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  • 1.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pezone, Giovanni
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Service Walkthrough in Astrid Lindgren's Footsteps2012In: Proceedings from ServDes.2012 Conference Proceedings Co-Creating Services, The 3rd Service Design and Service Innovation Conference, 8-10 February, Espoo, Finland, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, p. 21-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can service prototypes be created and evaluated? This paper describes how methods like bodystorming and experience prototyping can be used in combination with pluralistic walkthrough in an evaluation method we call ‘service walkthrough’. We put the method to test in the development of augmented tourism services at the author Astrid Lindgren's childhood home. After initial design work, a mock-up and roleplay of a treasure hunt in the garden of the childhood home was made. It was evaluated using the service walkthrough method. The most important lesson learned was that a service walkthrough can be used to evaluate service prototypes and that it reveals information about practical as well as experiential issues for users.

  • 2.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wahlman, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Lifelogging in User Experience Research: Supporting Recall and Improving Data Richness2017In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, p. S3954-S3965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of lifelogging is to help users collect data for self-monitoring and reflection. We have in this study explored how lifelogging technology (a camera and a heart rate monitor) can change user experience (UX) research, and we describe a novel approach. Data was collected for three days with four participants, and a 4-6-hours co-creation workshop with stimulated recall interview was held with each of them to create an experience timeline. The timeline includes selfreported key experiences, lifelog stimulated experiences, heart rate, decisions, and valence. The results show that the number of experiences in the timeline that come from data points stimulated by the lifelogging, are as many as the self-reported data points. Lessons learned include that the use of lifelogging produces highly detailed UX research, but it is very time consuming, due to the sheer amount of data.

  • 3.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Oslo School of Architecture and Design, Oslo, Norway.
    Benefits of Service Level Prototyping2016In: The Design Journal, ISSN 1460-6965, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 545-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the impact ofservice design by zooming in on the case of serviceprototyping. It is suggested that prototyping servicesis different from prototyping in other disciplinesand shows how by discussing prototyping ondifferent levels. On the service level of prototyping,a technique called ‘service walkthrough’ can be away to understand whole service experiences. Theservice walkthrough was used in three cases. On anabstract level, what the service walkthrough addsis a technique for service design that allows explorationof the relationship between touchpoints suchas composition, continuity, and consistency. In thecases studied, the walkthroughs increased empathyfor different roles in the services while generating insightsabout e.g. technical requirements, transitionsbetween touchpoints, and expectations at variousmoments of the service. The paper ends with a discussionabout the relationship between touchpointsand the potential scope of the service walkthroughtechnique.

  • 4.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conceptualisations of Service Prototyping: Service Sketches, Walkthroughs and Live Service Prototypes2012In: Service Design with Theory: Discussions on Change, Value and Methods / [ed] Satu Miettinen and Anu Valtonen, Vantaa, Finland: Lapland university press, 2012, p. 175-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the area of serviceprototyping, which is considered by service designersto be one of the most important aspects oftheir work (Blomkvist & Holmlid, 2010). However, littleis known about what a service specific prototypingapproach is and how to best represent services in sucha way that makes it possible to understand whole serviceexperiences. Consequently, one way of conceptualisingservice prototypes is suggested here.By prototyping, an activity surrounding a prototypeis implied. It can be the activity of creating prototypes, oractivities made possible by or with the prototype. Theseactivities are ways to suggest changes to, and gain understandingabout how an existing situation can betransformed into a new one. Here, any representationof such a future state is referred to as a prototype. Differentprototyping approaches have been used withinvarious design disciplines for a long time. This chaptersuggests that service prototyping is a specific activitywith similarities to other prototyping approaches.Service prototyping is described as an activity that involvesthe representation of multiple service momentswhere customers interact with service providers.How such a service specific prototyping approachmight be utilised, to assist service development atvarious stages of the development process, will beaddressed. Representations that can be used at threedifferent stages of the design process will be used asexamples. These are: service sketches, service walkthroughs,and live service prototypes. The examplesillustrate how services can be understood as wholecoherent compositions, and how an embodied andsituated understanding of services can be achieved.

