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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Experimental stimulation and EOG recordings in a LabView computer programming environment1995In: In: Claussen C-F, Kirtane MV, Schneider D,editors.; 1995 1995; Hamburg: medicin+pharmacie dr. werner rudat & CoNachf.; 1995 / [ed] Claussen C-F, Kirtane MV, Schneider D, 1995, p. 167-170Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Bunnfors, Irja
    Linköping University.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Experimentella studier över industriellt använda lösningsmedels toxicitet på balanssinnet i centrala nervsystemet1979Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Bunnfors, Irja
    Linköping University.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Experimentella studier över industriellt använda lösningsmedels toxicitet på balanssinnet i centrala nervsystemet1982Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bunnfors, Irja
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Xylene exposure. Electronystagmografic and gaschromatografic studies in rabbit1977In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 84, no 1-6, p. 370-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complaints of vertigo from people who are exposed to industrial solvents have focused interest on their toxic effect on the nervous system. In order to evaluate the influence of an organic solvent, xylene, on the mammalian vestibular system, a series of rabbit experiments were performed. To achieve a constant concentration, the xylene was infused as a lipid emulsion. Blood concentrations were estimated by gas chromatography. Elec-tronystagmography in darkness revealed that at blood xylene concentrations of 30 ppm all rabbits had a positional nystagmus. The beat direction was the opposite of positional alcohol nystagmus. Another difference between the alcohol and the xylene reaction was that rotatory nystagmus responses were exaggerated. The relations between the present findings and the reactions and blood concentrations in people exposed to industrial solvents are discussed.

  • 5.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Lösningsmedels toxicitet på balanssinnet i centrala nervsystemet. Experimentella studier på kanin1979Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Påverkan av vestibularissystemet i en djurexperimentell modell1977In: Svensk Otolaryngol förening, ISSN 0280-7939, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hydén, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Impairment of visuo-vestibular interaction in humans exposed to toluene1983In: Journal for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, ISSN 0301-1569, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 262-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    15 healthy volunteers were investigated in a vestibulo-oculomotor test battery during toluene exposure. The concentration was comparable to the threshold limit value. The results were compared to an identical air experiment. The intoxication caused an impaired visual suppression during a pseudo-random oscillatory swing test and also an increased saccade speed. Other vestibular-oculomotor parameters were normal. The findings are in accordance with our earlier study on styrene in humans, showing that the visual suppression test and the saccade test are sensitive parameters assessing neurotoxic influences by organic solvents.

  • 8.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bunnfors, Irja
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effects of Trichloroethylene on the human vestibulo-oculomotor system1986In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 101, no 3-4, p. 193-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten healthy volunteers were subjected to a vestibulo-oculomotor test battery before, during and 1 hour after trichloroethylene exposure. The concentration of trichloroethylene in in-spiratory air was 32–78 ppm (176429 mg/m3). The concentration of trichloroethylene in venous blood was followed throughout the experiment. The mean pulmonary uptake was estimated. Each test person was also subjected to a control experiment, breathing air free of trichloroethylene. A decreased ability to visually suppress the vestibulo-oculomotor reflex during sinusoidal stimulation was noticed during trichloroethylene exposure. One hour after exposure the test subjects showed a decreased maximum velocity of the voluntary saccade and a decreased ability to follow a sinusoidally moving target.

     

  • 9.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Methods for studying the vestibular and optomotor system in rats1986In: Claussen C-F, Kirtane MV, editors. Vertigo, nausea,tinnitus and hearing loss in cardiovasculr disease.: Elsevier SciencePublishers B.V.; 1986 / [ed] Claussen C-F, Kirtane MV, 1986, p. 265-268Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    The effect of toluene on the vestibulo- and opto-oculomotor system in rats: A computerized nystagmographic study1986In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 101, no 5-6, p. 422-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The short-term effect of exposure to toluene on the vestibulo- and opto-oculomotor system in rats was investigated. Stimulation of the vestibulo- and opto-oculomotor system was either a constant rotatory acceleration, a sinusoidal oscillation, a randomized oscillation or an optokinetic stimulation. Eye movements in response to the different stimulations were recorded by EOG and fed into a computer for analysis. Due to toluene exposure the slow phase velocity gain during constant acceleration increased and the post-acceleratory nystagmus response was prolonged. The optokinetic gain at stimulation velocities above 10 deg/sec decreased during toluene exposure. Toluene also prolonged the duration of optokinetic after-and after-afternystagmus. The findings in this study strongly suggest an effect of toluene on the cerebellum.

