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  • 1.
    Gustavsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Oeberg, Gunilla
    University of British Columbia.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valinia, Salar
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Chatenay Malabry, France .
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Organic Matter Chlorination Rates in Different Boreal Soils: The Role of Soil Organic Matter Content2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 1504-1510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of chloride (Cl-) to organic chlorine (Cl-org) occurs naturally in soil but it is poorly understood how and why transformation rates vary among environments. There are still few measurements of chlorination rates in soils, even though formation of Cl-org has been known for two decades. In the present study, we compare organic matter (OM) chlorination rates, measured by Cl-36 tracer experiments, in soils from eleven different locations (coniferous forest soils, pasture soils and agricultural soils) and discuss how various environmental factors effect chlorination. Chlorination rates were highest in the forest soils and strong correlations were seen with environmental variables such as soil OM content and Cl- concentration. Data presented support the hypothesis that OM levels give the framework for the soil chlorine cycling and that chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Cl-org pool and in turn to a high internal supply of Cl- upon dechlorination. This provides unexpected indications that pore water Cl- levels may be controlled by supply from dechlorination processes and can explain why soil Cl- locally can be more closely related to soil OM content and the amount organically bound chlorine than to Cl- deposition.

  • 2.
    Montelius, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) are produced naturally in soil. Formation and degradation of Clorg affect the chlorine (Cl) cycling in terrestrial environments and chlorine can be retained or released from soil. Cl is known to have the same behaviour as radioactive chlorine-36 (36Cl), a long-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 300,000 years. 36Cl attracts interest because of its presence in radioactive waste, making 36Cl a potential risk for humans and animals due to possible biological uptake. This thesis studies the distribution and cycling of chloride (Cl) and Clorg in terrestrial environments by using laboratory controlled soil incubation studies and a forest field study. The results show higher amounts of Cl and Clorg and higher chlorination rates in coniferous forest soils than in pasture and agricultural soils. Tree species is the most important factor regulating Cl and Clorg levels, whereas geographical location, atmospheric deposition, and soil type are less important. The root zone was the most active site of the chlorination process. Moreover, this thesis confirms that bulk Clorg dechlorination rates are similar to, or higher than, chlorination rates and that there are at least two major Clorg pools, one being dechlorinated quickly and one remarkably slower. While chlorination rates were negatively influenced by nitrogen additions, dechlorination rates, seem unaffected by nitrogen. The results implicate that Cl cycling is highly active in soils and Cl and Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between chlorination and dechlorination. Influence of tree species and the rapid and slow cycling of some Cl pools, are critical to consider in studies of Cl in terrestrial environments. This information can be used to better understand Cl in risk-assessment modelling including inorganic and organic 36Cl.

  • 3.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz
    EDF, Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique et Environnement, 78401 Chatou, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1/7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, Franc.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorination and dechlorination rates in a forest soil: A combined modelling and experimental approach2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554-555, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Much of the total pool of chlorine (Cl) in soil consists of naturally produced organic chlorine (Clorg). The chlorination of bulk organic matter at substantial rates has been experimentally confirmed in various soil types. The subsequent fates of Clorg are important for ecosystem Cl cycling and residence times. As most previous research into dechlorination in soils has examined either single substances or specific groups of compounds, we lack information about overall bulk dechlorination rates. Here we assessed bulk organic matter chlorination and dechlorination rates in coniferous forest soil based on a radiotracer experiment conducted under various environmental conditions (additional water, labile organic matter, and ammonium nitrate). Experiment results were used to develop a model to estimate specific chlorination (i.e., fraction of Cl− transformed to Clorg per time unit) and specific dechlorination (i.e., fraction of Clorg transformed to Cl− per time unit) rates. The results indicate that chlorination and dechlorination occurred simultaneously under all tested environmental conditions. Specific chlorination rates ranged from 0.0005 to 0.01 d− 1 and were hampered by nitrogen fertilization but were otherwise similar among the treatments. Specific dechlorination rates were 0.01–0.03 d− 1 and were similar among all treatments. This study finds that soil Clorg levels result from a dynamic equilibrium between the chlorination and rapid dechlorination of some Clorg compounds, while another Clorg pool is dechlorinated more slowly. Altogether, this study demonstrates a highly active Cl cycling in soils.

  • 4.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Structor Miljö Öst AB Linköping Sweden.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz
    EDF R&D LNHE - Laboratoire National d’Hydraulique et Environnement Chatou, France.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, Research and Development Division, Parc de la Croix Blanche Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, France.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Radiotracer evidence that the rhizosphere is a hot-spot for chlorination of soil organic matter2019In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, Vol. 443, no 1-2, p. 245-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    The ubiquitous and extensive natural chlorination of organic matter in soils, leading to levels of chlorinated soil organic matter that often exceed the levels of chloride, remains mysterious in terms of its causes and regulation. While the composition of plant species and the availability of labile organic matter was recently shown to be important, the physical localization of chlorination in soils remains unclear but is a key for understanding regulation and patterns observed. Here we assess the relative importance of organic matter chlorination in (a) bulk soil, (b) the plant roots plus the rhizosphere zone surrounding the roots, and (c) above-ground plant biomass, in an experimental plant-soil system.

    Methods

    A radiotracer, 36Cl, was added to study translocation and transformations of Cl and Clorg in agricultural soil with and without wheat (Triticum vulgare) over 50 days.

    Results

    The specific chlorination rates (the fraction of the added 36Cl converted to 36Clorg per day) in soil with plants was much higher (0.02 d−1) than without plants (0.0007 d−1) at peak growth (day 25). The plant root and rhizosphere showed much higher formation of 36Clorg than the bulk soil, suggesting that the rhizosphere is a hotspot for chlorination in the soil. In addition, the treatment with plants displayed a rapid and high plant uptake of Cl.

    Conclusions

    Our results indicate that the rhizosphere harbour the most extensive in-situ chlorination process in soil and that root-soil interaction may be key for terrestrial chlorine cycling.

  • 5.
    Montelius, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thiry, Yves
    Andra, France.
    Marang, Laura
    EDF, France.
    Ranger, Jacques
    INRA Centre Nancy, France.
    Cornelis, Jean-Thomas
    Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Experimental Evidence of Large Changes in Terrestrial Chlorine Cycling Following Altered Tree Species Composition2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 4921-4928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organochlorine molecules (Cl-org) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl-) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Cl-org and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Cl-org, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different tree species. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl- and Cl-org after 30 years were highly dependent on which tree species were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl- and Cl-org content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous trees than in those with deciduous trees. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl- and Cl-org over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl- and Cl-org storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl- and Cl-org in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

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