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  • 1.
    Gopinath, Varun
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On Safe Collaborative Assembly With Large Industrial Robots2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis pertains to industrial safety in relation to human-robot collaboration. The aim is to enhance understanding of the nature of systems where large industrial robots collaborate with humans to complete assembly tasks. This understanding may support development and safe operations of future collaborative systems.

    Industrial robots are widely used to automate manufacturing operations across several industries. The automotive industry is the largest user of robots and have identified robot-based automation as a strategy to improve efficiency in manufacturing operations.

    Recently, a class of machines referred to as collaborative robots have been developed by robot manufacturers to support operators in assembly tasks. The use of these robots to support human workers in an industrial context are referred to as collaborative operations.

    Presently, collaborative robots have limited reach and load carrying capacity compared to standard industrial robots. Large/standard industrial robots are widely used for applications such as welding or painting. They can, in principle support operators in assembly tasks as well.

    Two laboratory demonstrators representing the final results from a series of research activities will be presented. They were developed to investigate issues related to personnel and process safety while working with large industrial robots in collaborative operations. The demonstrators were partially based on assembly workstations that are currently operational and they exemplify challenges faced by the automotive industry.

    Demonstrator-based Research, a methodology for collaborative research that emphasizes development of demonstrators as a research tool, forms the rationale for carrying out research operations presented in this thesis. An evaluation of the laboratory demonstrators by industrial participants suggests an increased interest and confidence in collaborative operations with large robots. The demonstrators have served as a tentative platform for participants to identify and discuss manufacturing and safety challenges in relation to their organization.

    A main outcome presented in this thesis relates to specifying requirements for introducing robots in a human-populated environment. Introducing robotic systems in new environments requires reconsideration of the nature of the hazards particular to the domain. An analysis of the laboratory demonstrators suggest that, in addition to hazards associated with normal functioning of the system, limitations in human cognition must be considered. These results will be exemplified and discussed in the context of situational and mode awareness. Additionally, a model of a collaborative workstation will be presented in terms of three constituents – workspace, tasks and interaction.

    This is particularly significant considering the direction of present-day research aimed at introducing robots across various industries and working environments. In response to this trend, this thesis discusses the relevance of Interactive Research and its emphasis on joint learning that goes on between academic researchers and industrial participants as a valuable principle for collaborative research.

  • 2.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Risk Assessment Process for Collaborative Assembly - A Job Safety Analysis Approach2016In: 6th CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems (CATS) / [ed] R. Söderberg, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 44, p. 199-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International safety standards state that risk assessment is the first step in understanding and eliminating hazardous work environment. The traditional method of risk assessment using Job Safety Analysis, where sequential tasks of the operator are analysed for potential risks, needs to be adapted to applications where humans and robots collaborate to complete assembly tasks. This article proposes a novel approach by placing equal emphasis on various participants working within their workspaces. An industrial case study wil be used to showcase the merits of the process when used at an early stage in the development of a collaborative assembly cell. 

  • 3.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Risk Assessment Process for Collaborative Assembly - A Job Safety Analysis Approach2016In: 6TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS (CATS), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 44, p. 199-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International safety standards state that risk assessment is the first step in understanding and eliminating hazardous work environment. The traditional method of risk assessment using Job Safety Analysis, where sequential tasks of the operator are analysed for potential risks, needs to be adapted to applications where humans and robots collaborate to complete assembly tasks. This article proposes a novel approach by placing equal emphasis on various participants working within their workspaces. An industrial case study wil be used to showcase the merits of the process when used at an early stage in the development of a collaborative assembly cell. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 4.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Understanding situational and mode awareness for safe human‑robot collaboration: case studies on assembly applications2019In: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, E-ISSN 1863-7353, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for humans and robots to collaborate on an assembly line, safety of operations is a prerequisite. In this article, two assembly stations where a large industrial robots collaborate with humans will be analysed with the aim to 1. determine the characteristics of hazards associated with human-robot interaction and 2. design solutions that can mitigate risks associated with these hazards. To support the aim of this article, a literature review will attempt to characterize automation and detail the problems associated with human-automation interaction. The analysis points at situational awareness and mode-awareness as contributing factors to operator and process safety. These underlying mechanisms, if recognised by the risk assessment team as hazards, can mitigate risks of operator injury or production delays. This article details the function of visual and physical interfaces that allow operators to comprehend system-state in order to avoid undesirable situations

