with a particular focus on differences in the trajectories of girls' and boys' ideal language-speaking/using selves. The results of Studies I and II revealed a pattern where initial gender differences, although remaining stable after a year of learning, thereafter follow different developmental paths. While boys' ideal L3 selves declined by the end of grade 9, girls' ideal L3 selves became stronger. Although a similar pattern was found for L2 English selves, the gender gap here was not as marked.  In Study III the hypothesis that, as a result of negative cross-referencing between ideal L2 and ideal L3 selves, L2 English would have a negative effect on L3 motivation was tested in a sample of 9th grade students (n= 101). Analysis of the data indicates that students are aware of the ideal L2 English self in L3 learning situations and support was found for the hypothesised negative effect on L3 motivation, with the impact being stronger among boys. In Study IV the hypothesised processes of negative cross-referencing were examined in a series of in-depth interviews with four participants selected using a maximum variation sampling strategy. Analysis of the data revealed that when cross-referencing takes place, some students seem to invoke counteracting resources. In the discussion of the findings it is suggested that, rather than interference, competition may provide a conceptually more coherent descriptor of the processes of cognition that take place in the working self-concept when more than one possible language self is active. The implications of the findings for theoretical development are discussed in relation to both qualitative applications of the L2 Motivational Self System (Dörnyei, 2005), and the proposed ID component in the Dynamic Model of Multilingualism (Herdina & Jessner, 2002). Finally, the educational implications of the findings are discussed and a series of proposals for classroom interventions are put forward

  • 22.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivational activities and identity work2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 133-160Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Online Media Creation and L2 Motivation: A Socially Situated Perspective2019Ingår i: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 372-404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies are increasingly common in language learning. Online media creation provides scope for agency and spaces for identity construction, but empirically grounded conceptualizations of the influences on learners' motivation are lacking and the digital technology–second language motivation interface remains largely unexplored. Using a grounded theory ethnographic approach (Charmaz,2006), and with the aim of developing a theoretical account of the emergence of motivation in online media creation, this study investigated a blog project in an English language classroom in Sweden. Engaging with multiple data sources, and using Ito and colleagues' (2010) theory of participation in media practices as an analytical framework, motivation is conceptualized as stemming from the desire to create a visually appealing and authentic artefact, from a perception of audience, and through the documentation of identities. Variations in motivational intensity between student groups could betraced to varying investments in digital media practices. Primarily, differences were between validation-seeking that was locally oriented and validation-seeking conditioned through actions within a genre of practice. These conceptualizations are of importance for English language teaching. In language-developing activities that involve online media creation, motivation can be enhanced when space for genre exploration is provided

  • 24.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    På väg mot en reflekterande praktik2011Ingår i: Läraryrket: ett mångfacetterat uppdrag / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Gurdal, Sevtap, Asplund Carlsson, Maj, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, 1, s. 229-243Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Rewarding foreign language learning: effects of the Swedish grade point average enhancement initiative on students' motivationto learn French.2017Ingår i: Language learning journal, ISSN 0957-1736, E-ISSN 1753-2167, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 301-315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reinstate interest and motivation for learning foreign languages (FLs) other than English, the Swedish government has recently reformed the admissions system to higher education. Upper secondary students who continue with the FL learnt in secondary school are rewarded with extra credits that considerably enhance their grade point average (GPA). The purpose of this interview-based study is examine the impact this initiative has on the choices of 6 upper secondary students to continue with their FL, French, and on their motivation over one and a half semesters of study. Using self-determination theory and Dörnyei’s (2009a) L2 Motivational Self System model as analytical lenses, results reveal that for the three students whose motivation is rooted in intrinsic and/or self-determined extrinsic reasons for learning, the GPA-enhancing credits have little or no impact on either choice or effortful behaviour. For the other three students, none of whom, but for the extra credits, would have chosen to continue with French, the GPA-enhancement is almost the sole source motivation. However, because their reasons for studying French are not fully self-determined, learning lacks personal meaning. These students see little longer-term value in their efforts, nor meaningful applications for the skills they have developed. Consequently, goals do not extend beyond achieving a passing grade. The effects of making a fifth and sixth year of FL learning de facto compulsory on students’ willingness to use the FL in the future and on their FL-speaking/using self-concepts are discussed, and the consequences of the initiative are critically appraised.

