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  • 1.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Christiansson, Anneli
    Tekniska Verken Linkoping AB.
    Ek, Anders E. W.
    Tekniska Verken Linkoping AB.
    Ejlertsson, Jorgen
    Tekniska Verken Linkoping AB.
    Electrode specific information from voltammetric monitoring of biogas production2010In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 81, no 04-May, p. 1578-1584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensor employing pulse voltammetry monitored the liquid phase of a biogas reactor during 32 days of gas production An electrode allay consisting of stainless steel, platinum and rhodium electrodes generated current responses for a sequence of voltage pulses Plots of individual current responses against time indicated the electrochemical changes occurring in the broth from the perspective of each electrode. The responses from stainless steel had a pronounced diurnal oscillation which followed the daily introduction and consumption of substrate The current responses for platinum were in a narrow range whereas those for rhodium exhibited several minima A disturbance in the reactor caused by omission of substrate led to decreases in both gas production and current responses for all the electrodes Multivariate data evaluation of all the current responses by principal component analysis indicated the daily fluctuations for concentrations of ions and redox active compounds in the broth

  • 2.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Automatic optimization of experimental conditions for fast evaluation of diagnostic tests using ubiquitous instrumentation2008In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 134, no 1, p. 199-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid quantitative determinations of creatinine, potassium and glucose, all important parameters in routine medical diagnostics, are demonstrated using a computer screen photo-assisted technique (CSPT). CSPT uses regular computer screens as light sources and web cameras as imaging detectors for supporting optical evaluations of diverse character. The ubiquity and versatility of the setup, makes CSPT an attractive candidate for point of care determinations. A robust procedure for the automatic selection of experimental conditions in CSPT evaluation, including camera channels and illuminating colors that minimize the measuring time up to 5 times is described. The method utilizes the correlation between experimental conditions and classification scores, obtained under a generic 50 color training session, to extract measuring sequences as short as 9 s. The extracted measuring conditions automatically adapted to the different tests provided a general, practical and fast approach for CSPT optimization in real scenarios. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Generation of illuminating sequences for the computer screen photo-assisted evaluation of creatinine2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Poster på konferensen " Eurosensors XX, Göteborg, Sweden, 17-20 sept.

  • 4.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Karlsson, Susanne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Analytical Chemistry .
    Allard, E
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Photodesorption of fulvic acid from iron oxide surfaces into aqueous solutions2001In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 174, no 2, p. 166-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photodesorption of thin films of fulvic acid adsorbed on planar iron oxide surfaces was monitored by ellipsometry. Description was first observed at 546 nm, and additional fractions of the adsorbed acid left the surfaces at 405 and 365 nm Similar kinetics for photodesorption was observed from metallic iron films and from porous iron oxide prepared electrochemically by deposition on porous silicon substrates. Soluble photoproducts leaving the surface H ere monitored by UV absorbance spectroscopy at 200 nm Gaseous products were not detected by mass spectrometry but the results seemed to indicate that net all of the photoproducts entered the liquid phase. Of the metal films tested which adsorbed fulvic acid from aqueous solution (Fe. Cr, Ni, Al, and Pt), it was only iron which exhibited a photodesorption effect. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Louthander, Dan
    Senset AB, Linkoping.
    Martensson, Per
    Senset AB, Linkoping.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Billerud Skarblacka AB, Skarblacka.
    Kvist, Erland
    Billerud Skarblacka AB, Skarblacka.
    Ohrn, Margareta
    Billerud Skarblacka AB, Skarblacka.
    Krantz-Rülcker, Tina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Online monitoring of inorganic cooking chemicals in white liquor by pulse voltammetry2010In: TAPPI JOURNAL, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 49-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    White liquor parameters in the recovery area of a kraft pulp mill were monitored for a 1-year period using rhodium as an electrode material in a sensor system based on pulse voltammetry. Shift personnel performed offline titration analysis of the liquor every 4 hours. The results for effective alkali, sulfidity, and total titratable alkali were used to train and validate the sensor for online monitoring. Partial least square regression models developed from 150 reference titration results for each parameter from the first month of the study predicted concentrations for the following 11 months. Validation of the models using titration results indicated that overall relative root mean squared errors for prediction of the parameters were 3.7% for effective alkali, 3.4% for sulfidity, and 5.1% for total titratable alkali. Process stops that exposed the sensor to temperature excursions or acid washings resulted in temporary periods of poor prediction.