  • 5.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conceptualising Prototypes in Service Design2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, service prototyping has been discussed academically as an unproblematic add-on to existing prototyping techniques, or as methods for prototyping social interaction. In fact, most of the knowledge on how services are prototyped comes from organisations and practicing design consultants. Some attempts to define service prototyping have been made but generally without concern about how complete service experiences should or could be represented. Building on existing knowledge about prototyping, a draft of a service prototyping conceptualisation is generated. Based on the draft, the question of how to prototype holistic service experiences is raised and in total, 5 studies have been conducted that contribute knowledge to that overarching question. In addition, each study has its own research question. Study 1 conceptualises prototypes and prototyping in a framework while study 2 and 3 looks at what practicing service designers say they do to prototype services and how they involve different stakeholders in the process. Study 4 examines aspects of design communication and how service experiences are communicated and used during design meetings, and study 5 finally, attempts to generate a process that can be used to evaluate the impact of location oriented service prototypes in e.g. healthcare settings. A number of challenges for service prototyping are identified in the studies, along with the issue of who authors prototypes. The conceptualisation of prototyping is adjusted based on the studies and a framework is constructed that support the conceptualisation. Little evidence for holistic approaches to prototyping services is found in the interviews and service designers involve their clients primarily when prototyping. Service experiences are introduced in communication using a format termed micro-narratives. This format and the purpose of using references to previous experiences are discussed. The thesis is concluded with a suggestion of a process for service prototyping. This process is specific for service design and attempts to support service designers in making holistic service representations when prototyping. Service prototyping requires further research.

  • 6.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Representing Future Situations of Service: Prototyping in Service Design2014Data set
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes prototyping in service design through the theoretical lens of situated cognition. The research questions are what a service prototype is, what the benefits of service prototyping are, and how prototypes aid in the process of designing services. Four papers are included. Paper one suggests that service prototyping should be considered from the perspectives of purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, representation, validity and author. The second paper compares research about how humans use external representations to think, with reasons for using prototypes in service design and service design techniques. The third paper compares two versions of a service prototyping technique called service walkthrough; showing that walkthroughs with pauses provided both more comments in total and more detailed feedback. The fourth paper also contributes to our understanding of how prototypes aid in designing services, by connecting the surrogate situation with the future situation of service. The paper shows how the formative service evaluation technique (F-SET) uses the theory of planned behaviour to add knowledge to service prototype evaluations about the intention to use a service in the future. Taken together the research provides a deeper understanding of what prototypes are, and their roles in service prototyping. This understanding is further deepened by a discussion about service as a design material, suggesting that from a design perspective, a service consists of service concept, process and system. The service prototype acts as a surrogate for the future situation of service. The thesis describes what the benefits of using surrogates are, and shows how prototypes enhance the ability to gain knowledge about future situations. This leads to an understanding of prototyping as a way of thinking in design.

  • 7.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Representing Future Situations of Service: Prototyping in Service Design2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes prototyping in service design through the theoretical lens of situated cognition. The research questions are what a service prototype is, what the benefits of service prototyping are, and how prototypes aid in the process of designing services. Four papers are included. Paper one suggests that service prototyping should be considered from the perspectives of purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, representation, validity and author. The second paper compares research about how humans use external representations to think, with reasons for using prototypes in service design and service design techniques. The third paper compares two versions of a service prototyping technique called service walkthrough; showing that walkthroughs with pauses provided both more comments in total and more detailed feedback. The fourth paper also contributes to our understanding of how prototypes aid in designing services, by connecting the surrogate situation with the future situation of service. The paper shows how the formative service evaluation technique (F-SET) uses the theory of planned behaviour to add knowledge to service prototype evaluations about the intention to use a service in the future. Taken together the research provides a deeper understanding of what prototypes are, and their roles in service prototyping. This understanding is further deepened by a discussion about service as a design material, suggesting that from a design perspective, a service consists of service concept, process and system. The service prototype acts as a surrogate for the future situation of service. The thesis describes what the benefits of using surrogates are, and shows how prototypes enhance the ability to gain knowledge about future situations. This leads to an understanding of prototyping as a way of thinking in design.

  • 8.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Understanding the Results ofConventional Qualitative ContentAnalysis for Design Research2015In: EAD 2015: The Value of Design Research, Paris, France, 2015, Vol. 11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we look closer at content analysis as a tool in design research and question some of the, more or less explicit, assumptions about what can be achieved by such analyses. To do so, we applied a qualitative content analysis (QCA) on six interviews with service design practitioners.