  • 26.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Swedish or English?: Migrants' experiences of the exchangeability of language resources2016Ingår i: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 442-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which languages and language varieties are differently valued. In a Swedish context, where lingua franca English can facilitate communication but where monolingual norms prevail and Swedish is positioned as the key to 'integration', the purpose of this study is to examine English-speaking migrants' experiences of opportunities to use Swedish and English in communication. Interviews were conducted with 14 recently arrived migrants with English in their repertoires. Drawing on participants' experiences of language use in institutional contexts, analyses focus on the influence of value assessments, orientations to ideal-type norms, processes of self-surveillance and the effects of discursive positionings. While migrants' language choices are understood as a consequence of structural conditions, attention is also drawn to the ways in which such choices are flexibly negotiated. Analyses shed light on participants' creative and critical capacities and how, in their language choices, they evaluate, relate to and resist macro-social structures. Different varieties of English are shown to offer different communicative opportunities and not all are equally exchangeable. Opportunities to use English also differ as a consequence of the intersections of discursive positionings.

  • 27.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Swedish students’ beliefs about learning English in and outside of school2014Ingår i: Motivation and Foreign Language Learning: from theory to practice / [ed] David Lasagabaster, Aintzane Doiz, Juan Manuel Sierra, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, s. 93-116Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden students’ encounters with English in and out of school are very different. Spending around 20 hours per week in English-mediated environments outside of school, they are often engaged in richly meaningful activities. Consequently, many young people believe they learn as much of their English as a result of participation in English-mediated leisure time activities as they do from textbook-dominated classroom instruction. Drawing on emerging discussions on the ways in which learners’ beliefs about the primacy of learning English in natural environments can have negative effects on learning behaviours in formal settings (e.g. Mercer & Ryan, 2010), and how learners’ beliefs about the causes of success in language learning can impact on motivation (e.g. Hsieh, 2012), this chapter examines the ways in which such beliefs may impact on Swedish students’ responses to classroom learning. Further, in view of the fact that beliefs about the context in which English is mostly acquired differ substantially between girls and boys, the chapter examines the ways in which gender differences in the nature of self-regulation can impact on students’ beliefs.

  • 28.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    The ‘Burden’ and the Darkness: The British Empire and Colonialism2013Ingår i: Postcolonial Texts and Events: Cultural Narratives from the English-Speaking World / [ed] Andersson Hval, Ulrika, Henry, Alastair & Bergström, Catharine Walker, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, s. 15-35Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    The Dynamics of L3 Motivation: A Longitudinal Interview /Observation-Based Study2014Ingår i: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, s. 315-342Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning a third language (L3) in school is a common experience for students in countries all over the world, particularly in Europe where a central aim of European Union educational policy is the development of multilingualism (Cenoz & Jessner, 2000; European Commission, 2005, 2008). Common language combinations, as for example in the Scandinavian countries, are English as the initial instructed foreign language (the L2) with French, German or Spanish (the L3) introduced at a later stage. The simultaneous learning of more than one foreign language (FL) has begun to attract the interest of motivation researchers, with findings pointing to the popularity of English (Csizér & Dörnyei, 2005; Csizér & Lukács, 2010) and indicating that, comparatively, motivational trajectories for L3s show a markedly steeper decline (Henry, 2009). There is also evidence that L3 motivation is prone to greater fluctuation, both gradual and dramatic (Mercer, 2011) and that, in competition for the learner’s time and resources, L2 English can have negative effects on L3 motivation (Henry, 2010, 2011, 2014; Mercer, 2011).

       As Cameron and Larsen-Freeman (2007: 227) note, complexity theory approaches that reject linear scenarios and focus on the webs of interactions taking place within and between dynamic systems, seem to resonate with ‘the problem spaces of applied linguistics’. One particular ‘problem space’ where complex dynamic systems (CDS) theories can usefully be applied is in third language acquisition. The acquisition of a third language involves greater degrees of complexity than in situations when only one new language is in focus as it is necessary to account for the interactions between different language systems in the learner’s mind (Herdina & Jessner, 2002; Jessner, 2006, 2008). This means that, in addition to all of the individual difference factors recognised in SLA, in third language acquisition the evolution of a language system will also be dependent on the development and behaviour of other parallel language systems (Jessner, 2008).    

