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  • 1.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    United Nations University - WIDER.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Connectivity at a cost: The economic dynamics of connectivity restoration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological literature shows that there is a species-area relationship between habitat size and the equilibrium number of species that will thrive in a habitat. There is also a literature on habitat fragmentation showing that, if a larger habitat is broken up into smaller fragments, the long run equilibrium species number will decline in each of the remaining fragments according to the same relationship. Both in the United States and in Europe there is ongoing work on reversing habitat fragmentation in river systems, with fish ladders and other measures being introduced to restore connectivity in river systems that have previously been subdivided into smaller habitats by hydropower and other developments. However, even if connectivity is restored, the new and higher equilibrium species number will be reached only after extended periods of time. This means that measures to restore connectivity entail incurring one-time investment costs (and possibly continuous long run increases in maintenance costs as well) in order to gain habitat improvements that will generate increasing value over time upto the point where the new, better equilibrium is reached. In this paper, we set up a theoretical model to investigate what the conditions are for such an investment to be socially profitable, and link the model to empirical data from measures to restore river system connectivity which show how quickly this recovery tends to occur in practice. We find that even in cases where it would have been socially preferable not to build a hydropower installation in the first place, connectivity-restoring measures affecting the installation are not necessarily socially profitable. Under a wide range of plausible assumptions about discount rates, investment costs and productivity losses, decommissioning the hydropower plant once its economic lifespan is past is a better option, from the social planner’s perspective, than carrying out measures while the plant is still economically viable.

  • 2.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 3.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Persistence of Subjective Poverty in Urban Ethiopia2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using panel data spanning 15 years, this paper  investigates the persistence and correlates of subjective and consumption  poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite the decline in consumption poverty in  recent years, which has been linked to rapid economic growth, subjective  poverty has remained largely unchanged. Dynamic probit regression results  show that households with a history of past poverty continue to perceive  themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. Our results  also suggest that the relative economic position of households is a strong  determinant of subjective poverty, and having at least some type of  employment reduces the likelihood that households will perceive themselves  as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. Receiving remittances  from abroad, on the other hand, does not reduce perceived poverty, even if  it raises material consumption. We argue that any analysis to measure the  impact of growth on welfare should encompass subjective measures as  well.

  • 4.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Andréa
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    The HIPC initiative and free trade in tobacco: a comparison of effetcs on the Malawi economy using a CGE model2004In: Journal of Development Alternatives and Area Studies, ISSN 1651-9728, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 66-83Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Dalin, Torbjörn
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    The socio-economic impacts of opium eradication in South East Asia2006In: Impact Assessment of Crop Eradication in Afghanistan and Lessons Learned from Latin America and South East Asia, Senlis Council , 2006, p. 85-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Formal microlending and adverse (or non-existent) selection: A case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 28, p. 4203-4213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders’ access to credit and making long term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers – both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans – remain credit-constrained; both types overutilize labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders – with their closer ties to the individual farmers – remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Department of Economics, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, United Kingdom.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University.
    Formal microlending and adverse (or nonexistent) selection: a case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 28, p. 4203-4211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders‟ access to credit and making long-term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small-scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers – both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans – remain credit-constrained; both types overutilise labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders – with their closer ties to the individual farmers – remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Umeå University.
    MacGregor, James
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Towards inclusion through lessons from informal money lenders2018In: Financial inclusion for poverty alleviation: Issues and case studies for sustainable development / [ed] Essam Yassin Mohammed and Zenebe Bashaw Uraguchi, Oxon: Routledge , 2018, p. 68-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Impacts of the Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia on livestock and tree holdings of rural households2011In: Journal of Development Economics, ISSN 0304-3878, E-ISSN 1872-6089, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. National Institute of Economic Research.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish legislation makes municipalities responsible for recycling or disposing of household waste. Municipalities therefore play an important role in achieving Sweden’s increased levels of ambition in the waste management area and in achieving the goal of a more circular economy. This paper studies how two municipal policy instruments – weight-based waste tariffs and special systems for the collection of food waste – affect the collected volumes of different types of waste. We find that a system of collecting food waste separately is more effective overall than imposing weight-based waste tariffs in respect not only of reducing the amounts of waste destined for incineration, but also of increasing materials recycling and biological recovery, despite the fact that the direct incentive effects of these two systems  should be similar. Separate food waste collection was associated with increased recycling not only of food waste but also of other waste. Introducing separate food waste collection indirectly signals to households that recycling is important and desirable, and our results suggest that this signalling effect may be as important as direct incentive effects.