    The topic of the interviews was service prototyping, inquiring the practitioners about their approaches and conceptions, but starting with some more general questions about their work process in the later stages of service design. The interviews were conducted over telephone (2) and Skype (4), most of the time not using video. So a large part of communication that can usually be accessed in physical interactions between people could not be used to enhance understanding of the material.

    Qualitative content analysis is used to create an abstract version of a larger data set. QCA is often understood as negotiating the weaknesses associated with qualitative approaches (Mayring, 2000). We discuss this understanding of QCA by looking at an instance where a conventional QCA was used. Conventional QCA is used when existing theory is limited (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005), and researchers are looking to understand a phenomenon by immersing themselves in data and letting categories emerge. This has also been called inductive category development (Mayring, 2000). Little is known about service prototyping practices, making this an appropriate approach.

    A paper by (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004) was used to decide what the approach should look like. In this study the analysis was divided into stages:

    -        Identifying meaning units

    -        Condensing the meaning units

    -        Coding

    -        Constructing Sub-categories

    -        Applying the Sub-categories to categories

    -        Generalising categories into themes

    In our approach we avoided using preconceived categories (Kondracki, Wellman, & Amundson, 2002) and instead let them emerge from the data, keeping an open attitude to the content. We see this approach as way to go from a straightforward condensation of manifest content, and then, in creating categories and themes, a shift is made to underlying meaning and thus towards the latent content of the material.

    Using this example we show the many subjective choices involved in data collection, choosing unit of analysis (and thereby excluding material), dividing the material into meaning units, and in how to understand the collected data. Unlike the idea that the result of such an approach is somehow more objective or “scientific” than other types of qualitative analysis, we argue that the strength of QCA lies in transparency of data and analysis. The bottom-up approach does not ensure that the result is a consequence of the material, but rather that choices have been made visible. The analysis becomes a rationale for the decisions made during analysis that can be accessed by external researchers. This opens up the analysis for critique but should still be seen as the consequence of subjective choices, perspectives and understanding.

  • 9.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Ways of Seeing Service: Surrogates for a Design Material2015In: NorDes 2015: Design Ecologies, 2015, Vol. 6, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in service design research include case studies and similar approaches that aspire to reveal what the practice of service design looks like. The understanding of how service design is performed can serve as a base for future research into more specific research endeavours. One area where knowledge is said to be lacking is service prototyping, part of which knowledge this paper attempts to contribute. The main data source for the paper is findings from in-depth interviews with six practicing service designers from some of the more well-known design agencies. The informants consider service prototyping to be a very important part of their work that allows them to learn and communicate about design ideas. The practitioners’ account of how they work with prototypes indicates that service prototyping has different meanings and that the practice of prototyping is very diverse. The interviews also uncover a number of areas that, according to the designers, might prove extra challenging for service prototyping to be successful. This research shows that there is much potential in the not yet fully formed practice of service prototyping.

  • 10.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pausing or not?: Examining the Service Walkthrough Technique2014In: Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference on HCI 2014: Sand, Sea & Sky - Holiday HCI / [ed] Daniel Fitton, Matt Horton, Janet C Read, Gavin Sim, London, UK: British Computer Society (BCS), 2014, p. 171-176Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of service design calls for holistic design techniques that represent multiple service moments. One such technique is the service walkthrough that can be used to prototype and formatively evaluate services. A service walkthrough is an enactment of several consecutive service moments. This paper informs decisions about how to set up service walkthroughs by looking at two kinds of walkthroughs in a case study: with pauses for discussion and feedback after each service moment, and without pauses where the entire service journey is walked through before comments and feedback are collected. The case study did not show any differences in the content of the feedback, but more feedback was given in the walkthroughs with pauses. The feedback in the paused walkthroughs was also more detailed.