       With the aim of examining the motivational dynamics of six Swedish students learning French as an L3, this chapter reports on findings from a series of semi-structured interviews and classroom observations conducted over a nine-month period. The chapter begins with an overview of some of the CDST concepts used when engaging with the data, and concludes with a reflection on some of the methodological challenges encountered in this type of research.

  • 30.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    The Dynamics of Possible Selves2014Ingår i: Motivational dynamics in language learning / [ed] Dörnyei, Zoltán, MacIntyre, Peter D. & Henry, Alastair, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, s. 83-94Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dörnyei’s recasting of L2 motivation as a process of self-discrepancy has not only generated scores of journal articles and book chapters focusing on the motivational effects of L2 self-guides, but through practitioner-oriented publications (Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014; Gregersen & MacIntyre, 2013; Hadfield & Dörnyei, 2013) the Ideal L2 Self is beginning to find its way into motivational practices in the classroom. Widely recognised as potentially powerful generators of motivation, ideal L2 selves risk however being conceptualized as static constructs, fixed ‘targets’ that the individual strives to achieve or live up to. Such a view does not fit easily with the current trend in SLA towards the application of dynamic approaches. For this reason an elaboration of the dynamics of possible selves seems timely.

       In this chapter I explore two important dynamic processes. First I look at the ways in which ideal L2 selves are upward- and downwardly revised as a result of assessments of the likelihood of their achievement. I then consider processes in which changes in language speaking/using self-guides are triggered as a consequence of interactions with other self-concepts. While the identification of this first type of dynamic stems from the notion that, during a period of learning (long or short), the learner’s goalposts are likely to shift, the second is a development of the long-held recognition that motivated behaviours do not take place in relative isolation, but are shaped by the other ongoing activities in which the learner is engaged (Dörnyei, 2005; Ushioda, this volume). Before looking at these two processes, I begin by outlining three aspects of complex dynamic systems (CDS) theory of particular importance in developing an understanding of self-guide dynamics. These are, respectively, changes to attractor states, system connectedness and timescales.

  • 31.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    The motivational effects of cross-linguistic awareness: developing  third language pedagogies to address the negative impact  of the L2 on the L3 self-concept2014Ingår i: Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1750-1229, E-ISSN 1750-1237, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning a third language (TL) brings with it particular pedagogical demands. In the pedagogy of TL learning now emerging, the development of students' metalinguistic and crosslinguistic awareness is of central importance. In particular, emphasis is placed on the benefits of cross-referencing with supporter languages. While comparisons with supporter languages have been shown to facilitate L3 production, recent research suggests that cross-referencing with the L2 may be detrimental to motivation. In the current study, 21 students learning L2 English and L3 German or Spanish were interviewed about comparisons involving L3 and L2 self-concepts. Results revealed that nearly all of the students were aware of making such comparisons. A number, however, had developed strategies to counteract the potentially detrimental effect that comparisons with the L2-speaking/using self-concept can have on L3 motivation. It is argued here that in emerging pedagogies of L3 learning proper account needs to be taken of cognitive and affective individual difference factors. In particular, as a means of offsetting the negative impact that a high-status supporter language can have on the learner's L3 self-concept, students should be made aware of the problem and helped to develop and make use of counteracting strategies.

  • 32.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Tredjespråksinlärning och motivation2016Ingår i: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] C. Bardel, Y. Falk och C. Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2016, s. 165-188Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Understanding language learners' motivation2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 43-61Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    What Motivates Students?2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 63-85Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Why can’t I be doing this in English instead?: An interview study of the impact of L2 English on girls’ and boys’ L3 selves2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial International Gender and Language Association Conference IGALA 6, 18-20 September, Tokyo / [ed] Maree, Claire & Satoh, Kyoko, Tokyo: Tsuda College , 2011, s. 126-139Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has been very little research on L3 motivation, it would appear that the gender divergences commonly found in L2 motivation are also apparent when a third foreign language is learnt. In a previous analysis of quantitative data Henry (2010a) found an inverse relationship between i) the extent to which students compared the L3-speaking/using self-concept with the L2 English-speaking/using self-concept, and ii) L3 motivation. Further, this effect was stronger for boys. In an attempt to shed light on these gender differences, interview data from students with differing motivational profiles were analysed using the theoretical framework of the working self-concept (Markus & Nurius, 1986; Markus & Kunda, 1986). The results suggest that, for these students, the L2 English self-concept is frequently invoked in L3 learning situations and that it has a referential function. Whilst the girls interviewed appeared to be able to offset the impact of L2 English by creating cognitive barriers and recruiting positive L3-related self-knowledge, the boys seemed to rely more on forms of self-knowledge that emphasize a capacity for hard work and determination. For some of the boys the pervasive impact of L2 English meant however that it was impossible to sustain a viable L3 self-concept.  