  • 6.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, C.
    Arla Foods.
    Martensson, P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krantz-Rülcher , Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Continuous monitoring of yoghurt fermentation using a noble metal electrode array2009In: International Journal of Food Science and Technology, ISSN 0950-5423, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 635-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electrochemical probe containing gold, platinum and rhodium working electrodes was used to monitor yoghurt production in a pilot facility. Three commercial starting cultures at 40, 42 and 44 C transformed milk having 1.5% fat content to mild yoghurt products. The electrochemical changes in the broth during fermentation were recorded as current responses from pulse voltammetry over the electrodes. Principal component analysis of the responses generated two-dimensional score plots describing the qualitative fermentation progressions. Two distinct fermentation pathways were observed leading to similar final products. The pH was recorded during the fermentations and the data was used as reference values for creating a partial least squares model for prediction of pH as an example of a quantitative application for the sensor. The relative mean squared error for validation of the model using four probes interchangeably was about 2%. The probe was constructed of materials approved for use in the food industry and did not require a standard glass reference electrode.

  • 7.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    W. Grant, Ann
    Volvo Technology, Göteborg.
    Jozsa, Peter
    Volvo Technology, Göteborg.
    Johansson, Mats
    VOLVO Cars Cororation, Göteborg.
    Fägerman, Per-Erik
    Mandalon Technologies, Linköping.
    Paaso, Jaska
    Selmic Oy, Oulu, Finland.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hammarlund, Lars
    SenSiC AB, Stockholm.
    Larsson, Andreas
    SINTEF, Oslo, Norway.
    Popovici, Eveline
    University of Iasi, Romania.
    Lutic, Doina
    University of Iasi, Romania.
    Pagel, Joakim
    Lund University, Institutionen för designvetenskaper.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Lund University, Institutionen för designvetenskaper.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Soot sensor based on thermophoresis for high sensitive soot detection in diesel exhausts2010In: IMCS13, 2010, p. 250-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindgren, David
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drinking water monitoring with voltammetric sensors2011In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 25, p. 1165-1168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed voltammetry has been applied to drinking water monitoring. This non-selective technique facilitates detection of several different threats to the drinking water. A multivariate algorithm shows that anomaly detection is possible with a minimum of false alarms. Multivariate analysis can also be used to classify different types of substances added to the drinking water. Low concentrations of sewage water contaminating the drinking water can be detected. A network of such sensors is envisaged to facilitate real-time and on-line monitoring of drinking water distribution networks.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, David
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Event Detection in Crisis Management Systems2009In: Procedia Chemistry, ISSN 1876-6196, E-ISSN 1876-6196, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1055-1058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EVENT project concerns drinking water surveillance and includes sensors and algorithms that detect anomalies in the drinking water properties, communication of the evaluated sensor data to a crises management system and presentation of information that is relevant for the end users of the crises management system. We have chosen to focus on a sensor technique based on an "electronic tongue", since this robust type of non-selective sensor, can detect a plurality of anomalies without the need of a specific sensor for each type of event. Measurements of natural variations and contamination events are presented and discussed.