  • 13. Andersson, Georg
    et al.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Umeå universitet.
    Konkurrensneutralt ransportbidrag: Betänkande från Transportbidragsutredningen (SOU 1997:94)1997Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Croné, Sara
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jørn
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Potential monopoly rents from international wildlife tourism: An example from Uganda’s gorilla tourism2005In: Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, ISSN 1027-1775, E-ISSN 1684-4173, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Arvidsson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Technology-neutral green procurement in practice: an example from Swedish waste management2012In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 519-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green public procurement has been criticized for its excessive reliance on detailed technology specifications, which can distort incentives in the short term and discourage innovation in the longer term. Economists therefore tend to prefer technology-neutral procurement, which rewards outcomes rather than technologies. However, technology-neutral procurement can also be problematic in practice. The present study investigated green public procurement of waste management, a rapidly growing field. In one of the most sophisticated models for technology-neutral procurement applied in Sweden in recent years, different environmental impacts were assigned weights, but no weight was given to the particular technology employed. Even here, however, potential inefficiencies were found where the scoring rule could have led to arbitrary, and presumably unwanted, outcomes. Explicitly assigning monetary surcharges to desirable and undesirable environmental effects may be a better way to reach environmental targets.

  • 16.
    Arvidsson, Anders
    et al.
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Technology-neutral green procurement in practice: An example from Swedish waste management2012In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 519-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green public procurement has been criticized for its excessive reliance on detailed technology specifications, which can distort incentives in the short term and discourage innovation in the longer term. Economists therefore tend to prefer technology-neutral procurement, which rewards outcomes rather than technologies. However, technology-neutral procurement can also be problematic in practice. The present study investigated green public procurement of waste management, a rapidly growing field. In one of the most sophisticated models for technology-neutral procurement applied in Sweden in recent years, different environmental impacts were assigned weights, but no weight was given to the particular technology employed. Even here, however, potential inefficiencies were found where the scoring rule could have led to arbitrary, and presumably unwanted, outcomes. Explicitly assigning monetary surcharges to desirable and undesirable environmental effects may be a better way to reach environmental targets.

  • 17.
    Arvidsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sjöstrand, James
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of the Swedish online gambling market2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 16, p. 1135-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study how the Swedish online gambling market has developed and how the availability of foreign-based online gambling has affected the domestic state-owned gambling monopoly, AB Svenska Spel. We find that online gambling and the traditional state-managed gambling are relatively weak substitutes. Thus, concerns about the availability of online gambling being able to undercut domestic gambling policies may be overstated.

  • 18.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Effects of migration on tax policy in the EU countries: An empirical analysis2011In: China-USA Business Review, ISSN 1537-1514, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 508-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study whether migration affects taxes on labor and capital income. The analysis is based on panel data for 14 European countries. The results indicate that migration does affect subsequent tax rates; taxes on labor income increase with increased migration, especially in countries with large public sectors. However, this effect is reduced for countries with large foreign trade and/or large shares of elderly in the population.

  • 19.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Effects of Migration on Tax Policy in the EU Countries: An Empirical Analysis2011In: China - USA Business Review, ISSN 1555-7901, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 508-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study whether migration affects taxes on labor and capital income. The analysis is based on panel data for 14 European countries. The results indicate that migration does affect subsequent tax rates, and taxes on labor income increase with increased migration, especially in countries with large public sectors. However, this effect is reduced for countries with large foreign trade and/or large shares of elderly in the population.

  • 20.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Optimal Tax and Expenditure Policy in the Presence of Emigration: Are Credit Restrictions Important?2014In: Indian Growth and Development Review, ISSN 1753-8254, E-ISSN 1753-8262, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 98-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Empirical studies have found an inverted-U curve relationship between emigration and per capita income. In this paper, a theoretical underpinning for this phenomenon is presented based on credit restrictions. The implications for tax policy are also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach - Using an intertemporal general equilibrium model, the authors characterize how the presence of an 'inverted U-curve'relationship between emigration and per capita income will in?uence the optimal tax and expenditure policy in a country where agents have the option to move abroad.Findings - Among the results it is shown that if age dependent taxes are available, the presence of an inverted-U curve provides an incentive to tax young labor harder, but old labor less hard, than otherwise.Originality/value - Our migration model fits the empirical facts of migration better than most of the migration models previously used in the optimal taxation literature.