  • 11.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bode, Angela
    Huddle design pty ltd, level 6 90 William street, Melbourne 3000, Australia.
    Using Service Walkthroughs to Co-Create Whole Service Experiences2012In: ISIDC 2012, 2012, Vol. 3Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A process for prototyping whole services rather than individual parts in isolation is needed. Prototyping services is different from prototyping physical products, yet many designers still use traditional approaches to prototype services, focussing on specific parts rather than whole services. This is especially surprising considering the descriptions of service design as a holistic approach in research. In this paper we suggest and describe a service prototyping technique termed service walkthrough. The service walkthrough technique allows access to service experiences from a holistic point of view, representing not only specific parts (service moments or touchpoints) but also transitions and coherence of the service proposition. In this case, 25 walkthroughs were conducted by a service design agency in Australia. The approach was iterative in the sense that the customer journey was redesigned continuously, and it was enacted by designers supported by scripts for behaviours based on a previous research phase. The walkthroughs were conducted in a lab with actual customers of the client and used low-fidelity props and collateral. Errors were introduced during the walkthrough to gain a better understanding of what expectations the customers have on the service. The walkthrough technique allowed the designers to understand the service experience in an embodied and holistic way. The walkthrough also emphasised empathy for the experience of the intended customers and other stakeholders in the service. More time in between iterations and dynamic roles might improve the approach.

  • 12.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clatworthy, Simon
    Linköping University.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ways of seeing the design material of service2016In: Service Design Geographies. Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, Vol. 125, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes a contribution to the current conceptualisation of service as a design material from three different perspectives. We use definitions of the term material, the connection with service logic and the techniques that service designers use to discuss ways to understand service from a design perspective. Service designers have tools for working with components, things, locations, actions, procedures, interactions and experiences at their disposal. Service designers work with a meta-material for the most part, which is a material representation of the services they are (re-)designing. Unlike fields where the material is worked into a finished form, the material of service design traverses between the concrete and the abstract throughout the design process.

  • 13.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fjuk, Annita
    Linköping University.
    Sayapina, Vasilisa
    Linköping University.
    Low threshold service design: desktop walkthrough2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 154-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the first academic characterisation of the desktop walkthrough technique. Desktop walkthrough is considered here as a service design technique using a collaboratively built miniature environment to construct knowledge about a specific service. It is further examined as a technique for rapidly exploring and designing a service concept. The analytical lens of the paper is outlined from socio-cultural theories on human development where any human action is developed from, and emulated by, social interactions and the intellectual and physical artefacts herein. The analysis shows that desktop walkthrough enabled teams to design a holistic service journey with low threshold usage, and provided a means for exploring and designing the complexity of customer journeys and the backstage organizational processes.

  • 14.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Existing Prototyping Perspectives: Considerations for Service Design2011In: Proceedings of the Nordes’11: The 4th Nordic Design Research Conference, Making Design Matter, 29-31 May Helsinki, Finland, Helsinki, Finland: School of Art & Design, Aalto University , 2011, p. 31-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With new design disciplines that challenge the borders of design practice and inquiry comes new possibilities for prototyping techniques and approaches. The basis for such an evolution is a firm understanding of the existing knowledge generated in design and the challenges posed by new design disciplines, such as service design. This study identifies a framework of perspectives for prototyping to reveal what the existing toolbox of prototyping contains based on a literature overview. Going through published literature from the early 1980s and onward, the framework is constructed using the following perspectives; purpose, fidelity, audience, position in the process, technique, and representation. These perspectives make knowledge about prototyping explicit and summarise contemporary approaches. Based on current challenges and characteristic attributes of service design the framework is then reconstructed to better cater to design for services. The conclusions are that validity and author are two perspectives that complement the existing framework, and that prototyping so far does not support a holistic approach to prototyping services.

  • 15.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototype Evaluation in Service Design: A Case Study at an Emergency Ward2011In: Proceedings of 20th IASDR 2011, International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR) , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototypes based on user research are embodiments of hypotheses about how behaviour and experiences will change. The purpose of prototypes has been discussed in academic literature but in the case of service design, some of that knowledge needs to be re-examined. In Service design, one of the problems is that the impact of prototypes is complex and difficult to predict. A way to counter this dilemma is to put more focus on making the hypotheses explicit and testable. This paper presents a practical process for using designers’ hypotheses to generate survey tools for evaluating the impact of prototypes in service systems. This is also a way for designers to verbalize the purpose of service prototypes in a contextual and situated way. The tool was designed to be quick, easy, and light-weight, to suit the needs of design consultants, and it focused on measuring the experiences of a waiting room from the perspective of the visitors. The process has been applied to a project where the waiting room of an emergency ward was redesigned. The three-step process started with building up the hypothesis structure, where the designers’ assumptions and intentions were used to make a representation of the hypothesis. The next step was formulating questions, where questions that tested the hypothesis were formulated. The last step – making the questionnaire – included the selection of what information to gather and iterative testing of the questions. It was found that the designers did not have a well-defined hypothesis. The suggested process can help designers identify a contextual and situated purpose for prototypes.