     

  • 11.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Balanspåverkan av industriella lösningsmedel1981In: Nordisk Otolaryngologisk Förenings XXI kongress, Åbo 16.8-19.8 1981, 1981, p. 98-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Influence on the vestibular system by industrial solvents1982In: Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum, ISSN 0365-5237, E-ISSN 1651-2464, Vol. 93, no s386, p. 246-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Vestibulo-oculomotor effects of toluene on noulectomized rats1987Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bunnfors, Irja
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Exposure of rabbits to styrene. Electronystagmographic findings correlated to the styrene level in blood and cerebrospinal fluid1978In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 60-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective methods for critically evaluating the toxic effect of industrial solvents are highly desirable. As many of these solvents are suspected to cause vertigo, an animal experimental model was set up for studying the effects of solvents on the vestibular systems. The vestibular function was studied by registration of involuntary eye movements--nystagmus--which are elicited via central vestibulo-oculomotor connections. During exposure to styrene a so-called positional nystagmus was demonstrated that indicated vestibular disturbances. Nystagmus is normally elicited by rotatory acceleration. During exposure to styrene the direction of this rotatory nystagmus was reversed. The incidence of the positional nystagmus correlated well with the blood level of the solvent, measured by gas chromatography. Kinetic studies also demonstrated a rapid equilibration between the level of the solvent in arterial blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and therefore suggested that estimation of the arterial level reliably indicates the level in the central nervous system.

  • 15.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Norlander, Björn
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Aschan, Gunnar
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Rubin, A.
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Exposure of rabbits to methylchloroform. Vestibulardisturbances correlated to blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels1978In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 7-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previously described experimental model for studying the effects on the central nervous system of rabbits, specifically the vestibular apparatus, has been applied to methylchloroform. To achieve a steady concentration the solvent was infused as a lipid emulsion. The blood and cerebrospinal fluid kinetics have been studied. The arterial blood level seems to be closely correlated to the concentration in the central nervous tissue. Vestibular function has been studied by recording the involuntary eye movements — nystagmus — which are elicited via central vestibulo-oculomotor connections. At blood levels of methylchloroform above 75 ppm a so called “positional nystagmus”, indicated vestibular disturbances, is demonstrated. The relationship between the present findings in rabbits and the reaction and blood concentrations in people exposed to industrial solvents, are discussed.

  • 16.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Optokinetic disturbances caused by styrene. An experimental study in rabbit1995In: NES, 1995;8, 1995, p. 433-441Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Rubin, Allan
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    Linköping University.
    Industriella lösningsmedels inverkan på balansapparaten1977In: Svensk Otolaryngol förening, ISSN 0280-7939, Vol. 1, p. 43-44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18. Magnusson, AK
    et al.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery .
    The GABA-b antagonist CGP 36742 has decompensatory effects on vestibulo-oculomotor behaviour in pigmented rats with a unilateral vestibular lesion.2000In: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 12, p. 143-143Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Magnusson, Anna K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effects of the GABA agonists baclofen and THIP on long-term compensation in hemilabyrinthectomised rats1998In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 795, no 1-2, p. 307-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horizontal eye movements, elicited by sinusoidal rotation in darkness, were recorded with a magnetic search coil technique in pigmented rats, hemilabyrinthectomised 8–12 weeks before the investigation. Separate gains during rotation towards the lesioned side (LS) and the intact side (IS) were calculated by a computer program, demonstrating an asymmetry. Systemic single administration of the GABAB agonist baclofen caused a dose-related temporary rebalancing of the compensatory eye movements to the LS and the IS. At an optimal dose of 14 μmol/kg b.wt symmetry was achieved by excitation of eye movements during rotation to the LS and depression during rotation to the IS. Administration of the GABAA agonist THIP did not obviously reduce the asymmetry. It is suggested that stimulation of GABAB receptors modifies the tonic imbalance between the bilateral vestibular nuclei and/or the central processing of the input from the peripheral sensory organs.