  • 21.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Optimal tax and expenditure policy in the presence of migration – are credit restrictions important?2014In: Indian Growth and Development Review, ISSN 1753-8254, E-ISSN 1753-8262, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 98-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies have found an ’inverted U-curve’ relationship between emigration and per capita income. In this paper, we present a theoretical underpinning for this phenomenon based on credit restrictions. We also characterize how the presence of an ’inverted U-curve’ relationship between emigration and per capita income will influence the optimal tax and expenditure policy in a country where agents have the option to move abroad. Among the results it is shown that if age dependent taxes are available, the presence of an ’inverted U-curve’ provides an incentive to tax young labor harder, but old labor less hard, than otherwise. Thus, our more realistic picture of emigration leads to results that differ from the previous literature.

  • 22.
    Bergsten, Peter
    et al.
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Nicolin, Stéphanie
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Frisk, Anders
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Rydgren, Bernt
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Björklund, Inger Poveda
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Miljöförbättrande åtgärder i Mörrumsån och Ångermanälven, med fokus på havsvandrande arter2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapports syfte är att sammanställa resultaten från en utredning av förutsättningar för miljöförbättrande åtgärder i de utbyggda vattendragen Ångermanälven och Mörrumsån. Förutsättningar för de geografiska områdena är sammanställda och effekter av möjliga åtgärder har analyserats; dels hydrauliska flödessimuleringar, dels en populationsmodell för laxfisk. Fokus har lagts på åtgärder för havsvandrande fisk.ÅngermanälvenÅngermanälven är Sveriges tredje största älv i fråga om vattenföring, med en medelvattenföring på knappt 500 m3/s. Det finns ett fyrtiotal större vattenkraftverk, samt ett antal mindre, fördelade i de tre huvudgrenarna Åsele-, Fax- och Fjällsjöälven. Studien omfattar nedre delarna av Åseleälven (upp till Nämforsen) och Faxälven (upp till Storfinnforsen). Bland de inom uppdraget aktuella kraftverken finns gamla åfåror i anslutning till de fyra stationerna i Faxälven, Hjälta, Forsse, Edsele och Ramsele.Idag når havsvandrande arter upp till Sollefteå kraftverk, ca 3 mil uppströms mynningen. Lax och havsöring fiskas enbart nedströms Sollefteå kraftverk, och utsättningar görs från två kompensationsodlingar, vid Forsmo och strax nedströms Hjälta.Resultaten för Ångermanälven visar på en potential för att etablera ett svagt men livskraftigt laxbestånd uppströms Sollefteå kraftverk. Förutsättningarna utgörs av en kombination av åtgärder, fiskväg vid Sollefteå samt minimitappning av ca 8 m3/s vid Hjälta kraftstation. Detta skulle enligt modellförsök resultera i ett bestånd av i medeltal ca 150 återvändande laxar per år, med en uppskattad kostnad på ca 26 MSEK/år (exklusive kostnad för fiskvandringsväg vid Sollefteå), p.g.a. produktionsbortfall.Möjligheterna för åtgärder riktade mot havsvandrande fisk längre upp i Faxälven är mycket små. Mindre arealer potentiella reproduktionsområden, i kombination med dödlighet vid passage av kraftverk, gör att bara några 10-tal honor tar sig upp per år. Ramsele gamla fåra skulle kunna erbjuda förhållandevis stora reproduktionsområden, men en nödvändig passage av fyra kraftverk gör det mycket svårt att tillgängliggöra sträckan, även om fiskvägar installeras.MörrumsånMörrumsån mynnar i Pukavikbukten