  • 5.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Andersson (Ölvander), Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Risk Assessment for Collaborative Operation: A Case Study on Hand-Guided Industrial Robots2018In: Risk Assessment / [ed] Valentina Svalova, InTech , 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is a systematic and iterative process, which involves risk analysis, where probable hazards are identified, and then corresponding risks are evaluated along with solutions to mitigate the effect of these risks. In this article, the outcome of a risk assessment process will be detailed, where a large industrial robot is used as an intelligent and flexible lifting tool that can aid operators in assembly tasks. The realization of a collaborative assembly station has several benefits, such as increased productivity and improved ergonomic work environment. The article will detail the design of the layout of a collaborative assembly workstation, which takes into account the safety and productivity concerns of automotive assembly plants. The hazards associated with hand-guided collaborative operations will also be presented.

  • 6.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson (Ölvander), Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Risk Assessment for Collaborative Operation: A Case Study on Hand-Guided Industrial Robots2018In: Risk Assessment / [ed] Valentina Svalova, London/Rijeka: InTech, 2018, p. 167-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is a systematic and iterative process, which involves risk analysis, where probable hazards are identified, and then corresponding risks are evaluated along with solutions to mitigate the effect of these risks. In this article, the outcome of a risk assessment process will be detailed, where a large industrial robot is used as an intelligent and flexible lifting tool that can aid operators in assembly tasks. The realization of a collaborative assembly station has several benefits, such as increased productivity and improved ergonomic work environment. The article will detail the design of the layout of a collaborative assembly workstation, which takes into account the safety and productivity concerns of automotive assembly plants. The hazards associated with hand-guided collaborative operations will also be presented.

  • 7.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Derelöv, Micael
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Demonstrators to support research in Industrial safety - A Methodology2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 17, p. 246-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activities to support manufacturing research are carried out with the intention to gain knowledge of industrial problems and provide solutions that addresses these issues. In order for solution to be viable to the industry, research activities are carried out in close collaboration with participants from the industry, academia and research institutions. Interactive research approach motivates participants with multi-disciplinary perspective to collaborate and emphasizes joint learning in the change process. This article, presents a methodology, where participants with different expertise can collaborate to develop safety solutions. The concept of a demonstrator, which represents cumulative result of a series of research activities, is presented as a tool to showcase functioning and design intent in a collaborative research environment. The results of a pilot study, where manufacturing professionals evaluated design decisions that resulted in a demonstrator, will be presented. 

  • 8.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Derelöv, Micael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Demonstrators to support research in Industrial safety - A Methodology2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 17, p. 246-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activities to support manufacturing research are carried out with the intention to gain knowledge of industrial problems and provide solutions that addresses these issues. In order for solution to be viable to the industry, research activities are carried out in close collaboration with participants from the industry, academia and research institutions. Interactive research approach motivates participants with multi-disciplinary perspective to collaborate and emphasizes joint learning in the change process. This article, presents a methodology, where participants with different expertise can collaborate to develop safety solutions. The concept of a demonstrator, which represents cumulative result of a series of research activities, is presented as a tool to showcase functioning and design intent in a collaborative research environment. The results of a pilot study, where manufacturing professionals evaluated design decisions that resulted in a demonstrator, will be presented. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 9.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Ake
    Volvo Car Corp, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Stefan
    Volvo Car Corp, Sweden.
    Collaborative Assembly on a Continuously Moving Line - An Automotive Case Study2018In: 28TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION AND INTELLIGENT MANUFACTURING (FAIM2018): GLOBAL INTEGRATION OF INTELLIGENT MANUFACTURING AND SMART INDUSTRY FOR GOOD OF HUMANITY, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2018, Vol. 17, p. 985-992Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative operation is a state in which a purposely designed robot system and an operator work within a collaborative workspace. To ensure a safe working environment, safety standards suggest conducting a task-based risk assessment followed by risk reduction to reduce the risks to an acceptable level. In this article, an automotive case study will be used to understand safety issues associated with collaborative operations with large industrial robots. Based on this case study, a layout of the collaborative workstation, in terms of workspaces and tasks, which is the outcome of a risk assessment program will be presented. The first critical step in risk assessment is hazard identification, which can allow the risk assessing team to evaluate the hazards and suggest measures to mitigate the risks. Therefore, the hazards identified during the risk assessment program will also be detailed along with measures to mitigate the risks and is expected to complement our understanding of the nature of hazards associated with collaborative operations with large industrial robots. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 10.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Gustafsson, Ake
    Volvo Car Corp, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Stefan
    Volvo Car Corp, Sweden.
    Collaborative Assembly on a Continuously Moving Line - An Automotive Case Study2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 17, p. 985-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative operation is a state in which a purposely designed robot system and an operator work within a collaborative workspace. To ensure a safe working environment, safety standards suggest conducting a task-based risk assessment followed by risk reduction to reduce the risks to an acceptable level. In this article, an automotive case study will be used to understand safety issues associated with collaborative operations with large industrial robots. Based on this case study, a layout of the collaborative workstation, in terms of workspaces and tasks, which is the outcome of a risk assessment program will be presented. The first critical step in risk assessment is hazard identification, which can allow the risk assessing team to evaluate the hazards and suggest measures to mitigate the risks. Therefore, the hazards identified during the risk assessment program will also be detailed along with measures to mitigate the risks and is expected to complement our understanding of the nature of hazards associated with collaborative operations with large industrial robots. 