  • 20. Magnusson, Anna K
    et al.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery.
    Reversible and controlled peripheral vestibular loss by continuous infusion of ropivacaine (Narop®) into the round window niche of rats2006In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 400, no 1-2, p. 16-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method for achieving a peripheral vestibular blockade in rats by instillation of local anaesthetics over the round window membrane through a permanently implanted cannula. Being rapidly reversible, the effect of the anaesthetic drug is easily controlled by a single continuous infusion, which can be repeated at any time. The method offers a unique opportunity to study the consequence of single or repeated transient vestibular loss without any use of general anaesthetics, which may be a severe confounding factor. Such studies might shed light on balance disorders related to permanent vestibular loss or episodic vestibular dysfunction. To evaluate the method, spontaneous horizontal eye movements were recorded during the first 4 h of continuous infusion. Unilateral infusion of ropivacaine gave rise to a high-frequency spontaneous nystagmus, reaching levels that have not been documented after a surgical labyrinthectomy under general anaesthesia. This vestibulo-oculomotor behaviour is consistent with a previous report using a single intratympanic instillation of lidocaine to achieve a short-lasting vestibular blockade. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the initial high-frequency nystagmus decreased during the first 100 min of infusion before stabilizing at the same level as recorded when the effect of general anaesthesia has worn off after a surgical ablation. When the transient vestibular blockade was repeated by a second infusion during the following day, the nystagmus frequency saturated on a significantly lower level than during the first blockade. Also, serial single infusions, with recovery between each functional vestibular loss, gave rise to a less severe nystagmus. It is suggested that this phenomenon is an expression of the behavioural concept of 'vestibular habituation', the neural substrate of which is rather unknown. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Magnusson, Anna K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vestibulo-Oculomotor Behavior in Rats after a Transient Unilateral Vestibular Loss Induced by Lidocaine2003In: THE OCULOMOTOR AND VESTIBULAR SYSTEMS: THEIR FUNCTION AND DISORDERS / [ed] Thomas Brandt, Bernard Cohen, and Christoph Siebold, New York, NY, USA: New York Academy of Sciences, 2003, Vol. 1004, p. 422-423Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Magnusson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Sivert
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    GABAB receptors contribute to vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy in pigmented rats2000In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 134, no 1, p. 32-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex was studied in pigmented rats, which had been unilaterally, chemically labyrinthectomised 6–144 days previously. During this partially compensated stage after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL), both static and dynamic deficits remain. The former was evaluated by recording of spontaneous eye movements in darkness, and the latter by estimating the slow-phase velocity (SPV) gain of compensatory eye movements during horizontal vestibular stimulation. The GABAB agonist baclofen caused a reversal of the remaining ipsilesional drift of the eyes in darkness into a nystagmus with a contralesional slow phase. The GABAB antagonist CGP 36742 caused a decompensation by exaggerating the remaining ipsilesional eye drift. Further, baclofen equilibrated or reversed the asymmetry between ipsi- and contralesional SPV gains during horizontal sinusoidal rotations at 0.2 Hz and 0.8 Hz. This was achieved by an increase in the ipsilesional gain and a decrease in the contralesional gain. The phase lead during sinusoidal rotation (0.2 Hz) was larger following rotation to the lesioned side than to the intact side in UL rats. This asymmetry was reversed by baclofen. CGP 36742 inhibited the effects of baclofen, while the antagonist per se aggravated SPV gain and phase lead asymmetries in UL rats during vestibular stimulation. Per- and post-rotatory nystagmus induced by velocity step stimulation revealed an imperfect velocity-storage function in UL animals, which was modulated by baclofen. An investigation of the baclofen effect on SPV gain asymmetry during different time intervals after chemical UL showed a completely developed effect on the 6th day. Bilateral flocculectomy did not alter the effects of baclofen on UL animals. It is concluded that physiological stimulation of GABAB receptors contributes to minimise the vestibulo-oculomotor asymmetry during the partially compensated period after UL. Administration of an agonist or an antagonist changes the asymmetry towards the ipsi- or contralesional side, possibly by altering the spontaneous neuronal activity in the bilateral medial vestibular nuclei. The results are compatible with a hypothesis, supported by in vitro slice experiments, that the efficacy of GABAB receptors is up-regulated on the ipsilesional side and down-regulated on the contralesional side.