vid Mörrum, och har en medelvattenföring på knappt 30 m3/s. Inom hela systemet Mörrumsån finns 24 vattenkraftverk, varav de sju som omfattas av denna utredning ligger belägna i den nedre delen av ån, nedströms sjön Åsnen. Genom denna avgränsning omfattar studien samtliga E.ONs anläggningar i Mörrumsån. Av de aktuella kraftverken finns gamla åfåror i anslutning till Granö, Hemsjö övre, Hemsjö nedre samt Fridafors nedre.Mörrumsån anses utgöra södra Sveriges viktigaste laxälv och idag når havsvandrande fisk upp till Fridafors nedre, ca 3 mil från mynningen. Fiskvägar finns installerade vid de tre nedströms kraftstationerna, Marieberg och Hemsjö nedre och övre. Utsättningar av smolt och yngel från havsöring sker årligen i de nedre delarna av ån, smolt i Kungsforsen vid Mörrum, och yngel i flera av de tillrinnande bäckarna.Med utgångspunkt i potentiella reproduktionsområden i Granö gamla fåra har möjligheten att etablera lax- och öringbestånd uppströms Fridafors studerats. Åtgärderna utgörs av fiskvägar i Fridafors samt minimitappning i Granö, ev. i kombination med biotopvårdsåtgärder. Resultaten visar att för att uppnå ett livskraftigt bestånd uppströms Fridafors ställs höga krav på funktion av de fem fiskvägarna. Om ett antagande görs att 95% av smolten passerar varje station tack vare spill under utvandringsperioden, måste uppströmspassage ske med en genomsnittlig effektivitet av 90% per station. Vid 80% klarar bara ett par tiotal honor sig upp till fåran för lek, medan populationen balanserar på gränsen till livskraftighet vid 90%. Eftersom det är så många fiskvägar får passagerna stort utslag på överlevnaden, och det ger t.ex. större effekt att öka fiskvägarnas effektivitet från 80 till 90% jämfört med att dubblera mängden reproduktionsområdena från 3,5 till 7 ha . Att maximera den gamla fårans potential genom biotopvårdsåtgärder är relevant, men bör därför ha lägre prioritet jämfört med att säkerställa fiskvägarnas funktion.Den föreslagna minimitappningen i Granö på 2,3 m3/s baseras på resultaten från flödessimuleringarna för att på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt nå goda förhållanden för reproduktion i fåran. Den totala årliga kostnaden uppskattas till ca 2 MSEK, om flödet ökas till 9,5 m3/s ger det ett ca 4 gånger så stort produktionsbortfall, medan den ekologiska effekten endast ökar med ca 10 %.En tänkbar åtgärd för att uppnå en positiv effekt på laxfisk i Mörrumsån vore en utrivning av Mariebergs kraftstation, en åtgärd som enligt modellen har potential att fördubbla laxbeståndet uppströms Marieberg. En utrivning av Marieberg skulle, utöver kostnader för återställning och utrivning, innebära ett produktionsbortfall bestående av hela kraftstationens kapacitet (3,2 GWh), motsvarande ca 1 MSEK per år (inräknad nuvarande kostnader för drift och underhåll, men exklusive utrivningskostnader).Frånsett utrivning är potentialen ur ett ekologiskt perspektiv, räknat i antal återvändande laxfisk, likvärdig i Ångermanälven, med en fiskväg i Sollefteå kombinerat med minimitappning i Hjälta, jämfört med Granö i Mörrumsån. Ur ett kostnadsperspektiv vore det ca 4 gånger så dyrt (ca 26 MSEK/år exklusive fiskväg i Sollefteå) som att genomföra åtgärderna vid Fridafors/Granö. Skillnaden ligger bland annat i att i Mörrumsån innebär studerade åtgärder ett tillskott till en befintlig population i vattendraget, medan det i Ångermanälven idag inte finns ett bestånd med naturlig reproduktion.Utifrån den samhällsekonomiska analysen ger ingen åtgärd med minimitappningar och/eller fiskvägar ett positivt resultat. Beroende på vilka scenarier som används blir den samhällsekonomiska förlusten av åtgärder i Granö från 10 MSEK och uppåt (nuvärde), medan förlusten i Ångermanälven blir drygt 200 MSEK och uppåt.