  • 36.
    Henry, Alastair
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Young people and English: A changing landscape with changing challenges2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 23-41Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Apelgren, Britt Marie
    Göteborg University, Department of Education.
    Young learners and multilingualism: A study of learner attitudes before and after the introduction of a second foreign language to the curriculum2008Ingår i: System (Linköping), ISSN 0346-251X, E-ISSN 1879-3282, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 607-623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst adults in Sweden place great importance on communicative competence in English, interest in learning other FLs and support for multilingualism are low. This is mirrored in the attitudes of pupils in compulsory and post-compulsory education, where English is a popular subject but opt-out and drop-out rates for FLs are high. Whilst international research has shown that initial enthusiasm for FLs often declines after instruction begins, and that girls are more positive to FLs than boys, little is known about the language attitudes of pupils at the time when a new FL is introduced into the curriculum. The aim of this study is thus to investigate Swedish girls’ and boys’ FL attitudes prior and subsequent to the introduction of a new FL into the curriculum, to compare these with attitudes to their first FL, English, and to investigate gender variances. The results reveal that although pupils’ enthusiasm for their new FL declines after a year of instruction, it is nevertheless stronger than for English. Girls and boys approach their studies of a new FL with different attitudes, girls having more positive self-concepts as FL speakers and a greater interest in the communicative potential of FLs.

  • 38.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Chan, Letty
    Retrodictive Qualitative Modelling: Lessons from a pilot study2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we offer an evaluation of 'retrodictive qualitative modelling' (RQM) in action. Drawing on data from a Hong Kong setting, we offer an in-depth analysis of the system dynamics of a single participant, and reflect on the challenges involved and methodological lessons learnt when using the RQM model.

  • 39.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för omvårdnad, hälsa och kultur, Avd för specialistsjuksköterskeutbildning.
    Motivation, Gender, and Possible Selves2013Ingår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 271-295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the consistency with which gender differences have been found in second language motivation, little systematic research has taken place on motivation and gender to date. Permeating self-concept development, gender impacts not only current selves but also future-oriented possible selves. In construing possible selves, females tend to emphasize interdependence, meaning they invest more in interpersonal relationships and self-other interaction. Based on instruments measuring ideal language-speaking/using selves and an interdependent self-construal in a sample of 140 female and 129 male adolescents enrolled in the final year of secondary education in Sweden, and using confirmatory factor analysis, support was found for the hypothesis that gender-related variance on a measure of the ideal language-speaking/using self could be accounted for by an interdependent self-construal. In discussing the results, further avenues for exploring the impact of gender on possible selves using more contextually sensitive research designs are presented. © 2013 Language Learning Research Club, University of Michigan.

  • 40.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Cliffordson, Christina
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för omvårdnad, hälsa och kultur, Avd för hälsa, kultur och pedagogik.
    The Impact of Out-of-School Factors on Motivation to Learn English: Self-discrepancies, Beliefs, and Experiences of Self-authenticity2017Ingår i: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 713-736Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    English is today learnt in multitudes of settings worldwide, making it difficult to characterize relationships between motivation and context in generalized terms (Ushioda 2013). In settings where students have extensive encounters with English outside school, a reluctance to invest effort in formal learning has been observed. To investigate ways in which out-of-school encounters impact on motivation, questionnaire data was obtained from 116 upper secondary students in Sweden. Structural equation modelling was used to test a series of hypotheses generated from emerging research into language learners identities, beliefs and self-authenticity appraisals. Results revealed that, compared to reference studies from settings where English lacks similar prominence, the Ideal L2 Self accounted for substantially less of the explained variance on a criterion measure. This can be accounted for by the limited discrepancy between current and ideal L2 selves. Results also indicate that beliefs about the efficacy of learning in natural environments have a negative impact on motivation in school, and that appraisals of self-authenticity may have a similar effect, although methodological challenges make this contention difficult to substantiate.

