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  • 1.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Haikola, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ojnarekonflikten och miljöfrågans återpolitisering2018In: Svensk gruvpolitik i omvandling: Aktörer, kontroverser, möjliga världar / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Simon Haikola och Björn Wallsten, Gidlunds förlag, 2018, p. 75-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Historiskt sett så kan relationen mellan det liberalt kapitalistiska systemet och miljön beskrivas som en dubbel rörelse mellan ett kontinuerligt ökande resursuttag och statens ökade befogenheter att administrera miljöförstörande verksamheter.148 En viktig faktor för ett förbättrat skydd av miljön har parallellt med den liberala kapitalismens framväxt varit allmänhetens miljömedvetenhet, som har satt press på staten att införa miljömässigt motiverade regleringar. Givet hur ett nyliberalt beslutsfattande ofta verkar avpolitiserande, dvs. det strävar efter samstämmighet mellan grupper och en ökad grad av formalisering av sakfrågorna, har det blivit allt svårare för civilsamhället att påverka politiken. Detta beror också på att miljölagstiftningen anpassas för att gynna det privata kapitalets intressen, samtidigt som besluten ofta förläggs till teknokratiska processer i vilka ansvaret för miljön blir diffust.149 Trots detta utmanas avpolitiseringen av kontinuerliga försök till återpolitisering. Kraven höjs på att ansvar utkrävs av de politiker vars beslut påverkar livsbetingelserna för lokalsamhällen och deras omgivningar, och på att andra intressen än dem som gynnas och skyddas av ett avpolitiserat beslutsfattande också beaktas och tillåts påverka den politiska dagordningen....

  • 2.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Haikola, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensk gruvpolitik i omvandling: Aktörer, kontroverser, möjliga världar2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2000-talet har svensk gruvpolitik tagit plats som en av de mest omdebatterade och omstridda inhemska miljöfrågorna. Den har engagerat människor över hela landet och över institutionella gränser, från lokala aktionsgrupper, genom nybildade protestnätverk till statliga myndigheter och riksdagen. Kanske inte trots utan just på grund av gruvindustrins långa historia i Sverige har den visat sig kunna alstra politiska energier gällande frågor som i allra högsta grad har relevans för dagens och morgondagens samhälle. Det är frågor som gäller vårt samhälles relation till naturen, statens relation till samhället, och minoritetsgruppers och enskildas rättigheter i relation till staten.

    Denna bok belyser genom fallstudier ett antal av de skärningspunkter där den statliga regleringen, den globala finans- och mineralmarknaden, samt lokala intressen, praktiker, förväntningar och farhågor har mötts och satt sin prägel på den svenska gruvpolitiken under 2000-talet. Tillsammans kan studierna läsas som ett vittnesmål om förnyade krav på statligt ansvarstagande för miljö, regional utveckling och ursprungsbefolkningsrättigheter i den långt drivna avregleringspolitikens tid.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ersson, Carolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Challenges for developing a system for biogas as vehicle fuel: lessons from Linkoping, Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are being employed in nearly all the EU member states to fulfill the targets set up by the European Directive 2003/30/EC to have a 5.75% share of renewable energy in their transport sector by 2010. In Sweden ethanol is the leading biofuel, while biogas mainly depend on local initiatives with the city of Linköping as a case in point.

    Our purpose with this article is to analyze the development of biogas in Linköping within a framework of technological transition theory. To this we add a set of concepts from large technical systems-literature to address and re-analyze two earlier studies on the biogas development in Linköping to achieve a deeper understanding of this success story. We argue that the establishment of a development trajectory for biogas depended on the ability of the involved actors to establish and nurture their social network, to create learning processes and stimulate the articulation of expectations and visions. It was also important that these three factors were allowed to influence each other for the system to gain a momentum of its own.

    Furthermore, the biogas development in Linköping is found to be interesting in that the triggers for the development came from a variety of levels and angles. Initially, the rising fuel prices after the oil crises in the 1970’s resulted in an increased interest in renewable fuels in general. Second, an anticipated national pipeline for natural gas planned through Linköping was considered a huge potential for methane exports. A part from these external energy incentives, the local trigger was the bad urban air quality caused by the public transport authority’s bus fleet. The breakthrough came when it was discovered that by-product biogas from the wastewater treatment facility could be used as a fuel for transport.