  • 23. Bergsten, Peter
    et al.
    Nicolin, Stéphanie
    Frisk, Anders
    Rydgren, Bernt
    Poveda Björklund, Inger
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Miljöförbättrande åtgärder i Mörrumsån och Ångermanälven, med fokus på havsvandrande arter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Bezabih Ayele, Mintewab
    et al.
    Environment and Climate Research center, Ethiopian Development Research Institute.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    How much is too much?: Individual biodiversity conservation2019In: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The individual farmer has little incentive to care about the public good properties of on-farm biodiversity in the formof different crop varieties. There is a common assumption that, because of this, farmers will tend to maintain too littlebiodiversity on their farms compared with the social optimum. However, in developing countries, this assumption doesnot fit with the empirical data: because of poorly functioning insurance markets, farmers tend to maintain a wide rangeof different crop varieties to hedge against weather shocks and other uncertainties. In this paper we develop atheoretical model to account for this apparent contradiction, and show that farmers may in fact even maintain toomuch biodiversity on their farms, compared with the social optimum.

  • 25.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Portsmouth.
    Chambwera, Muyeye
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Climate change and total factor productivity in the Tanzanian economy2011In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1289-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic impacts of climate-change-induced adjustments on the performance of the Tanzanian economy are analysed, using a countrywide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The effect of overall climate change on agricultural productivity (modelled as reduced land productivity) is projected to be relatively limited until about 2030, thereafter becoming worse. The simulation results indicate that despite the projected reduction in agricultural productivity, the negative impacts can potentially be quite limited. This is because the timescales involved, as well as the low starting point of the economy, leave ample room for factor substitutability and increased overall productivity. This indicates that policies that give farmers the opportunity to invest in autonomous climate adaptation, as well as those that improve the overall performance of the economy, can be as important in reducing the impacts of climate change in the economy as direct government policies for adaptation.

  • 26.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    et al.
    Univ Portsmouth, Dept Econ, Portsmouth PO1 3DE, Hants, UK.
    Chambwera, Muyeye
    Int Inst Environm & Dev, Sustainable Markets Grp, Econ Climate Change Team, London WC1H 0DD, UK.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Climate change and total factor productivity in the Tanzanian economy2011In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1289-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the economic impacts of climate change-induced adjustments on the performance of the Tanzanian economy, using a country-wide computable general equilibrium model. The effect of overall climate change on agricultural productivity (modeled as reduced land productivity) is projected to be relatively limited until approximately 2030 and become worse thereafter. Our simulation results indicate that despite the projected reduction in agricultural productivity, the negative impacts can potentially be quite limited. This is because the time scales involved and the low starting point of the economy leave ample space for factor substitutability and increased overall productivity. This indicates that policies that give farmers opportunity to invest in autonomous climate adaptation, as well as policies that improve the overall performance of the economy, can be as important for reducing the impacts of climate change in the economy as direct government policies for climate adaptation.

  • 27.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    et al.
    University of Portsmouth.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    How much is too much?: Individual biodiversity conservation vis-a-vis socially optimal levels2012In: 2nd International Conference on Environment and Natural Resources Management in Developing and Transition Economies: Abstracts, 2012, p. 16-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The individual farmer in a developing country has little incentive to care about the public good properties of on-farm biodiversity in the form of different crop varieties. There is a common assumption that because of this, farmers will tend to maintain too little biodiversity on their farms. However, this does not fit well with the empirical data; because of poorly functioning insurance markets, farms tend to maintain a wide range of different crop varieties in practice in order to hedge against weather shocks and other uncertainty. In this paper we develop a theoretical model to account for this, and show that farmers may in fact even maintain too much biodiversity on the individual farm, compared to the social optimum. This will be illustrated with empirical estimations from Ethiopian agriculture.

  • 28. Björk, Lisa
    et al.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Danley, Brian
    Persson, Lars
    Patrik, Söderholm
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Waldo, Staffan
    Samhällsekonomisk analys till stöd för en ekosystembaserad fiskförvaltning2020Report (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordström, Jonas
    University of Copenhagen.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Svedin, Dick
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages: the case of Sweden2016In: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 5, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our hypothesis is that bargaining power is affected by institutional settings and the ownership of the firm. To test our hypothesis we used a panel data set of 242 large Swedish manufacturing firms over the period 1980–2005. The results indicate no significant impact of foreign ownership on employment or wages in Sweden.