  • 16.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Designers on Including Stakeholders in Service Prototyping2011In: INCLUDE 11 Proceedings “The Role of Inclusive Design in Making Social Innovation Happen, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Services are by nature co-created. They are produced and consumed simultaneously through interactions between customers and service providers. The professional design of services is also highly associated with co-creation, which is evident in the sparse service design literature. This paper reveals what designers say they do to involve different stakeholders in the process of prototyping services. The main data source is interviews with designers from design agencies that work exclusively or partially with service design. The paper focuses on the questions of "who is involved in creating prototypes", "who evaluates the prototype" and how "the clients [of the design agencies] are involved". A distinction is made between different types of involvement based on previous literature that characterise different roles and perspectives on inclusion in design. Results show that most of the agencies involve others besides the design team in the creation and evaluation of prototypes. The primary stakeholder in co-creation is the client. End customers are involved also but for the most part, both clients and customers have the role of subjects or informants rather than partners in the creation of prototypes. The evaluation of prototypes follows the same pattern, and a key aspect to some of the agencies is that the client is involved, as a domain expert. The question of who authors prototypes, and implications thereof, is raised and further discussed.

  • 17.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Service Prototyping According to Service Design Practitioners2010In: Exchanging knowledge, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, Vol. 2, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in service design research include case studies and similar approaches that aspire to reveal what the practice of service design looks like. The understanding of how service design is performed can serve as a base for future research into more specific research endeavours. One area where knowledge is said to be lacking is service prototyping, part of which knowledge this paper attempts to contribute. The main data source for the paper is findings from in-depth interviews with six practicing service designers from some of the more well-known design agencies. The informants consider service prototyping to be a very important part of their work that allows them to learn and communicate about design ideas. The practitioners’ account of how they work with prototypes indicates that service prototyping has different meanings and that the practice of prototyping is very diverse. The interviews also uncover a number of areas that, according to the designers, might prove extra challenging for service prototyping to be successful. This research shows that there is much potential in the not yet fully formed practice of service prototyping.

  • 18.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Fredrik
    Linnaeus University.
    Westerlund, Bo
    Konstfack.
    Workshop: exploring participatory prototyping of services2012In: PDC '12 Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference: Exploratory Papers, Workshop Descriptions, Industry Cases - Volume 2, 2012, p. 151-152Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This full day workshop intends to explore approaches, methods and techniques that can be used in participatory prototyping of services. The participants will contribute with their experiences of different ways of working with participatory prototyping. During the workshop the participants will share, explore and give feedback on the method or case that they present. By engaging in other methods there will also be a learning activity. Another aim of the workshop is to initiate research and development of knowledge within the emerging field of participatory prototyping of services and product service systems. One particular interest regards the relation between details and "the whole". The emphasis of the workshop is to have creative learning experiences.

  • 19.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prototyping a Service Design Curriculum: Integrating Current Research in Teaching2011In: Touchpoint, ISSN 1868-6052, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 52-55Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Design Research: Which direction do we want it to take? (workshop)2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Design Research: Yesterday, today and tomorrow2010In: This is Service Design Thinking: Basics - Tools - Cases / [ed] Stickdorn, M & Schneider, J, Amsterdam: BIS Publishers , 2010, 1, p. 308-315Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How to design and market services to create outstanding customer experiences

    Service design thinking is the designing and marketing of services that improve the customer experience, and the interactions between the service providers and the customers. If you have two coffee shops right next to each other, and each sell the exact same coffee at the exact same price, service design is what makes you walk into one and not the other. Maybe one plays music and the other doesn't. Maybe one takes credit cards and the other is cash only. Maybe you like the layout of one over the other, or one has more comfortable seating. Maybe the staff at one is friendlier, or draws fun shapes on the top of their lattes. All of these nuances relate to service design.

