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  • 1.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mission Experience: How to Model and Capture it to Enable Vicarious Learning2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations for humanitarian assistance, disaster response and military activities are characterized by their special role in society to resolve time-constrained and potentially life-threatening situations. The tactical missions that these organizations conduct regularly are significantly dynamic in character, and sometimes impossible to fully comprehend and predict. In these situations, when control becomes opportunistic, the organizations are forced to rely on the collective experience of their personnel to respond effectively to the unfolding threats. Generating such experience through traditional means of training, exercising and apprenticeship, is expensive, time-consuming, and difficult to manage.

    This thesis explores how and why mission experience should be utilized in emergency management and military organizations to improve performance. A multimedia approach for capturing mission experience has further been tested in two case studies to determine how the commanders’ experiences can be externalized to enable vicarious learning. These studies propose a set of technical, methodological, and ethical issues that need to be considered when externalizing mission experience, based on two aforementioned case studies complemented by a literature review. The presented outcomes are (1) a model aligning abilities that tactical organizations need when responding to dynamic situations of different familiarity, (2) a review of the usefulness of several different data sources for externalization of commanders’ experiences from tactical operations, and (3) a review of methodological, technical, and ethical issues to consider when externalizing tactical military and emergency management operations. The results presented in this thesis indicate that multimedia approaches for capturing mission histories can indeed complement training and exercising as a method for generating valuable experience from tactical missions.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Privacy and Distributed Tactical Operations Evaluation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, thoughts on ethics of workplace monitoring are being applied to the very special domain of evaluations of tactical operations, such as military or crisis management exercises or operations. I try to find out if there are differences in the way we should regard workplace monitoring when it comes to this domain compared to standard workplaces such as offices, since the purpose of the surveillance is not to enforce discipline, but to evaluate the organizations’ ability to conduct a tactical operation. The study focuses on issues such as privacy and informed consent and the main purpose of the investigation is to structure a consistent ethical standpoint when it comes to operations’ evaluation by making parallels to related theories that I found correct and applicable. I conclude that is indeed reasonable to place other demands on crisis management workers than we would do on other work forces, and that it should therefore be easier to motivate workplace monitoring for the purpose of evaluating distributed tactical operations. I argue however, just as Miller does regarding police work, that upholding privacy can be a real problem when crisis management personnel are exposed to monitoring, even though it is intended for evaluation.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of Crisis Management Operations using Reconstruction and Exploration2008In: Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference, Washington, DC: May 4-7 / [ed] Frank Fiedrich and Bartel Van de Walle, ISCRAM , 2008, p. 118-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the Reconstruction and Exploration approach (R&E) and F-REX tool and their applications in a field exercise with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency with the purpose of investigating features needed for a computer supported approach for evaluation of large scale crisis management operations. After the exercise several interviews and one seminar were held to evaluate R&E as a representative for computer supported evaluation approaches for crisis management operations. Initial results indicate that multimedia presentation of key events from an operation can be very valuable not only to stimulate the participants to reflect on their own performance, but also to document and share lessons learned to non-participants.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sharing Mission Experience in Tactical Organisations2012In: ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings. Book of Papers. 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Leon Rothkrantz, Jozef Ristvej and Zeno Franco, ISCRAM , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tactical organisation can be seen as an adhocracy designed to perform missions in uncertain, ambiguous and complex environments. Flexibility, adaptability, resilience, innovation, creativity and improvisation have all been identified as key skills for successful outcome of these missions. To learn skills associated with such abilities previous research has shown that knowledge acquired through experience plays an important role. It is therefore important that individuals, teams and organisations share and learn from experiences to improve their ability to cope with novel situations. In literature there is a lack of consistency in how these abilities are discussed, we therefore propose the FAIRIC model to help define and differentiate between the concepts. By unravelling some of the similarities and differences we create a common vocabulary to discuss knowledge gained from experience. This can help classify different experiences and provide a more systematic way of gathering knowledge on situational factors that influence the success of different actions and more unified interpretations that can assist design of knowledge representations to share mission experience over boundaries of time and space.

  • 5.
    Granåsen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Division for Information- and Aeronautical Systems, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Division for Information- and Aeronautical Systems, Swedish Defense Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Measuring team effectiveness in cyber-defense exercises: A cross-disciplinary case study2016In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 121-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, IT-security experts from northern European governments and organizations gathered to conduct the first of a series of NATO-led cyber-defense exercises in a pilot attempt of training cyber defense. To gain knowledge on how to assess team effectiveness in cyber-defense exercises, this case study investigates the role of behavioral assessment techniques as a complement to task-based performance measurement. The collected data resulted in a massive data set including system logs, observer reports, and surveys. Six different methods were compared for feasibility in assessing the teams’ performance, including automated availability check, exploratory sequential data analysis, and network intrusion detection system attack analysis. In addition, observer reports and surveys were used to collect aspects relating to team structures and processes, aiming to discover whether these aspects can explain differences in effectiveness. The crossdisciplinary approach and multiple metrics create possibilities to study not only the performance-related outcome of the exercise, but also why this result is obtained. The main conclusions found are (1) a combination of technical performance measurements and behavioral assessment techniques are needed to assess team effectiveness, and (2) cyber situation awareness is required not only for the defending teams, but also for the observers and the game control.

  • 6.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reconstruction and Exploration of Large-scale Distributed Operations – Multimedia tools for Evaluation of Emergency Management Response2008In: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 31-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an approach for computer-supported reconstruction and exploration (R&E) of distributed tactical operations. The approach involves several steps for constructing a time-synchronized, event-driven multimedia model of the course of events collected from multiple sources in the operational environment and visualizes this model in the F-REX Studio multimedia suite. In this study, the use of R&E and F-REX is explored in large-scale emergency management exercises. The approach’s possibilities, limitations, and needs for modification are first outlined followed by a comparison to traditional quantitative and qualitative data collection methods applied in the same context. It is found that the R&E approach in combination with F-REX has several advantages in relation to the other methods, in terms of avoiding problems of retrospection and in being able to provide an overview of the entire operation based on multiple perspectives—addressing the question “why” something happened rather than “what happened.” Correctly used, multimedia-supported R&E can thereby be used for more solid evaluations of large-scale emergency management exercises and operations, thus contributing to more effective handling of future crises. Keywords: reconstruction & exploration, distributed tactical operations, emergency management, evaluation, computer technology

  • 7.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enabling organizational learning from rescue operations2014In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 101-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the re-development process of the Swedish Rescue Services Incident Reporting System from an organizational learning perspective with the purpose to suggest what is needed to enable long-term learning from rescue operations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is carried out as a case study relying on interviews, participant observation and workshop methods. The study case is the Swedish Incident Reporting System.

    Findings – The objectives expressed by the central agency leading the studied process aimed at implementing double-loop learning objectives by revising the incident reports and to improve future operations accordingly. In practice this objective was lost along the way, with the agency focussing on cosmetic changes to the report such as terminology, attributes and labels. Meanwhile the local rescue services expressed different and concrete needs, requiring new system functionality, case/experience based learning, process improvements and organizational development. A number of suggestions of such measures are provided by the study, to be used by rescue services and other response organizations.

    Originality/value – The case stands out because the re-development process is driven by one stakeholder, with the ambition to include multiple stakeholders’ needs. The study should be of specific interest to fire rescue services world-wide. However, considering that many tasks, learning and evaluation aspects of rescue operations are similar regardless of type of first responder involved (e.g. in firefighting, traffic accidents, and cardiac arrests), the results are also of interest to emergency management in general.

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