  • 10.
    Francioso, L.
    et al.
    University Campus, Lecce, Italy.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Krantz-Rülcker, Tina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Siciliano, P.
    University Campus, Lecce, Italy.
    Classification of multiple defect concentrations in white wine by platinum microelectrode voltammetry2007In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 125, no 2, p. 462-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of defect pairs added to a white wine were classified by voltammetric measurements on interdigitated platinum microelectrodes using principal component analysis of the current responses. Combinations of 0, 1, 2 and 3 mM concentrations were investigated. The defect pair ascorbic acid/acetaldehyde exhibited little interaction with each other and the pair-wise concentrations were symmetrically positioned in a score plot around a center axis of equimolar concentrations. The ascorbic acid/sulfur dioxide pair exhibited a center axis for the equimolar concentrations shifted toward the 3 mM sulfur dioxide sample. The defect pair having the strongest interaction through complex formation, acetaldehyde/sulfur dioxide, had the equimolar concentrations in score plots located near the white wine control sample. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Huotari, J.
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lappalainen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Pulsed Laser Deposited Nanostructured Vanadium Oxide Thin Films Characterized as Ammonia Sensors2015In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 217, p. 22-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium oxide thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The microstructure and crystal symmetry of the deposited films were studied with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The films surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and XRD results showed that the thin film phase-structure was composed of pure orthorhombic V2O5 phase, or they had a mixed phase structure of orthorhombic V2O5 and triclinic V7O16. Surface morphology of the films consisted of nanosized particles, although in pure V2O5 films some bigger agglomerates and flakes were also seen. The conductivity based gas sensing measurements showed a clear response already at ppb-levels of NH3 and strong selectivity to ammonia was found when compared to NO and CO gases. Also, the films showed promising gas sensing behavior in cross-sensitivity measurements between NO and NH3, being able to sense ammonia even in the presence of NO. This is an important property when considering possible sensing applications to control Selective Catalytic Reduction processes, e.g. in diesel engine exhausts, where introduced ammonia, or urea, transforms nitrogen oxide gases in a catalytic converter to nitrogen and water. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Huotari, J.
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lappalainen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heinonen, E.
    Centre Microscopy and Nanotechnol, Finland.
    Miinalainen, I.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Puustinen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Synthesis of nanostructured solid-state phases of V7O16 and V2O5 compounds for ppb-level detection of ammonia2016In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 675, p. 433-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid state phase of V7O16 with separate V2O5 phase were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The crystal structure and symmetry of the deposited films were studied with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Rietveld analysis was performed to the X-ray diffraction measurement results. The surface potentials and morphologies of the films were studied with atomic force microscopy, and microstructure of the thin films was analysed by transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement results confirmed that the thin-film crystal structures varied between orthorombic V2O5 phase and another phase, triclinic V2016, previously found only in the walls of vanadium oxide nanotubes (VOx, -NT), bound together with organic amine. We have earlier presented the first results of stable and pure metal -oxide solid-state phase of V2016 manufactured from ceramic V205 target. Here we show more detailed study of these structures. The microstructure studies showed a variation on the porosity of the films according to crystal structures and also some fibre -like nanostructures were found in the films. The surface morphology depended strongly on the crystal structure and the surface potential studies showed 50 meV difference in the work function values between the phases. Compounds were found to be extremely sensitive towards ammonia, NH3, down to 40 ppb concentrations, and have shown to have the stability and selectivity to control the Selective Catalytic Reduction process, where nitrogen oxides are reduced by ammonia in, e.g. diesel exhausts.

  • 13.
    Huotari, Joni
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lappalainen, Jyrki
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vanadium Oxide Thin Films as Ammonia Sensing Material2014In: Proc. of IMCS 2014, Buenos Aires, Argentina, March 17-19, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Huotari, Joni
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Cao, Wei
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Niu, Yuran
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pankratov, Vladimir
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lappalainen, Jyrki
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huttula, Marko
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    X-ray and Raman Spectroscopy Studies of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films Used as Ammonia Sensors2014In: Proc. E-MRS 2014, Lille, France, May 26-30, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Iqbal, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Colorimetric analysis of water and sand samples performed on a mobile phone2011In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 1118-1123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of water and sand samples was done by reflectance measurements using a mobile phone. The phone’s screen served as light source and front view camera as detector. Reflected intensities for white, red, green and blue colors were used to do principal component analysis for classification of several compounds and their concentrations in the water. Classification of iron (III), chromium (VI) and sodium salt of humic acid was obtained using reflected intensities from blue and green light for concentrations 2-10 mg/l. Analysis of As(III) from 25-400 μg/l based on reflection of red light was performed utilizing the bleaching reaction of tincture of iodine containing starch. Enhanced sensitivity to low concentrations of arsenic was obtained by adding reflected intensities from white light to the analysis. Model colored sand samples representing discoloration caused by the presence of arsenic in groundwater were also analyzed.