    "This Is Service Design Thinking" combines the knowledge of twenty-three international authors and even more online contributors from the global service design community and is divided into three sections: Basics: outlines service design thinking along five basic principlesTools: describing a variety of tools and methods used in Service Design ThinkingCases: vivid examples for the introduced fundamentals with real-life case studies from 5 companies that did inspiring projects within the field of Service Design

    At the end, a one-page "Customer Journey Canvas" is included, which can be used to quickly sketch any service on a single sheet of paper--capturing different stakeholder concerns: e.g. customers, front-line staff and management.

  • 22.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Overkamp, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Research in the first four service design and innovation (ServDes) conferences2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 167-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we take a closer look at the papers published during the first four Service design and innovation (ServDes) conferences and sources that the authors of those papers have referenced. The analysis uses the academic search engine Scopus and the references found in the conferences’ Proceedings. In total 206 authors have contributed to the 105 research papers presented at ServDes, and 53% of all ServDes papers have been referenced at a later ServDes. ServDes authors are informed by research published mainly after 1999 (79,2%), primarily within the fields of Business, Computer Science and Engineering. We also look at what authors publish their research at ServDes and the percentage of self-referencing (27%) as well as within-conference referencing (2,4% of references) to examine the progression within the field through the research published at ServDes.

  • 23.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Persson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Communication through Boundary Objects in Distributed Agile Teams2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal communication between User-Centered Design (UCD) specialists and developers is important for communicating user needs and design solutions in agile development. In distributed projects where opportunities for personal communication are limited, the design documentation is an important surrogate. This study has investigated the perceived effectiveness of boundary objects in a distributed agile team, and their role in communicating target user needs. Six in-depth interviews with UCD specialists showed that the boundary objects rarely communicate underlying needs of the users but rather focus on interaction with the system that is being developed. The used boundary objects also do not work as stand-alone deliverables; they need to be explained and elaborated. Making the boundary objects comprehensive enough to be stand-alone is seen as too time consuming and not worth the effort. For agile projects with distributed teams, this creates hand-over and follow-up problems.

  • 24.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Rankin, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anundi, Daniel
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barrier analysis as a design tool in complex safety critical systems2010In: Design and Complexity, Montreál, Canada, 2010, Vol. 7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When constructing or improving large complex systems, design activities help establish the needs and goals of users, deepen the understanding of the system and facilitate ideation of new solutions. When service systems are large, dynamic and complex, the need for thorough design work is especially evident. However, design methods usually strive to describe and design best case scenarios and we argue they lack the perspective of safety needed when working in safety critical systems. In order to gain knowledge on how a perspective of risk and safety can benefit design in a safety critical domain, two different perspectives were adopted through the use of two different methods. The methods were service blueprinting and barrier analysis, adopted from service design and cognitive systems engineering respectively. The methods were implemented during the research phase of a service design project in a home healthcare system in Sweden. Service blueprinting is a method used by service designers to visualise services. Barrier analysis is aimed at identifying and categorizing artefacts and functions that prevent unwanted events from taking place, or that lessen the impact of their consequences. A comparative analysis of the two methods was performed, concluding that barrier analysis has the potential to benefit design work performed in complex and safety critical systems. The potential for barrier analysis to be more tightly integrated into current service design methods is discussed, but more research is needed in order to clarify this matter.

  • 25.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Benefits of External Representations in Service Design: a Distributed Cognition Perspective2014In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 331-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A defining characteristic of service design is the use of external representations, which support designers in making intangible aspects of services accessible and shareable. Both current and future states are externally represented, using different service design techniques, for the purposes of articulating insights, learning, communicating, collaborating, and maintaining empathy for customers. The purposes of, and techniques for, making external representations were compared with benefits of using external representations to think, suggested by the theory of distributed cognition. The analysis indicated that the service design techniques could be divided into two groups; definite and ongoing. The analysis also revealed that none of the included techniques explicitly supported designers in making multiple simultaneous representations of services. The research contributes knowledge about how the externalisations relate to benefits of making external representations, and about how to choose and use different service design techniques based on theories of distributed and situated cognition.