  • 30.
    Chegere, Martin J.
    et al.
    University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Economics, Tanzania.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Agricultural production diversity, dietary diversity and nutritional status: Panel data evidence from Tanzania2020In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 129, article id 104856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Household agricultural production for self-consumption is often highlighted by nutritionists as the main route to increasing household food security and nutritional status, especially for the poor in developing countries. At the same time, the income gains from specializing in fewer crops and selling the surplus product could be an alternate route to improved nutritional status. We use Tanzanian data to study linkages between the diversity and market orientation of a household's agricultural production, the quality and diversity of their diets, and the nutritional status of their children. We find that diversifying a household's agricultural production significantly increases diversity in that household's diet, but the positive nutritional effects are small. We also find that market orientation has no clear effect on dietary diversity. At the same time, however, the nutritional status of children is not found to be linked clearly to general dietary diversity. On the other hand, factors such as education and overall income have strong and significant effects on both household dietary diversity and child nutrition. Thus, policies for increasing the quality of children's diets, improving children's nutritional status and enhancing the overall dietary diversity of farm households should incorporate those factors.

  • 31.
    Choumert, Johanna
    et al.
    CERDI-CNRS Université d'Auvergne Clermont 1, 65 boulevard François MitterrandClermont-Ferrand, France.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Uwera, Claudine
    University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Access to water as determinant of rental values: A housing hedonic analysis in Rwanda2014In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 26, p. 48-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the determinants of rental values in urban housing markets in Kigali, Rwanda. In particular, we study the value of access to piped water; due to the high costs associated with installing new piped connections, renting a property with an existing connection is often the only way for low income households to access piped water. Our results indicate that extending the piped network to a new house will in many cases raise the rental value of the house enough to pay for the cost of installing the new connection in less than two years.

  • 32.
    Choumert, Johanna
    et al.
    Université d'Auvergne.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Uwera, Claudine
    University of Gothenburg, University of Rwanda.
    Access to water as determinant of rental values: A housing hedonic analysis in Rwanda2014In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 26, p. 48-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the determinants of rental values in urban housing markets in Kigali, Rwanda. In particular, we study the value of access to piped water; due to the high costs associated with installing new piped connections, renting a property with an existing connection is often the only way for low income households to access piped water. Our results indicate that extending the piped network to a new house will in many cases raise the rental value of the house enough to pay for the cost of installing the new connection in less than two years.

  • 33.
    Dalin, Torbjörn
    et al.
    GS - The Swedish Union of Forestry, Wood and Graphical Workers.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The effects of capital income taxation on wage formation2011In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 186-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effects of capital income taxation on wage formation are studied using OECD data. The results indicate that a rise in the tax rate on capital income will reduce real wages and increase employment.

  • 34.
    Dalin, Torbjörn
    et al.
    GS - The Swedish Union of Forestry, Wood and Graphical Workers, Sweden.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The effects of capital income taxation on wage formation2011In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 186-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effects of capital income taxation on wage formation are studied using OECD data. The results indicate that a rise in the tax rate on capital income will reduce real wages and increase employment.

  • 35.
    Dietzenbacher, Erik
    et al.
    Faculty of Economics, University of Groningen.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Mixing oil and water?: Using hybrid input-output tables in a structural decomposition analysis2006In: Economic Systems Research, ISSN 0953-5314, E-ISSN 1469-5758, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Securing benefits for local communities from international visitors to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1553-1567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the visitation demand function for Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) in order to determine the scope for raising fees charged to international tourists in order to fund revenue-sharing schemes for local communities. International and Southern African Development Community tourists account for approximately 25% and 2% of the total number of visitors to South African national parks, with domestic visitors making up the remaining portion. Although small, the South African international tourism market is mature and accounts for a disproportionately large share (around 42%) of net revenue. To estimate visitation demand at the KTP and three other national parks, random effects Tobit Model was used. Using the estimated elasticities, the revenue-maximizing daily conservation fee was computed to be R1 131.94 (US$144.20) for KTP, which can be compared with the R180 (US$22.93) currently charged. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated that there is a possibility of raising fees at the other three parks. Sharing conservation revenue with communities surrounding parks could demonstrate the link between ecotourism and local communities’ economic development and promote a positive view of land restitution involving national parks.

  • 37.
    Edström, Frida
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Natural Forest Protection Program in China: A contingent valuation study in Heilongjiang province2012In: Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B, ISSN 2162-5263, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 426-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1998 the Chinese government implemented the Natural Forest Protection Program, NFPP, which included logging restrictions, protected areas, replanting, and a range of other policies aimed at safeguarding the state of the country’s forests and reducing the risk of erosion and flooding. A second phase of this policy is currently being discussed. In this paper, we use contingent valuation to estimate the WTP for maintaining the program among the inhabitants in Heilongjiang Province in northern China. Our results show that, even with fairly conservative assumptions, the aggregated WTP for maintaining the program for another five years is some 3.24 billion Yuan per year. This can be compared to the current cost of the program in the province, which is some 1.57 billion Yuan per year.