  • 23.
    Magnusson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vestibulo-oculomotor behaviour in rats following a transient unilateral vestibular loss induced by lidocaine2003In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 120, no 4, p. 1105-1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a transient vestibular nerve blockade, achieved by intra-tympanic instillation of lidocaine, were studied in rats by recording horizontal eye movements in darkness. Evaluation of the dose-response relationship showed that a maximal effect was attained with a concentration of 4% lidocaine. Within 15 min of lidocaine instillation, a vigorous spontaneous nystagmus was observed which reached maximal frequency and velocity of the slow phase after about 20 min. Subsequently, the nystagmus failed for approximately half an hour before it reappeared. This could be avoided by providing visual feedback in between the recordings in darkness or by a contralateral instillation of 2.5% lidocaine. It is suggested that the failure reflects an overload of the vestibulo-oculomotor circuits.

    After recovery from the nerve blockade, when the gaze was stable, dynamic vestibular tests were performed. They revealed that a decrease of the slow phase velocity gain and the dominant time constant during, respectively, sinusoidal- and step stimulation toward the unanaesthetised side, had developed with the nerve blockade. These modulations were impaired by a nodulo-uvulectomy but not by bilateral flocculectomy, which is consistent with the concept of vestibular habituation.

    A GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP 56433A, given systemically during the nerve blockade, aggravated the vestibular asymmetry. The same effect has previously been demonstrated in both short- (days) and long-term (months) compensated rats, by antagonising the GABAB receptor.

    In summary, this study provides the first observations of vestibulo-oculomotor disturbances during the first hour after a rapid and transient unilateral vestibular loss in the rat. By using this method, it is possible to study immediate behavioural consequences and possible neural changes that might outlast the nerve blockade.

  • 24.
    Magnusson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ulfendahl, M.
    Institute for Hearing and Communication Research and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Early compensation of vestibulo-oculomotor symptoms after unilateral vestibular loss in rats is related to GABAB receptor function2002In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 625-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The horizontal vestibulo-oculomotor reflex was studied in pigmented rats during the first 5 days after a unilateral chemical or surgical vestibular deafferentation. Spontaneous eye movements in darkness and slow phase velocity gain of compensatory eye movements during horizontal sinusoidal rotation were evaluated. The most evident vestibulo-oculomotor symptom immediately after a unilateral vestibular loss was a spontaneous nystagmus, which gradually abated during the following days. Further, an asymmetry between ipsi- and contra-lesional gains was evident during sinusoidal vestibular stimulation. Single systemic doses of the GABAB receptor antagonist [3-[1-(S)-[[3-(cyclohexylmethyl)-hydroxyphosphinoyl]-2-(S)-hydroxypropyl]amino]ethyl]-benzoic acid (CGP 56433A), the agonist baclofen, or the GABAA receptor agonist (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]-pyridin-3-ol (THIP) were given at different intervals after unilateral vestibular deafferentation. CGP 56433A highly aggravated the vestibulo-oculomotor symptoms, observed as an increase in spontaneous nystagmus and slow phase velocity gain asymmetry. This effect was most pronounced during the first 2 days after unilateral vestibular loss, when CGP 56433A even decompensated the vestibular system to the extent that all vestibular responses were abolished. Baclofen caused no effect during the first days after unilateral vestibular loss, but in parallel with the abatement of spontaneous nystagmus, the drug equilibrated or even reversed the remaining spontaneous nystagmus with corresponding effects on the slow-phase velocity gain asymmetry. The effects of baclofen were very similar after both chemical and surgical deafferentation. THIP caused a slight depression of all vestibular responses. All single dose effects of the drugs were transient.

    Altogether these results reveal that endogenous stimulation of GABAB receptors in GABA-ergic vestibulo-oculomotor circuits are important for reducing the vestibular asymmetry during the early period after unilateral vestibular deafferentation. A possible role for GABAB receptors in the reciprocal inhibitory commissural pathways in the vestibular nuclei is suggested.