  • 41.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Davydenko, Sofia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Dörnyei, Zoltán
    University of Nottingham, School of English, University Park, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    The Anatomy of Directed Motivational Currents: Exploring Intense and Enduring Periods of L2 Motivation2015Ingår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, nr 2, s. 329-345Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a series of articles Dörnyei and his colleagues (Dörnyei, Ibrahim, & Muir, 2015; Dörnyei, Muir, & Ibrahim, 2014; Muir & Dörnyei, 2013) describe the phenomenon of a period of intense and enduring motivation in pursuit of a highly desired personal goal or vision. These surges of motivational energy, which they call Directed Motivational Currents (DMCs), uniquely differ from other types of highly motivated behaviour or optimal forms of engagement that are to be found in the literature in the sense that individual learning activities form integrated parts of a coherent motivational superstructure. The current article offers the first systematic empirical investigation of this motivational phenomenon. Focusing on periods of unusually intense and enduring motivation experienced by migrant learners of Swedish as a second language, the purpose of this interview-based study is to consider whether core characteristics of DMCs can be identified in participants’ descriptions of sustained motivated behaviour, thereby considering the validity of the DMC construct. Results reveal that motivated behaviour is characterised by features similar to those outlined by Dörnyei and colleagues, namely the presence of a salient facilitative structure, the generation of positive emotionality, and the direction of motivated behaviour toward long-term identity investment goals. This indicates that the DMC construct captures a unique form of motivation worthy of future investigation.

  • 42.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Goddard, Angela
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle.
    Bicultural or Hybrid?: The Second Language Identities of Students on an English-Mediated University Program in Sweden2015Ingår i: Journal of Language, Identity & Education, ISSN 1534-8458, E-ISSN 1532-7701, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 255-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that in foreign language learning and ELF situations, identity might not be implicated in any great extent. Focusing on the impact globalization has on identities, the purpose of this study is to consider whether identity might be involved in Swedish students’ reasons for enrolling on an English-medium university program and, if so, the types of identities students construct. Analyses of data from interviews with 11 students revealed that identities do play a role in students’ enrolment reasons. However, rather than the bicultural identities identified in previous motivational research, the identities emerging here appear hybrid in nature. Along with other recent research, the results indicate that in contexts where English has a prominent social/societal/cultural presence it is implicated in identity construction, and that there is a relationship between identity and ELF. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 43.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Gurdal, Sevtap
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för psykologi och organisationsstudier.
    Inledning2011Ingår i: Läraryrket: ett mångfacetterat uppdrag / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Gurdal, Sevtap, Asplund Carlsson, Maj, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, 1, s. 11-17Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Gurdal, SevtapHögskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för psykologi och organisationsstudier.Asplund Carlsson, MajHögskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Läraryrket: ett mångfacetterat uppdrag2011Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Korp, Helena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Anna
    Karlstad University, Karlstad.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivational Strategies and the Reframing of English: Activity Design and Challenges for Teachers in Contexts of Extensive Extramural Encounters2018Ingår i: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, nr 2, s. 247-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational strategies are underresearched, and studies so far conducted have been in sociolinguistic contexts where English is not extensively encountered outside the classroom. Given also that little is known about strategies relating to the design and content of classroom activities, the purpose of this study is to identify and critically evaluate strategies focusing on activity design and content in classroom activities that, in a setting where students have extensive extramural English encounters, teachers have found to be effective in generating motivation. Using Dörnyei's (2001) taxonomy of motivational strategies as an analytical tool, 112 descriptions of motivational activities provided by a randomly drawn sample of secondary EFL teachers in Sweden (N = 252) were content-analyzed with a focus on design and content. Providing support for Dörnyei's proposals, the results reveal the prominence of activities that enable students to work with authentic materials (cultural artefacts produced for a purpose other than teaching) and in ways that can be experienced as authentic. Activities involving digital technologies which provide opportunities for creativity are also prominent. Use of authentic materials places high demands on teachers' pedagogical and linguistic skills. In contexts where students respond positively to such activities, teachers' language awareness skills become of significant importance.