  • 38.
    Edström, Frida
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The Natural Forest Protection Program in China: A contingent valuation study in Heilongjiang province2012In: Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B, ISSN 2162-5263, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 426-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1998, the Chinese Government implemented the NFPP (Natural Forest Protection Program), which included logging restrictions, protected areas, replanting, and a range of other policies aimed at safeguarding the state of the country’s forests and reducing the risk of erosion and flooding. A second phase of this program is currently being discussed. In this paper, contingent valuation is used to estimate the WTP (willingness to pay) for maintaining the program among the inhabitants in Heilongjiang Province in northern China. The results show that, even with fairly conservative assumptions, the aggregated WTP for maintaining the program for another five years is some 3.24 billion yuan per year. This can be compared with the current cost of the Program in the province, which is some 1.57 billion yuan per year.

  • 39.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in Swedish hydropower: politics, economics and rights2017In: Research Ideas and Outcomes, E-ISSN 2367-7163, Vol. 3, article id e21305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  • 40.
    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Mekelle University, Adi-Haqui Campus, P.O. Box 451, Mekelle, Tigrai, Ethiopia.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden.
    Alemu, Atlaw
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Climate change and the Ethiopian economy: A CGE analysis2016In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 205-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes the economic impacts of climate change-induced fluctuations on the performance of Ethiopia's agriculture, using a countrywide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. We model the impacts on agriculture using a Ricardian model, where current agricultural production is modelled as a function of temperature and precipitation, among other things, and where future agriculture is assumed to follow the same climate function. The effect of overall climate change is projected to be relatively benign until approximately 2030, but will become considerably worse thereafter. Our simulation results indicate that, over a 50-year period, the projected reduction in agricultural productivity may lead to reductions in average income of some 20 per cent compared with the outcome that would have prevailed in the absence of climate change. This indicates that adaptation policies – both government planned and those that ease autonomous adaptation by farmers – will be crucial for Ethiopia's future development.

  • 41.
    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Mekelle University, Adi-Haqui Campus.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University.
    Alemu, Atlaw
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University.
    Climate change and the Ethiopian economy: A CGE analysis2016In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 205-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes the economic impacts of climate change-induced fluctuations on the performance of Ethiopia’s agriculture, using a countrywide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model.We model the impacts on agriculture using a Ricardian model, where current agricultural production is modelled as a function of temperature and precipitation, among other things, and where future agriculture is assumed to follow the same climate function. The effect of overall climate change is projected to be relatively benign until approximately 2030, but will become considerably worse thereafter. Our simulation results indicate that, over a 50-year period, the projected reduction in agricultural productivity may lead to reductions in average income of some 20 per cent compared with the outcome that would have prevailed in the absence of climate change. This indicates that adaptation policies – both government planned and those that ease autonomous adaptation by farmers – will be crucial for Ethiopia’s future development.

  • 42. Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
    et al.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Alemu, Atlaw
    Climate Change and the Ethiopian Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the economic impacts of climate change on Ethiopia’s agriculture using a countrywide computable general equilibrium model. The impacts on agriculture are based on results from a Ricardian model where current (and future) agricultural production is analyzed as a function of temperature and precipitation. We project that the effect of overall climate change will be relatively benign until approximately 2030 and then worsen considerably. Our simulation results indicate that, over a 50-year period, the projected reduction in agricultural productivity may lead to 30 percent less average income, compared with the possible outcome in the absence of climate change. Autonomous adaptations that the farmers make and government policies in response will be crucial for Ethiopia’s future development.

  • 43.
    Gustafsson, Mia
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Vaasa.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Betalningsviljan för renare havsvatten runt Åland2004In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie används betingad värdering för att undersöka den åländska befolkningens betalningsvilja för renare havsvatten; mer specifiktundersöks betalningsviljan för ett åtgärdsprogram som skulle halvera de åländska näringsutsläppen i havet. Med mycket restriktiva antaganden om betalningsviljan hos bortfallsgruppen pekar analysen på en medianbetalningsviljapå cirka 8,6 euro per invånare och månad, medan mindre restriktiva antagandenpekar på en medianbetalningsvilja på cirka 28,4 euro per invånare och månad. Med de mer restriktiva antagandena skulle det totala belopp som skulle kunna samlas in årligen bli cirka 1,8 miljoner euro.