    When the plans for the national pipeline were rejected, a fruitful co-operation between the municipally owned production facility and the public transport authority was set up to meet the constructed demand from public transport. This cooperative pair-arrangement was the starting point for the biogas niche trajectory as other actors subsequently were enrolled to increase the size and agency of the network.

    Nowadays, biogas and other renewable fuels play a significant role in the supply of transport fuels for Linköping. In 2009, a total of 9.5% of all transport fuels used in Linköping were from renewable sources, i.e. biogas (4.6%), ethanol and biodiesel. This puts the city well ahead of the European target of 5.75% renewable fuels by 2010.

  • 4.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköpings University, Jönköping.
    Hultman, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lööf, Hans
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University och Ratio.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Avfall kan omvandlas till en ny resurs2016In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, , p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Om gruv- och stålindustrin menar allvar med att öka det egna medvetandet om vad som är cirkulärt, så måste omställningen börja nu. Det skriver debattörer i en slutreplik om kalkbrytningen på Gotland. Publicerad 29 januari 2016

  • 5.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköpings University, Jönköping.
    Hultman, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lööf, Hans
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Metzger, Jonathan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Stephan, Andreas
    Jönköping University och Ratio.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojnareskogen en möjlighet för industrin2016In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, , p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett Natura 2000-område på Gotland – som sätter stopp för kalkbrytning – kan öppna upp för en omställning av svensk basindustri. Kalk är viktig för industrin. Men mineralerna behöver inte nödvändigtvis tas från jordskorpan, skriver nio forskare.

  • 6.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mejía Dugand, Santiago
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A corridor striving for sustainability - Reflecting upon PhD education at a Swedish University2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an overview of interdisciplinary research from Ph.D. students working at the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University, Sweden. Each of the Ph.D. students addresses the overall challenge of sustainability transitions in their research, although the themes and content of research varies considerably between individuals, encompassing research on actors, networks, products, materials, services and systems from the public and private sector, operating locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The scientific literature and methods used to frame and conduct studies varies considerably within the group, as does the individual focus on immediate issues of sustainability.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Win-win - att använda pågående samhällsutvecklingsprocesse som levande labb i ingenjörsutbildningen2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar stadsutveckling förutsätter ett integrerat och gärna tvärvetenskapligt förhållningssätt. Dessutom fordras en helhetssyn inte bara i beträffande de för städernas hållbarhet helt centrala tekniska systemen utan även vad gäller de aktörer som har möjlighet att påverka stadens utformning. Hur väver en samman dessa aspekter till en kurs om hållbar stadsutveckling för studenter inom ingenjörsutbildningar? Och hur får en studenterna att tänka visionärt och utanför lådan utan att tappa förankringen till deras redan existerande kunskapsbas? Detta vill vi byta erfarenheter och reflektera kring under diskussionerna i rundabordssamtalet.

  • 8.
    Haikola, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Politicizing environmental governance: A case study of heterogeneous alliances and juridical struggles around the Ojnare Forest, Sweden2018In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 91, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we use a case of resistance towards a proposed limestone quarry in Sweden to raise certain theoretical points regarding environmental politicization. Departing from ideas about depoliticization and neoliberal environmental governance, we first analyze the case in terms of scaling-up of the local conflict through actor alliances, discourse coalitions and through the juridical process. We then discuss how this case may indicate effective ways to politicize areas that have been depoliticized through neoliberal environmental governance. Most particularly, the chosen case highlights how depoliticization may be reversed through the politicization of the very channels through which depoliticized forms of environmental governance occur, here the juridical, formalized and nominally neutral processes of environmental planning.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-15 10:21
  • 9.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stocks of finite resources in the technosphere continue to grow due to human activity, at the expense ofdecreasing in-ground deposits. Human activity, in other words, is changing the prerequisites for mineralextraction. For that reason, mining will probably have to adapt accordingly, with more emphasis on theexploitation of previously extracted minerals.This study reviews the prevailing concepts for mining the technosphere as well as actual efforts to doso, the objectives for mining, the scale of the initiatives, and what makes them different from other reuseand recycling concepts. Prevailing concepts such as “urban mining,” however, are inadequate guides tothe complexity of the technosphere, as these concepts are inconsistently defined and disorganized, oftenoverlapping when it comes to which stocks they address. This review of these efforts and their potentialis therefore organized around a new taxonomy based on the umbrella concept technospheric mining,defined as the extraction of technospheric stocks of minerals that have been excluded from ongoinganthropogenic material flows.An analysis on the basis of this taxonomy shows that the prevailing mining initiatives are generallyscattered and often driven by environmental factors, in which metal recovery is viewed as an additionalsource of revenue. However, development of technology, specialized actors and new business modelsand policy instruments, could lead to technospheric mining operations becoming a profit-drivenbusiness.