  • 25.
    Möller, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University.
    Bergholtz, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Otoneurological findings in workers exposed to styrene1990In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 189-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An otoneurological test battery was administered to 18 workers with long-term exposure (6-15 years) to styrene at levels well below the current Swedish limit (110 mg/m3). The results were compared with those of a reference group. Disturbances were found in the central auditory pathways of seven workers. Tests reflecting central processing of impulses from different sensory equilibrium organs were abnormal for 16 workers. The most relevant tests seemed to be static posturography and the rotatory visual suppression test. In the posturography the styrene group had a significantly larger sway area than the reference group. In the visual suppression test, the styrene workers displayed a significantly poorer ability to suppress vestibular nystagmus than the reference group. It was concluded that styrene exposure in industrial environments at moderate or low levels causes central nervous system disturbances which are not always diagnosable with psychometric tests but can be apparent in special otoneurological tests.

  • 26.
    Möller, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University.
    Bergholtz, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Otoneurologiska fynd hos styren-exponerade arbetare1990In: Sv Otolaryngol förening Vårmöte 1990, 1990Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Niklasson, Magnus
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Effects of GABAB activation and inhibition on vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic responses in the pigmented rat1994In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 649, no 1-2, p. 151-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of the GABAB agonist baclofen and the GABAB antagonist CGP 35348, given separately or simultaneously, on the central vestibular system of pigmented rats have been evaluated. Drugs were administered either intramuscularly or intracerebroventricularly. Eye movements were recorded during vestibular, optokinetic and combined visual-vestibular stimulation. Activation of the GABAB receptors by baclofen caused a dose related disturbance of the system, manifested by (1) a decrease of the optokinetic gain, (2) a reduced ability to suppress nystagmus during conflicting vestibular and visual input, and (3) a disability to maintain the eccentric eye position upon a spontaneous saccade. All these effects could be inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by CGP 35348, suggesting that the findings are specifically related to the GABAB receptor. Given separately, the antagonist did not affect the mentioned parameters. During horizontal acceleratory/deceleratory stimulation in darkness baclofen caused a biphasic pattern in the dose-response curves. Small amounts of baclofen caused an increase of the gain and of the duration of poststimulatory nystagmus, while high doses had a depressive action on the same parameters. The stimulating effect of baclofen could be inhibited or even reversed by CGP 35348, which has a depressive effect per se, similar to the effects of baclofen given in the upper range of doses.

  • 28.
    Niklasson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effects of toluene, styrene, trichloroethylene, and trichloroethane on the vestibulo- and opto-oculo motor system in rats1993In: Neurotoxicology and Teratology, ISSN 0892-0362, E-ISSN 1872-9738, ISSN ISSN 0892-0362, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 327-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acute effects of inhalation of four solvents on the central vestibular system of rats were analyzed by recording eye movements upon different stimuli. The dose-response relationship was investigated. Optokinetic stimulation was obtained by placing the animals in front of a surrounding visual pattern, moving at different velocities. The slow-phase eye velocity (SPV) of nystagmus was calculated and divided by the stimulus velocity, giving the gain. All the solvents caused a decrease of the gain. Vestibular stimulation was performed on a turntable by an angular acceleration/deceleration in darkness. The SPV and the duration of the post-stimulatory nystagmus were calculated. The shape of the SPV dose-response curves differed among the four solvents. Toluene, styrene, and trichloroethylene prolonged the duration of nystagmus while trichloroethane did not. A conflicting vestibular and optokinetic stimulation was performed by an angular acceleration/deceleration with a surrounding visual pattern moving with the turntable. All solvents decreased the ability to cancel nystagmus, elicited by vestibular stimulation in conflict with a visual input. Quick movements of the eyes, saccades, were elicited by tactile stimulation. Toluene, styrene, and trichloroethylene changed the generation of the saccades while trichloroethane did not. Most of the findings indicate a common site of action in the central vestibular system, viz., the cerebellar-vestibular circuit. However, within this domain, there are evident differences in the effects among the solvents. This finding, together with previous results obtained in other experimental models of the central nervous system (CNS), suggest that different solvents should be considered as individual compounds. While the current results are consistent with the notion that solvents affect cerebellar-vestibular function, they also demonstrate differences on selected components of this system which may be of concern.