  • 46.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Korp, Helena
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Motivational strategies and the reframing of English: Activity design and challenges for teachers in contexts of extensive extramural encounters2018Ingår i: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 247-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivational strategies are underresearched, and studies so far conducted have been in sociolinguistic contexts where English is not extensively encountered outside the classroom. Given also that little is known about strategies relating to the design and content of classroom activities, the purpose of this study is to identify and critically evaluate strategies focusing on activity design and content in classroom activities that, in a setting where students have extensive extramural English encounters, teachers have found to be effective in generating motivation. Using Dörnyei’s (2001) taxonomy of motivational strategies as an analytical tool, 112 descriptions of motivational activities provided by a randomly drawn sample of secondary EFL teachers in Sweden (N = 252) were content-analyzed with a focus on design and content. Providing support for D€ornyei’s proposals, the results reveal the prominence of activities that enable students to work with authentic materials (cultural artefacts produced for a purpose other than teaching) and in ways that can be experienced as authentic. Activities involving digital technologies which provide opportunities for creativity are also prominent. Use of authentic materials places high demands on teachers’ pedagogical and linguistic skills. In contexts where students respond positively to such activities, teachers’ language awareness skills become of significant importance.

  • 47.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstads universitet.
    Korp, Helena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Elevers möten med engelska i och utanför skolan: Upprop till deltagande i forskningsprojektet Bridging the Gap2014Ingår i: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, nr 4, s. 22-27Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad university.
    Korp, Helena
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Generating Engagement: A Content Analysis of the Motivational Qualities in EFL Teachers’ Descriptions of Motivating Activities2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ declining motivation to learn English in school presents a major challenge for teachers (Ushioda, 2013) and motivation researchers need to help them “find ways of eliciting, enhancing, and sustaining students’ motivation” (Guilloteaux, 2013: 3). While recent publications (e.g. Dörnyei & Kubanyiova, 2014; Gregersen & Macintyre, 2014) offer theoretically-based, practically-oriented guidance on generating motivation, focus tends to be on the development of language-speaker/user self-concepts over longer timescales. In the research literature on materials design, itself an under-explored area (Gilmore, 2012), focus has been directed to the effectiveness of tasks as classroom input, rather than their motivational qualities. Faced with a daily need to deliver motivating activities, teachers are poorly supported by principled advice. With the aim of contributing to the development of effective practice, and recognizing that “the accumulated wisdom of best practices in the teaching profession considerably exceeds the significance of the findings of empirical investigations” (Dörnyei, 2009: 267), the purpose of the research presented here is to examine the language learning activities teachers themselves consider motivational.

    An electronic questionnaire was distributed to 325 teachers of English from a randomly-drawn sample of 65 secondary schools in Sweden. An open-ended question invited teachers to describe an activity carried out in the current/previous term which they experienced as generating student motivation. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis techniques were employed in the analysis of these descriptions. Drawing on activity-relevant motivational factors outlined by Dörnyei and Csizér (1998), Ushioda’s (2011) principles for motivating learners ‘to speak as themselves’, and Henry’s (2013) identification of the motivational potential of activities with ‘affinity space’ features (Gee, 2007), analyses were guided by five overarching motivational characteristics; Interest, Personal relevance, Autonomy, Invoking transportable identities and Affinity space features. Recurring themes, frequencies, and exemplar activities are presented and tentative proposals are made for practice development.

    SUMMARY

    In delivering motivational activities, teachers are poorly supported by principled advice. The research objectives were to examine activities teachers consider motivational. Descriptions of activities provided by Swedish EFL teachers from a randomly-drawn sample (N=325) were analysed. Themes, frequencies, and exemplar activities are presented. Proposals for practice development are offered.

  • 49.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Critical Perspectives2019Ingår i: Motivational practice: insights from the classroom / [ed] Henry, Alastair, Sundqvist, Pia & Thorsen, Cecilia, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, First edition, s. 315-320Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Henry, Alastair
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur, Karlstads universitet.
    Thorsen, Cecilia
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för individ och samhälle, Avd för utbildningsvetenskap och språk.
    Motivational Practice: Insights from the Classroom2018Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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