  • 10.
    Krook, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urban infrastructure mines: on the economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from subsurface power grids2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, p. 353-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface power grids constitute one of the largest copper stocks in many industrialized cities. Over time, parts and zones of these systems have been continuously disconnected and abandoned, resulting in the emergence of urban infrastructure ores. This study aims to assess how current conditions and practices influence economic and environmental motives of cable recovery from such power grids. By applying an infrastructure managers perspective and evaluating 16 scenarios involving different extraction technologies and procedures, surface materials, urban locations and types of cables, we identify key areas where solutions or changes to increase incentives for cable recovery are needed. The assessed scenarios display significantly different cable extraction costs, where excavation in city centers with asphalt or cobblestone pavements generates the highest costs while greenbelts offer the best conditions. In most cases, cable revenues are not even close to outweighing the extraction costs. This is especially true for paper-coated cables or cables with aluminum conductors, for which the revenues are much lower than for plastic-insulated copper cables. Although economic conditions could be improved by integrating cable recovery to regular system upgrade projects or by applying non-digging technologies, clear incentives rely on the cable in question being especially valuable. Most of the cable recovery scenarios display environmental motives in terms of net savings in GHG emissions due to metal recycling. In contrast to the economic results, recycling of aluminum power cables is here more awarding than that of corresponding copper cables. We conclude that under current conditions urban mining does not make economic sense to infrastructure managers unless it is integrated as an added value to system upgrade projects. Apart from such re-arrangements in infrastructure provision, several other practice-related changes to cut cable extraction costs are possibly within reach for the managers. Still, an economically motivated practice relies on several external performance drivers such as market diffusion of non-digging technologies, improved cable recycling processes, and increased scrap metal prices. Our conclusion that the arguments for urban mining are currently more environmental than financial, points towards changed perspectives where such activities are seen as a way for infrastructure managers to contribute to societal goals such as climate change mitigation and reduced mineral resource dependence. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Living in 'Next Nature'2014In: Access ro resources: an urban agenda / [ed] Henrietta Palmer, Spurbuchverlag , 2014, p. 198-203Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an argument that infrastructural systems have entered the same domain as ecosystems: blackouts in the electric grid behave with the same system dynamics as forest fires do and earthquakes. Nature and culture seem to be trading places.

  • 12.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Urk World: Hibernating Infrastructures and the Quest for Urban Mining2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis concerns urban mining, an umbrella term for different recycling strategies aimed to recover materials from the built environment. More specifically, it focuses on hibernating urban infrastructures, that is: cables and pipes that have been left behind in their subsurface location after they were disconnected. I term this subsurface urban realm of system rejects the “Urk World”. “Urk” is short for “urkopplad”, the Swedish word for “disconnected”, an abbreviation often found on old infrastructure maps denoting discarded system parts. Since urks contain high concentrations of copper, my normative stance is that the Urk World should be “mined” as a contribution towards diminishing the persistently wasteful handling of mineral resources in society.

    The thesis has three focus areas. The first of these discusses how the Urk World has emerged, that is: how the creation of urks is sustained in sociotechnical processes related to infrastructure’s provision. The second concerns the potential of urk mining, how much copper the Urk World contains, where these quantities are located and by which implications they could be recovered. The third focus area is devoted to the politics of urks, and is concerned with the political embeddedness of infrastructure and where politics might intervene for the sake of increased urk recovery.

    Five papers complete the thesis. The first paper investigates how much copper, aluminium and steel there is in the Urk World of the Swedish city of Norrköping, and how these quantities are spatially dispersed in the urban environment. The second paper is based on interviews with system owners and repair crews, and investigates how urks come into existence in relation to three different infrastructural processes: maintenance, larger installation projects and shutdown. The third paper describes how environmental systems analysis can be beneficially coupled with theories and methods from the social sciences to create knowledge useful to aid the development of urk recycling schemes. The fourth article makes use of the inherent ambiguities of urks to investigate a spectrum of locations where politics aimed for increased urk recovery can intervene as well as what is at stake there. The fifth and final paper investigates urks in Linköping’s power grid in spatial and weight terms, and analyses the implications of urk recovery from several different viewpoints.