  • 29.
    Niklasson, Magnus
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    The effects of toluene, trichloroethylene, trichlorethane and styrene on the vestibulo- and opto-ocular motor system in rats1992In: 17th Bárány Society Meeting, 1992Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Niklasson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden..
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden..
    The influence of visual and somatosensory input on the vestibulo-oculomotor reflex of pigmented rats1991In: Journal of Vestibular Research-Equilibrium & Orientation, ISSN 0957-4271, E-ISSN 1878-6464, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 251-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye movements were recorded in the pigmented rat during vestibular, optokinetic and combined visual-vestibular stimulation. The dominant time constant in pigmented rats, tested during angular vestibular stimulation in darkness, is about two times longer than the cupular time constant. The gain and the duration of nystagmus, achieved by angular vestibular stimulation, can be enhanced by visual impulses. This is most evident during an optokinetic temporonasal stimulation, but is also seen with a nasotemporal stimulation. A mere optokinetic monocular stimulation without a synchronous vestibular excitation causes nystagmus only when the stimuli has a temporonasal direction. The duration of nystagmus, achieved by angular vestibular stimulation, is prolonged by disturbances of the neck proprioceptive system. This is more evident during a simultaneous visual input than in darkness. The ability to cancel nystagmus during conflicting vestibular and optokinetic impulses is well developed in the pigmented rat.

  • 31.
    Niklasson, Magnus
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Vestibulär forskning: Råttan som försöksmodell1990In: Sv Otolaryngol förening Vårmöte 1990, 1990Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Nylén, Per
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Hagman, Maud
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Höglund, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Auditory and vestibular function in rats after simultaneous exposure to toluene and ethanol1992In: Aktuell arbetsmiljöforskning 1992(1):44, 1992, p. 44-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Nylén, Per
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Hagman, Maud
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Höglund, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Auditory and vestibular function in rats after simultaneous exposure to toluene and ethanol1991In: Third Meeting of the International neurotoxicology association, 1991, p. 65-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Nylén, Per
    et al.
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Solna, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Ann-Christin
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Solna, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Höglund, Gunnar
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Solna, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vestibular-oculomotor, opto-oculomotor and visual function in the rat after long-term inhalation exposure to toluene1991In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pigmented rats were exposed to toluene (1000 ppm, 21 h/day) for 6 or 11 weeks. The function of the vestibulo- and opto-oculomotor systems was tested one month after the end of the exposure by recording of nystagmus, induced by vestibular or optokinetic stimuli. The eye movements were recorded by a magnetic search coil technique. The optokinetic gain in the exposed animals was reduced compared to a control group. There was also a slight reduction in gain during sinusoidal oscillatory vestibular stimulation. No effect of the toluene exposure on the gain or duration of nystagmus during acceleratory or deceleratory rotatory stimulation was demonstrated, nor was there any change in the duration of the optokinetic after-nystagmus. The function of the visual system was tested 2 to 5 days after exposure by recording the electroretinogram and the visual evoked response. The conduction velocity in peripheral nerve was also measured. No effect of the toluene exposure on these variables was seen. The results indicate that long-term inhalation of toluene causes a long-lasting, possibly permanent, lesion within the vestibulo-cerebellum. They gave no evidence that such exposure affects peripheral vestibular or visual function.

  • 35. Roslan Sulaiman, M.
    et al.
    Niklasson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Dutia, MB
    Modulation of vestibular function by nociceptin/orphanin FQ: an in vivo and in vitro study.1999In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 828, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Tham, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bunnfors, Irja
    Linköping University. Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, S.
    Linköping University. Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Vestibulo-ocular disturbances in rats exposed to organic solvents1984In: Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, ISSN 0001-6683, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 58-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of different kinds of industrial solvents on the vestibular function of rats has been studied by recording nystagmus, induced by accelerated rotation. The effect was related to the blood levels of the solvents. One group of solvents, including halogenated saturated hydrocarbons like dichloromethane, caused depression of the vestibulo-oculomotor reflex (VOR). Another group, including benzene compounds like xylene, toluene, styrene and cumene and halogenated unsaturated hydrocarbons like trichloroethylene caused an excitation of the VOR. The most striking chemical similarity between the different solvents in the last group is the occurence of double-bonds. If the animals were exposed simultaneously to solvents from both groups the excitatory effect prevailed and was even potentiated. It is suggested that solvents cause depression or excitation of the VOR by interaction with central pathways in the reticular formation and the cerebellum.