  • 11.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Gustafsson, Åke
    Core Manufacturing Engineer, Volvo Car Coopeation,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Design Criteria For A Conceptual End Effector For Physical Human Robot Production Cell2014In: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014, Clarion Hotel Post, Göteborg, Sweden, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed, precision and repeatability are virtues of industrial robots which are relied on by manufacturing firms but also necessitates segregating them within controlled fenced areas. Therefore, industrial robots cannot cooperate with line workers in assembling task. With recent developments in robotics, new possibilities have emerged that can enable manufacturing firms to be flexible and cost effective. This paper presents preliminary results from investigations into the possibility of a man-machine production cell where plastic panels are assembled under the car. A conceptual man-machine collaborative production cell will be presented detailing characteristics required to ensure safety.

  • 12.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Gustafsson, Åke
    Core Manufacturing Engineer, Volvo Car Coopeation,Göteborg, Sweden.
    Design Criteria for a Conceptual End-effector for Physical Human-Robot Production Cell2014In: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014, Gothenburg: Chalmers Conferences , 2014, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed, precision and repeatability are virtues of industrial robots which are relied on by manufacturing firms but also necessitates segregating them within controlled fenced areas. Therefore, industrial robots cannot cooperate with line workers in assembling task. With recent developments in robotics, new possibilities have emerged that can enable manufacturing firms to be flexible and cost effective. This paper presents preliminary results from investigations into the possibility of a man-machine production cell where plastic panels are assembled under the car. A conceptual man-machine collaborative production cell will be presented detailing characteristics required to ensure safety.

  • 13.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Ore, Fredrick
    Global Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden; Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Safe Assembly Cell Layout through Risk Assessment: An Application with Hand Guided Industrial Robot2017In: Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai and Yue Wang, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 63, p. 430-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is a systematic and iterative process which involves risk analysis where the probable hazards are identified and corresponding risks are evaluated along with solutions to mitigate the effect of these risks. In this article the outcome of a risk assessment process will be detailed where a large industrial robot is being used as a intelligent and flexible lifting tool that can aid operators in assembly tasks. The realization of a collaborative assembly station has several benefits such as increased productivity and improved ergonomic work environment. The article will detail the design of the layout of a collaborative assembly cell which takes into account the safety and productivity concerns of automotive assembly plants.

  • 14.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ore, Fredrick
    Global Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden; Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Safe Assembly Cell Layout through Risk Assessment: An Application with Hand Guided Industrial Robot2017In: Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai and Yue Wang, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 63, no Supplement C, p. 430-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is a systematic and iterative process which involves risk analysis where the probable hazards are identified and corresponding risks are evaluated along with solutions to mitigate the effect of these risks. In this article the outcome of a risk assessment process will be detailed where a large industrial robot is being used as a intelligent and flexible lifting tool that can aid operators in assembly tasks. The realization of a collaborative assembly station has several benefits such as increased productivity and improved ergonomic work environment. The article will detail the design of the layout of a collaborative assembly cell which takes into account the safety and productivity concerns of automotive assembly plants.