    In overall terms, the major contribution of the thesis is how it improves the knowledge of societal stocks of materials, thereby giving an increased recognition of the built environment as a resource base. In overall scientific terms, it sets an example of how a coherent interdisciplinary research design can provide knowledge useful for the implementation of urk recycling schemes as well as for political decision–making for increased urk recovery.

  • 13.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toward Social Material Flow Analysis: On the Usefulness of Boundary Objects in Urban Mining Research2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 742-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material flow analysis (MFA) has been an effective tool to identify the scale of physical activity, the allocation of materials across economic sectors for different purposes, and to identify inefficiencies in production systems or in urban contexts. However, MFA relies on ignoring the social drivers of those flows to be able to perform its calculations. In many cases therefore, it remains detached from the processes (e.g., urban) that underpin them. This becomes a problem when the purpose of research is to inform the design of detailed recycling schemes, for which micro-level practice knowledge on how material flows are mediated by human agency is needed. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a particular social science approach, namely, infrastructure studies (IS), can be combined with MFA to enhance the latters potential as a decision support tool. To achieve a successful combination between IS and MFA, the object of inquiry must be carefully defined to function as a boundary object, which allows academic approaches to work together without the need for consensus. This approach is illustrated with a case study example in urban mining research that assesses the hibernating stock of subsurface urban infrastructure in Norrkoping, Sweden. It provides an example of how a well-calibrated MFA and a complementary social science approach can provide hands-on advice for private as well as public actors in a local and place-specific context. The article aims to advance the integration of social science and the study of the physical economy to contribute to the emerging field of social industrial ecology.

  • 14.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Underneath Norrköping: An Urban Mine of Hibernating Infrastructure2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the subsurface infrastructure in the Swedish city of Norrköping from an urban mining perspective. Urban mining is a broadly defined term for different strategies that regard the built environment as a resource base for materials. In this study, the focus is on three base metals that exist in large quantities in infrastructure parts: iron, copper and aluminium. A special focus is given to the parts of Norrköping’s infrastructure that are not in-use and thus constitute a ”hibernating stock” that contains recyclable metals.

    The main results of this study are twofold. First, a quantitative assessment of the hibernating stocks of urban infrastructure gives answers to how large the stocks are and where in Norrköping they are located. This was performed using a spatially informed Material Flow Analysis to arrive at a recycling potential in terms of weight and spatial concentration. Second, a qualitative assessment was made regarding how these hibernating stocks of urban infrastructure come into existence. An infrastructure studies perspective was used to outline three patterns with their own sets of ”hibernation” logics. These logics give rise to different prerequisites for the implementation of urban mining in practice.

    A main argument of this study’s cover essay is that both of the above outlined kinds of knowledge are needed to engage in urban mining with confidence. Thus, the main focus of the cover essay text is to describe how the two different perspectives of Material Flow Analysis and infrastructure studies were combined into a coherent research approach.

  • 15.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Annica
    Environmental Strategies Research- fms, Urban Planning and Environment, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svanström, Stefan
    Department for Regions and Environment, Statistics Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional mining, prospecting methods are used to increase the degree of certainty with regard to the stock of metals. Similarly, prospecting in terms of "urban mining" aims to increase the information about metal stocks available for recovery in the built environment. Infrastructure systems, such as for power supply and heating, are rich in copper, aluminum and iron (including steel). For a number of reasons, pipes and cables remain in the ground after being taken out of use or disconnected. This is also true for entire obsolete systems. In this paper, these infrastructures "cold spots" are viewed as hibernating stock with a significant potential for urban mining. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe infrastructure systems for AC and DC power, telecommunication, town gas and district heating in the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, have been quantified and spatially allocated with a GIS-based approach of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). About 20% of the total stock of aluminum and copper in these systems is found to be in hibernation. The findings also indicate that cables have been disconnected to a larger extent than pipes. As an example, cables for DC power, taken out of use in the late 1930s yet still in the ground, consist of 230 tonnes of copper. The results illustrate a clear tendency for larger stocks of hibernating copper and aluminum to be found in the central rather than the outer parts of the city. A reverse, ring-like pattern is true for iron, mostly because the central parts of the town gas pipes are used for fiber optics. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanParticular focus has been placed on the industrial area of Sodra Butangen, which is slated for redevelopment and re-zoning from industrial to residential. Since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes anyway, the entire metal stock can be taken into prospecting consideration. Analysis shows that the chances of finding aluminum here are 28 times higher than in the rest of the city. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe argue for an increased MFA focus on the heterogeneous complexity found in the details of the specific locale, rather than striving for generalized assumptions about the broader picture. In doing so, MFA could very well provide a tool for a future business line of urban mining of hibernating metal stocks.