  • 26.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    External Representations in Service Design: A Distributed Cognition Perspective2013In: EAD 2013: Crafting the Future, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2013, Vol. 10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A defining characteristic of service design is the use of external representations which support the design process at various stages. Representations support designers in making intangible aspects of services accessible and shareable, making external representations especially important in service design. External representations are used both to represent current and future states, for the purposes of articulating insights, learning, communicating, collaborating, and maintaining empathy for customers. Many techniques are available that support designers in making representations of services. A comparison was made between the purposes for, and techniques used, in making external representations for service design with theories from cognitive science about benefits of using external representations to think. A pattern emerged during the analysis, indicating that the service design techniques could be divided into two groups, one of interactive techniques and one group of static techniques. Interactive techniques allow designers to interact with a dynamically changing representation, while static representations are unaffected by actions. The analysis also revealed that none of the included techniques explicitly support designers in making multiple simultaneous representations of services. The research contributes knowledge about how purposes for visualising and prototyping are related to general benefits of making external representations. It also provides insights about how to choose and use different service design techniques based on theories of distributed and situated cognition.

  • 27.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segelström, Fabian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigating Prototyping Practices of Service Designers from a Service Logic Perspective2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The view of the nature of services has changed with the introduction of the service dominant logic. An important part of the logic is that services create value-in-use for customers. Customer-focused disciplines such as many design disciplines have a history of working with prototyping to understand the value-in-use. The service design discipline has a similar approach to the development of services. Based on previous research a framework of perspectives on service prototyping is presented which can be used to understand the prototyping approach utilised by designers. Then, using four of the suggested foundational premises of the service dominant logic this paper examines some of the ways prototyping can support the understanding and development of value propositions. The analysis shows that prototypes and the development and testing of them with customers and users can be seen as a tool for making sure that the value propositions offered by the companies are right, as well as exploring the customer’s role as a co-creator of value. The prototyping framework can be used to practically manifest the service-dominant logic in the development of service prototypes.

  • 28.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Formative Evaluation of IT-based Services: A Case Study of a Meal Planning Service2014In: Interacting with computers, ISSN 0953-5438, E-ISSN 1873-7951, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 540-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate and develop a service supported by an IT (information technology) system the intentionto use the future service should be in focus. The technology acceptance model (TAM) and the theoryof planned behaviour (TPB) can both provide knowledge about users’ intention to use a service,making them good models to base formative decisions on. Unlike TAM, TPB is concerned withspecific information related to the service context, and provide knowledge about what makes ITuseable.We used an adapted version of the TPB as the foundation for a formative service evaluationtechnique called F-SET.We applied the F-SET to a case where two subsequent versions of a serviceprototype were evaluated. The first prototype was a description of the service supported by Hi-Fidesign sketches showing what a web-based meal planning tool could look like. The second prototypeconsisted of both service processes and the web-based meal planning tool.To find relevant factors thatinfluence future use of such a service, a survey of 28 informants was conducted with the first prototype.The second prototype involved five families who used the service for two weeks.The feedback providedby the families, based on the factors identified in the pre-test, influenced the future direction of theservice development. Feedback from the informants was distributed between the service and the ITsystem, and the most common factors that influence the intention to use the service were time, price,usefulness and availability. Feedback included both positive and negative comments, as well as bugsand suggestions for improvements.We discuss potential improvements and what kind of informationto expect from the different constructs of the TPB.

  • 29.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service Walkthroughs to Support Service Development2012In: ServDes.2012 Conference Proceedings Co-Creating Services; The 3rd Service Design and Service Innovation Conference, Espoo, Finland, 2012, p. 43-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service design is said to be a holistic design approach. This is evident in most service design literature and textbooks but still services are prototyped by focusing on separate parts rather than whole service journeys. In this paper we propose a technique called service walkthrough that can be used to represent whole services. We explore what information can be generated using the technique and how useful it is. We found that the technique helped identify the flow of information, problematic areas, and design opportunities. The prototype was generally well received by the participants. In addition to earning about information, the technique also revealed insights about time and interdependencies of the various parts of the service. Some remarks are also made about when the service walkthrough can be used in the service development process and considerations concerning the fidelity of service walkthroughs.

  • 30.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Service Archetypes; a Methodological Consideration2015In: ServDes 2014: Service Futures / [ed] Daniela Sangiorgi,David Hands, Emma Murphy, Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, p. 418-422, article id 043Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In practice based research, especially when working with non-research organisations, sometimes researchers face challenges related to the willingness of participants to openly share experiences outside the realms of the project. As a consequence there are methodological challenges with showing results, and working with knowledge verification. In this paper we suggest that some of these obstacles might be dealt with by using service archetypes.