  • 37.
    Tham, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Bunnfors, Irja
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Electronystagmographic findings in rats exposed to styrene or toluene1982In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 93, p. 107-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previously described experimental model for studying the effect of industrial solvents in the vestibular system of rabbits has been applied to rats. To achieve a constant concentration, the solvent was infused intravenously, dissolved in a lipid emulsion. Arterial blood levels were estimated by gas chromatography. The vestibulo-oculomotor behaviour of rats during repeated rotatory acceleration was investigated by electronystagmography. The effect of two solvents-toluene and styrene-on the rotatory induced nystagmus was examined. Both solvents caused an exaggerated reaction at arterial blood  levels above 75 ppm. The investigation indicated that the rat will be suitable species for further electronystagmographic investigation of the influence of organic solvents on the vestibular system, for example in screening studies of the toxicity of these solvents.

  • 38.
    Tham, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Magnus
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting. Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    The effect of toluene on the vestibulo- and opto-oculomotor system in rats, pretreated with GABAergic drugs1990In: Neurotoxicology and Teratology, ISSN 0892-0362, E-ISSN 1872-9738, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 307-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Toluene, an aromatic solvent, prolongs the duration of nystagmus induced by a rotatory acceleration or by an optokinetic stimulation in the pigmented rat. Baclofen, an agonist of GABAB receptors, and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]-pyridin-3-ol (THIP), an agonist of GABAA receptors are able to block this toluene effect on the vestibular system. On the contrary diazepam, which by itself causes an evident reduction of the duration of acceleratory nystagmus, is not able to block the toluene effect. The results indicate that the toluene effect is related to GABA transmission and that the solvent interacts by a rather receptor specific mechanism of action.

  • 39.
    Tham, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Effects on the vestibulo- and opto-oculomotor system in rats by lesions of the commissural vestibular fibres1989In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 108, no 5-6, p. 372-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye movements were recorded from rats with a magnetic search coil system before and after sectioning of the midline commissural pathways in the brain stem at the level of the vestibular nuclei. After lesion, the findings were as follows: 1) During sinusoidal vestibular stimulation the eyes moved in a sinusoidal way similar to the head movement without any regular saccades. There was a reduced gain and a phase lead. 2) During optokinetic stimulation the eyes moved in the stimulus direction to an excentric position and stayed there until stimulation ceased. 3) During acceleratory/deceleratory rotation in the light there was a drift of the eyes in the direction of the expected slow phase movement to an excentric position. In some animals there was a directional asymmetry. The findings may be explained by a failure of the central neural integrator for horizontal eye movements. The results support the hypothesis that vestibular commissural fibres are of crucial importance for the function of this integrator system.

  • 40.
    Tham, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Pharmacokinetics of solvents in the experimental animal modell1977In: International symposium on the control of air pollution in the working environment, 1977, 1977, p. 92-98Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Tham, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Möller, Claes
    Linköping University.
    Niklasson, Magnus
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Vestibulotoxicity of organic solvents1991In: Fourth international conference on combined effect of environmental factors / [ed] Laurence D. Fechter, Johns Hopkins University , 1991, p. 101-105Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Tham, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Niklasson, Magnus
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Lesions of the commisural vestibular fibers in rats: The effect on the vestibulo- and opto-oculomotor system1988Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Tham, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional-and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional-and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional-and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Norlander, Björn
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional-and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional-and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional-and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The influence of trichlorethylene and related drugs on the vestibular system1979In: Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, ISSN 0001-6683, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 336-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previously described experimental model for studying the effect of industrial solvents on the vestibular system of rabbits has been applied to trichloroethylene. Estimation of trichloroethylene and its metabolites in blood and cerebrospinal fluid was performed by gas chromatography. Vestibular function was studied by recording nystagmus, induced by positional changes or accelerated rotation. At blood levels of trichloroethylene above 30 p.p.m. “positional nystagmus” develops. Two metabolites of trichloroethylene, chloral hydrate and trichloro-ethanol, which are known as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, did not induce this abnormal nystagmus. However, α-chloralose, a derivative of chloral hydrate, induced positional nystagmus and also a markedly exaggerated nystagmus developed during rotatory acceleration. It is suggested that solvents like trichloroethylene elicit vestibular disturbances by stimulation of central subcortical vestibulo-oculomotor connections. The stimulation may be caused by a blockage of inhibitory systems.