  • 16.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines2013In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our societies are reliant on metals to such an extent that the total amounts of some of them in the built environment are comparable in size to the remaining amounts in known mountain ores. Because of concerns about mineral scarcity, the United Nations has assessed alternative sources for metal extraction and targeted urban areas in general and infrastructure systems in particular, since these are large, spatially concentrated and rich in metals. Referring to the possibility of recovering these metal stocks, infrastructure systems constitute what material flow researchers has conceptually termed “urban mines.” While most urban infrastructure is in use, significant amounts of cables and pipes have been disconnected and remain in their subsurface locations; they are “hibernating.” In this article, we analyze the occurrence of such hibernation in the Swedish city of Norrköping's urban infrastructure mine where, we know from a previous study, that every fourth kilo of infrastructure is discarded. Our applied perspective is different from the logic of system expansion as a way to meet increased demand often found in the field of infrastructure studies since we are interested in how systems are disconnected and left behind. This enables us to offer a refined understanding of the concepts of infrastructure “decline” and infrastructure “cold spots.” We argue that to prevent the increase of dormant infrastructures and to engage in the urban mining of already dormant infrastructures, we must develop a sensibility to the materiality of derelict infrastructure components and the underlying causes for why they form different kinds of spatial patterns.

  • 17.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urks and the Urban Subsurface as Geosocial Formation2016In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 827-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates “urks”, i.e., disconnected parts of urban infrastructure that remain in their subsurface location. The reason for engaging in this topic is resource scarcity concerns, as urks contain large amounts of copper and aluminum that could be “mined” for the benefit of the environment.

    Our starting point is that there is a certain non–stagnant capacity of waste–like entities such as urks and that their resistance to categorization is crucial to encapsulate their political potential (cf. Hawkins, 2006; Moore, 2012; Hird, 2013). We investigate how this indeterminate capacity has implications in terms of where future trajectories for urk recovery are conceivable.

    The study is based on interviews with respondents from the infrastructure and waste sectors in Sweden. By stressing the relationship between urks and their geo–social subsurface surroundings, we use the respondents’ exploratory interpretations of urks to outline a spectrum of issues that should be further discussed for urks to become a matter of concern. The negotiation of these issues, we suggest, can be conceived of as a form of navigation along the perceived fault lines between actors and priorities, and they must be resolved for increased urk recovery to occur.

  • 18.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Dick
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Simon
    Independent Scholar, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The economic conditions for urban infrastructure mining: Using GIS to prospect hibernating copper stocks2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 103, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we suggest a methodology that combines geographic information systems (GIS) and material flow analysis (MFA) into a secondary reserve-prospecting tool. The approach is two-phased and couples spatially informed size estimates of urban metal stocks (phase 1) to the equally spatially contingent efforts required to extract them (phase 2). Too often, even the most advanced MFA assessments stop at the first of these two phases, meaning that essential information needed to facilitate resource recovery, i.e., urban mining, is missing from their results. To take MFA one step further, our approach is characterized by a high resolution that connects the analysis of the stock to the social practices that arrange material flows in the city, thereby enabling an assessment of the economic conditions for secondary resource recovery.

    To exemplify, we provide a case study of the hibernation stock of copper found in disconnected power cables in Linköping, Sweden. Since 1970, 123 tonnes of copper or ≈1 kg per person have accumulated underneath the city, predominantly in old, central parts of the city and industrial areas. While shorter cables are more numerous than long ones, the longer ones contribute to a larger share of the stock weight. Resource recovery in specific projects reliant on digging comes at great costs, but integrating it as an added value to ordinary maintenance operations render eight locations and 2.2 tonnes of copper (2% of the stock) profitable to extract. Compared to the budget sizes of regular maintenance projects, the integrated recovery of a significant share of the stock comes with relatively small economic losses. Therefore, we suggest integrated resource recovery and regular maintenance as an interesting environmental measure for any infrastructure provider to engage with.

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