  • 31.
    Overkamp, Timothy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodrigues, Vanessa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resource integration as a perspective on value in interaction design2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service-dominant logic (SDL) is a theoretical framework that has impacted the development of service design. Resource integration, a core concept in SDL, provides a distinctive perspective that changes the perception of value in situations of interaction. In this paper, we explore the implications of applying the resource integration view on interaction in the context of an illustrative design project. We argue that considering the resources of each actor in a design situation elevates the discussion towards a more strategic level of service and value creation. Through the example, we draw implications of utilising this perspective in specifying, positioning and shaping interactions in the system to provide value for different actors.

  • 32.
    Rodrigues, Vanessa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perceived Action Potential: A strong concept in development2018In: ServDes2018. Service Design Proof of Concept, Proceedings of the ServDes.2018 Conference, 18-20 June, Milano, Italy / [ed] Anna Meroni, Ana María Ospina Medina and Beatrice Villari, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018, Vol. 150, p. 1162-1174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service encompasses multiple interaction processes among many different actors. Comprehending the subtleties of what drives actors resource integration activities could therefore be valuable when designing for service. However, these nuances are not necessarily always captured in early representations such as prototypes of service due to variation in individual interpretation of situations. This paper draws on strong concepts from interaction design as a generative intermediate-level form of knowledge, to conceptualise perceived action potential (PAP) as a strong concept through the use of illustrative examples. PAP refers to the subjective interpretation of an individualï¿œs (own) scope of action in new or unforeseen situations. This paper elucidates the implications of PAP for service design and suggests future research opportunities. In introducing strong concepts to service design, it also translates how strong concepts might be identified and subsequently constructed in service design research in order to aid practice.

  • 33.
    Segelström, Fabian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Visualizations of Qualitative Research Material: Insights from the Service Design2010In: Frontiers 2010, 2010, Vol. 19Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As qualitative research methods have become more prominent within the development of services, the nature of the data available to service developers have changed. This leads to new forms of representing the data. Taking the intangible nature of (most) services into account, it should not be a surprise that various ways of visualizing the experience of the service in regard have become important tools to service developers.A community which has a long tradition of working with various visualizations is the design community. As service has become a focus for the design community, with the growth of service design and experience design, the tradition of visualizing has been brought along. This has lead to a number of new approaches to the visualization of services.The first part of the presentation will give an overview of how visualizations are used within the service design community based on recent research (Segelström, 2009; Segelström & Holmlid, 2009; Diana, Pacenti, & Tassi, 2009). It is concluded that visualizations are used as a communication tool by the designers. Different types of visualizations can provide various types of communication; to stakeholders, within the design team and to keep insights alive. Furthermore, various approaches to how to represent the intangible services are highlighted.The second part of the presentation will present the most common visualization techniques, focusing on what could be included in the toolbox of all interested in developing new services, not just service designers:- Blueprinting, as pioneered by Shostack (1982) within services marketing, is widely used within the service design community. Examples are given of how it has been appropriated for design purposes, based on Wreiner et al (2009).- Customer journeys focus on the customer’s experiences throughout the service system.- Narratives are a family of visualization techniques that tell the story of a service delivery.- Personas are representations of different customer segments which are used to make the segments more vivid (Cooper, 1999).

  • 34.
    Segelström, Fabian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visualizations of Qualitative Research Material: Insights from the Service Design Community2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden; Cty Council Varmland, Sweden; Cty Council Sormland, Sweden.
    Vink, Josina
    Cty Council Varmland, Sweden; Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Staging aesthetic disruption through design methods for service innovation2018In: Design Studies, ISSN 0142-694X, E-ISSN 1872-6909, Vol. 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the discourse connecting design and innovation, there has been a growing emphasis on the importance of cognitive processes in relation to design methods. However, the over-emphasis on cognition fails to clearly identify the triggers of change necessary for service innovation. In response, this article draws on classic American pragmatism and service-dominant logic to highlight the underappreciated role of actors bodily experiences when using design methods for service innovation. The authors of this paper posit that design methods stage aesthetic disruption, a sensory experience that challenges actors existing assumptions. In doing so, the use of design methods can lead to destabilizing the habitual action of participating actors, helping them to break free of existing institutions and contribute to service innovation. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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