  • 44.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Bergholtz, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Eriksson, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Edling, Christer
    Solvent induced central nervous system disturbances appearing in hearing and vestibulo-oculomotor tests1985In: Clinical Ecology, ISSN 0735-9306, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 149-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    Linköping University.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Influence of industrial solvents on the balance system1977In: International symposium on the control of air pollution in the working environment, 1977, 1977, p. 80-87Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional-and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional-and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional-and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fredrickson, John
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Departments of Otolaryngology and Clinical Pharmacology, Regional-and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vestibular and oculomotor disturbances caused by industrial solvents1980In: Journal of Otolaryngology, ISSN 0381-6605, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrocarbon solvents, xylene, styrene, methylchloroform, and trichlorethylene, given intravenously to rabbits produce a positional nystagmus. Due to their additional influence on rotatory nystagmus, one may conclude that their mode of action takes place in the central nervous system. Optokinetic (OKN) responses in rabbits, cats, and humans were also influenced by styrene. OKN responses have not yet been tested for the other solvents. A comparison is made with the effects of alpha-chloralose and the GABA-antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin which produced similar disturbances. The GABA agonist, baclofen, prevents positional induced styrene nystagmus. It seems likely therefore that the solvents may act by blocking the cerebellar inhibition of vestibulo-oculomotor reflexes. Solvents given simultaneously in some combinations are either

  • 47.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Disturbancies of the oculomotor system caused byhydrocarbon solvents1981In: Functional basis of Ocular Motility Disorders, 1981, 1981, p. 535-536Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Aschan, Gunnar
    Linköping University. Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Regional and University Hospital, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    On the mechanisms of vestibular disturbancies caused by industrial solvents1979In: Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0065-3071, E-ISSN 1662-2847, Vol. 25, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial solvents xylene, styrene, trichloroethylene and methylchloroform administered to rabbits caused a positional nystagmus and disturbances in the nystagmus response to rotatory acceleration. The positional nystagmus had a beat direction the opposite to positional alcohol nystagmus, which was in similar experiments elicited by methanol, ethanol and propanol. The three alcohols needed a ten times higher blood concentration to cause a nystagmus than the solvents did.

  • 49.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Vestibular oculomotor dysfunction caused by solvents1982In: Nordic symposium on data processing of eye movements 1982, 1982Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University.
    Tham, Richard
    Linköping University.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Vestibulo-oculomotor disturbances caused by industrial solvents1983In: Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, ISSN 0194-5998, Vol. 91, no 5, p. 537-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal experiments show that intoxication with hydrocarbon solvents influences the vestibulo-oculomotor reflex arc and indicate that the solvents block the inhibition of the vestibulo-oculomotor reflex presumably exerted by the cerebellum. The blood concentrations necessary to elicit oculomotor disturbances in animals were smaller than those that disturbed the vestibular function. Accordingly, in human experiments styrene and toluene exposure did not elicit any positional nystagmus but caused an increased saccade speed and a diminished visual suppression of vestibular nystagmus. Some cerebellar clinical pathologic process in patients who suffer from a psycho-organic syndrome caused by solvents leads us to believe that the cerebellum might be the most vulnerable part of the brain. Some patients had a positional nystagmus, but the most prominent pathologic signs were elicited by the visual suppression test. Our findings compare well with the increased saccade speed and diminished visual suppression in patients with cerebellar tumors and infarctions

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