  • 16.
    Iqbal, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bjorklund, Robert B.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of a mobile phone for use as a spectroscopic analytical tool for foods and beverages2011In: International journal of food science & technology, ISSN 0950-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2621, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 2428-2436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mobile phone was used to perform optical analyses of foods and beverages. The phone’s screen served as illumination source and front view camera recorded images. Reflected intensities were used to discriminate among the different samples analysed by principal component analysis. Samples studied illustrated the technique’s potential analytical capabilities with respect to adulteration and authenticity. Three coloured additives (red, green and blue) in the concentration range 2-10 mg/l in a lemon lime beverage were discriminated. Adulteration by up to 25% water of milk with 3% fat content was detected with an estimated detection limit of about 3% water. Changes occurring on a green onion surface over a 48 h aging period at room temperature were monitored. Five different cuts from lamb carcasses weighing 9 and 14 kg were classified by the method. Considerable additional work with regard to sampling, data treatment and quantifying results is necessary before the goal of using the technique as a point of purchase analytical tool can be realised.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Andreas
    et al.
    SINTEF ICT.
    Storstrom, Olav
    SINTEF ICT.
    Tollefsen Seip, Torleif
    SINTEF ICT.
    Hjelstuen, Magnus
    SINTEF ICT.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Mats L
    Institute Volvo Car Corp.
    Grant, Ann
    Volvo Technology Corp.
    Jozsa, Peter
    Volvo Technology Corp.
    Faegerman, Per-Erik
    Mandalon Technol AB.
    Paaso, Jaska
    Selm Oy.
    Hammarlund, Lars
    SenSiC.
    Thermal Management System for Particle Sensors Design, Performance and Verification2012In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 2299-2305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the thermal performance of a proposed thermal management device (patented in 2009) intended for a thermophoresis-based soot sensor. The performance was studied for temperatures ranging from 50 to 400 degrees C and for exhaust speeds up to 10 m/s. It also presents the design and basic concepts. The performance study and design development were performed with finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA results were then verified with experiments in a heated wind tunnel. The relative performance of the device was found to increase for higher temperatures and lower wind speeds. The main conclusion drawn from this paper was that it is feasible to cool a sensor surface enough for a thermophoresis-based soot sensor in a diesel exhaust system.

  • 18.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darmastuti, Zhafira
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bur, Christian
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Huotari, Joni
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Jantunen, Heli
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lindqvist, Niclas
    Alstom Power AB, Växjö, Sweden.
    Improved chemical sensors track and control emissions2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Sensitive, low-cost silicon carbide-based gas sensors can detect toxic emissions and hazardous nanoparticulate matter in previously untenable environments.

  • 19.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darmastuti, Zhafira
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bur, Christian
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Huotari, Joni
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindqvist, Niclas
    Alstom Power AB, Växjö, Sweden.
    Lappalainen, Jyrki
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Jantunen, Heli
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chemical sensor systems for environmental and emission control2013In: Proc. SPIE Defence, Security + Sensors, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on environment and health aspects, the importance of monitoring and controlling dangerous gases and particulate matter increases. For this purpose we present a new version of silicon carbide based gas sensors with improved properties and suitable for high temperature and harsh environments such as power plants or car exhausts. Development of sulfur dioxide sensors for a power plant application is described as well as sensors for detection of ammonia in connection with the SCR process where urea is converted to ammonia, which reduces nitric oxide components in the exhausts. We also describe progress on nanoparticle detection, especially related to detection of the content of adsorbed particles through heating and detection of emitted molecules by a sensor array. Some results are also presented from impedance spectroscopy for detection of the concentration of nanoparticles but with the potential to reveal more details about the particles such as shape and kind of particles. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  • 20.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huotari, Joni
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bur, Christian
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lappalainen, Jyrki
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Jantunen, Heli
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chemical sensor systems for emission control from combustions2013In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 187, no SI, p. 184-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and health concern has increased the importance to monitor and control emissions like toxic gases and particulate matter from combustion processes. The silicon carbide-field effect transistor (SiC-FET) technology offers versatile and powerful sensors for gas detection also in combination with combustion of particles. Emission control has been demonstrated e. g. for small and medium sized power plants and diesel exhausts. The potential danger of nanoparticles makes such detectors interesting not only for detection of concentration and size of particles but also detection of the content of particles. Due to the possibility of operating the sensor devices in different independent modes (e. g. temperature- and bias-modulated) the SiC-FET technology also lends itself for the future development of sensor adaptation, self-diagnosis and auto calibration, which is expected to improve the performance of such a combined gas/particle sensor system. Here we report progress on the sensor technology itself, the application of a sensor system as an alarm for ammonia emission and preliminary results of particle detection in diesel exhausts and particles from a power plant and a steel plant.