  • 44.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK).
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Retail waste of horticultural products in Sweden2011In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 554-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste of food is a topic of considerable policy interest. However, few studies have been done on food waste at the retail level. The aim of this study was to examine how large retail waste is for 16 different horticultural products, selected among typical fruit and vegetables. The levels of retail waste were examined in cooperation with one of the leading Swedish retail companies. The results showed that retail waste of horticultural products amounted between 0.4% and 6.3% of store supplies for different horticultural products. The results did not show that packaging reduced waste of horticultural products.

  • 45.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Plant & Environm Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Retail waste of horticultural products in Sweden2011In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 554-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste of food is a topic of considerable policy interest. However, few studies have been done on food waste at the retail level. The aim of this study was to examine how large retail waste is for 16 different horticultural products, selected among typical fruit and vegetables. The levels of retail waste were examined in cooperation with one of the leading Swedish retail companies. The results showed that retail waste of horticultural products amounted to between 0.4 and 6.3% of store supplies for different horticultural products. The results did not show that packaging reduced waste of horticultural products.

  • 46.
    Humavindu, M. N.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Economics and Sector Research, Namibian Competition CommissionWindhoek, Namibia .
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Continuous financial support will be needed2015In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Read the Feature Paper: Community-based wildlife management failing to link conservation and financial viability and the Commentaries on this Feature Paper: Wildlife conservation without financial viability? The potential for payments for dispersal areas' services in Namibia; Achieving ecological conservation impact is not enough: setting priorities based on multiple criteria Animal Conservation.

  • 47.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Namibian Competition Commission, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.
    Community based wildlife management failing to link conservation and financial viability2015In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the considerable popularity of community-based wildlife management as a conservation tool, it is of interest to assess the long-run sustainability of this policy not only in conservation terms, but also in financial terms. In this paper, we use cost–benefit analysis to study the social and financial sustainability of a large set of community conservancies in Namibia, one of the few countries where community-based wildlife management policies have been in place long enough to assess their long-term viability. We find that, although the social sustainability is generally good, the financial sustainability is problematic – especially for the younger conservancies: there is no real link between conservation achievements and financial success. This calls into question the long-term sustainability of many of these conservancies: if they are unable to generate enough revenue to pay for their running expenditure, they will eventually fail – even if they are successful from a conservation point of view. Similar problems, linked to the way in which external funders have pushed for additional conservancies to be established regardless of financial considerations, are likely to be present in other countries that have implemented such programmes.

  • 48.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Community based wildlife management failing to link conservation and financial viability2015In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the considerable popularity of community-based wildlife management as a conservation tool, it is of interest to assess the long-run sustainability of this policy not only in conservation terms, but also in financial terms. In this paper, we use cost–benefit analysis to study the social and financial sustainability of a large set of community conservancies in Namibia, one of the few countries where community-based wildlife management policies have been in place long enough to assess their long-term viability. We find that, although the social sustainability is generally good, the financial sustainability is problematic – especially for the younger conservancies: there is no real link between conservation achievements and financial success. This calls into question the long-term sustainability of many of these conservancies: if they are unable to generate enough revenue to pay for their running expenditure, they will eventually fail – even if they are successful from a conservation point of view. Similar problems, linked to the way in which external funders have pushed for additional conservancies to be established regardless of financial considerations, are likely to be present in other countries that have implemented such programmes.

  • 49.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Continuous financial support will be needed2015In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Namibian Competition Commission, Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Key sector analysis of the Namibian economy2013In: Journal of Economic Structures, ISSN 2193-2409, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents key sector research for the Namibian economy, based on input–output and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) analyzes. The analyses were derived from a Namibian SAM for the 2004 period, using 28 economic sectors. We find that mining and government services are currently key sectors. Some manufacturing and services sectors have important linkages in terms of output effects, whilst for employment and income effects, the agriculture sector is paramount. The results obtained are useful for policy purposes in terms of identifying those sectors where interventions are likely to have the greatest impact on the Namibian economy.

1234 1 - 50 of 173
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