  • 15.
    Gopinath, Varun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Gaziza, William
    TEMPLATE DRIVEN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF HIGH SPEED TRAINS2014In: Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference: 40th Design Automation Conference, Buffalo, New York, USA, 2014, Vol. 2AConference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Grahn, Sten
    et al.
    Swerea IVF AB, Sweden; Mälardalen University (MDH), Sweden.
    Gopinath, Varun
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Xi, Vincent
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm 11428, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring a Model for Production System Design to Utilize Large Robots in Human-Robot Collaborative Assembly Cells2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 8p. 612-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown that large robots can be safely installed for human-robot collaborative assembly cells in experimental setups. It has also been found that these installations require demanding considerations of a significant number of layout and safety parameters. This indicates that successful commercial implementations will require a resource efficient model for production system design that anticipates utilization of large robots in collaborative settings. Experiences from experimental setups have been used to explore a basic model for such production system design, to stimulate a discussion regarding what model characteristics should be tested and validated in future research.

  • 17.
    Grahn, Sten
    et al.
    Swerea IVF AB, Sweden; Mälardalen University (MDH), Sweden.
    Gopinath, Varun
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Wang, Xi, Vincent
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm 11428, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Exploring a Model for Production System Design to Utilize Large Robots in Human-Robot Collaborative Assembly Cells2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 612-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown that large robots can be safely installed for human-robot collaborative assembly cells in experimental setups. It has also been found that these installations require demanding considerations of a significant number of layout and safety parameters. This indicates that successful commercial implementations will require a resource efficient model for production system design that anticipates utilization of large robots in collaborative settings. Experiences from experimental setups have been used to explore a basic model for such production system design, to stimulate a discussion regarding what model characteristics should be tested and validated in future research.

  • 18.
    Safavi, Edris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gopinath, Varun
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gavel, Hampus
    SAAB AB, Sweden.
    A Collaborative Tool for Conceptual Aircraft Systems Design2012In: Guidance, Navigation, and Control and Co-located Conferences: AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference / [ed] The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, USA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2012, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in recent years has brought forth many feasible technologies which oer signif-icant design advantages over the traditional aircraft vehicle ight systems. These advanceshave brought about a need for the aircraft conceptual engineers to evaluate these newtechnologies so as to realize a realistic and optimized architecture which fulls all criti-cal disciplinary requirements. To evaluate these systems, it is necessary to use models ofcomplexity which are a degree higher than what is being used today. Quick developmentand evaluation of these models can be a hard task for an engineer to achieve consideringthe multidisciplinary nature of the systems. A collaborative eort in model developmentbetween various department is needed if the conceptual design is to be completed withinthe time frame. To facilitate a collaborative conceptual design a research project was for-malized at Linkoping university, which has led to the development of a tool named CAVE(Conceptual Aircraft Vehicle Engineering) which can be used to evaluate the architectureof aircraft systems. In this paper, CAVE as a conceptual design tool will be presented.

  • 19.
    Safavi, Edris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gopinath, Varun
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gavel, Hampus
    SAAB AB, Sweden.
    Conceptual Optimization of Aircraft Actuator Systems2012In: Proceedings of the International Conference on recent advances in aerospace actuation systems and components, Toulouse, France: Institut national des sciences appliquées , 2012, p. 201-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research project is to identify a preliminary architecture of a flight control actuation system concept for energy optimized aircraft system architecture with the focus on more electrical aircraft. At Linköping University a design framework is being developed to assist in the evaluation of aircraft flight system at a conceptual level using dynamic models which has led to the development of a tool named CAVE.

    In this paper the use of the framework to approach the problem of finding a suitable flight actuator system for a number of flight control surfaces distributed over the aircraft with different boundary conditions (maximum torque and flap deflection) is presented. Dynamic models for three of the most commonly used actuation technologies have been developed in Dymola and each system has been optimized with mass and energy consumption as the objectives.

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