  • 21.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pearce, Ruth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buchholt, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    FET sensor devices, state of the art research and commercialization2010In: IMCS13, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lutic, Doina
    et al.
    University of Iasi, Romania.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Lund University.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Josza, Peter
    Volvo Technology, Göteborg.
    Visser, Jacobus
    Ford, Dearborn, USA.
    Grant, Ann W
    Volvo Technology, Göteborg.
    Johansson, Mats L
    Volvo Cars Corporation, Göteborg.
    Paaso, Jaska
    Selmic Oy, Finland.
    Fägerman, Per-Erik
    Mandalon Technologies AB.
    Sanati, Mehri
    Lund University.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Detection of Soot Using a Resistivity Sensor Device Employing Thermophoretic Particle Deposition2010In: Journal of Sensors, Vol. 2010, no 421072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results are reported for thermophoretic deposition of soot particles on resistivity sensors as a monitoring technique for diesel exhaust particles with the potential of improved detection limit and sensitivity. Soot with similar characteristics as from diesel exhausts was generated by a propane flame and diluted in stages. The soot in a gas flow at 240–270C∘ was collected on an interdigitated electrode structure held at a considerably lower temperature, 105–125C∘. The time delay for reaching measurable resistance values, the subsequent rate, and magnitude of resistance decrease were a function of the distance between the fingers in the electrodes and the degree of dilution of the soot containing flow. Soot deposition and subsequent removal by heating the sensor support was also performed in a real diesel exhaust. Good similarities between the behavior in our laboratory system and the real diesel exhaust were noticed.

  • 23.
    Malik, A
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Abdulhamid, H
    Lund University.
    Pagels, J
    Lund University.
    Rissler, J
    Lund University.
    Lindskog, M
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P
    Lund University.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jozsa, P
    Volvo Technology Corp.
    Visser, J
    Ford Motor Co.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sanati, M
    Lund University.
    A Potential Soot Mass Determination Method from Resistivity Measurement of Thermophoretically Deposited Soot2011In: AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0278-6826, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 284-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Miniaturized detection systems for nanometer-sized airborne particles are in demand, for example in applications for onboard diagnostics downstream particulate filters in modern diesel engines. A soot sensor based on resistivity measurements was developed and characterized. This involved generation of soot particles using a quenched co-flow diffusion flame; depositing the particles onto a sensor substrate using thermophoresis and particle detection using a finger electrode structure, patterned on thermally oxidized silicon substrate. The generated soot particles were characterized using techniques including Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer for mobility size distributions, Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass analyzer for the mass-mobility relationship, and Transmission Electron Microscopy for morphology. The generated particles were similar to particles from diesel engines in concentration, mobility size distribution, and mass fractal dimension. The primary particle size, effective density and organic mass fraction were slightly lower than values reported for diesel engines. The response measured with the sensors was largely dependent on particle mass concentration, but increased with increasing soot aggregate mobility size. Detection down to cumulative mass as small as 20-30 mu g has been demonstrated. The detection limit can be improved by using a more sensitive resistance meter, modified deposition cell, larger flow rates of soot aerosol and modifying the sensor surface.

  • 24.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Krantz-Rülcher, Christina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Ostergren, K
    Skoglund, T
    An electronic tongue in the dairy industry2005In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 111, p. 299-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of electronic tongues or taste sensors has developed rapidly during recent years due to their large potential. They are based on electrochemical sensors combined with multivariate data analysis. Voltammetric electronic tongues have proven valuable in many applications. Due to their ruggedness and simplicity, they have been found especially suitable for on-line monitoring of industrial processes. A voltammetric electronic tongue, specially designed for use in the dairy industry is described. It consisted of four working electrodes (gold, platinum, rhodium and stainless steel), embedded in PEEK (TM). It was mounted in a housing of stainless steel, which was inserted in the process line for direct on-line measurements. The voltammetric electronic tongue was used to follow different sources of milk coming into the process and to monitor the cleaning process. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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