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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Bottom-up driven speechreading in a speechreading expert: The case of AA (JK023)2005In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 214-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This case study tested the threshold hypothesis (Rönnberg et al., 1998), which states that superior speechreading skill is possible only if high-order cognitive functions, such as capacious verbal working memory, enable efficient strategies. Design: In a case study, a speechreading expert (AA) was tested on a number of speechreading and cognitive tasks and compared with control groups (z scores). Sentence-based speechreading tests, a word-decoding test, and a phoneme identification task were used to assess speechreading skill at different analytical levels. The cognitive test battery used included tasks of working memory (e.g., reading span), inference-making, phonological processing (e.g., rhyme-judgment), and central-executive functions (verbal fluency, Stroop task). Results: Contrary to previous cases of extreme speechreading skill, AA excels on both low-order (phoneme identification: z = +2.83) and high-order (sentence-based: z = +8.12 and word-decoding: z = +4.21) speechreading tasks. AA does not display superior verbal inference-making ability (sentence-completion task: z = -0.36). Neither does he possess a superior working memory (reading span: z = +0.80). However, AA outperforms the controls on two measures of executive retrieval functions, the semantic (z = +3.77) and phonological verbal fluency tasks (z = +3.55). Conclusions: The performance profile is inconsistent with the threshold hypothesis. Extreme speechreading accuracy can be obtained in ways other than via well-developed high-order cognitive functions. It is suggested that AA's extreme speechreading skill, which capitalizes on low-order functions in combination with efficient central executive functions, is due to early onset of hearing impairment. Copyright © 2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bottom-Up Driven Speechreading in a Speechreading Expert: The Case of AA.2005In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, p. 214-224Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Moller, Claes
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Cognitive skills and reading in adults with Usher syndrome type 22015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate working memory (WM), phonological skills, lexical skills, and reading comprehension in adults with Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2). Design: The participants performed tests of phonological processing, lexical access, WM, and reading comprehension. The design of the test situation and tests was specifically considered for use with persons with low vision in combination with hearing impairment. The performance of the group with USH2 on the different cognitive measures was compared to that of a matched control group with normal hearing and vision (NVH). Study Sample: Thirteen participants with USH2 aged 21-60 years and a control group of 10 individuals with NVH, matched on age and level of education. Results: The group with USH2 displayed significantly lower performance on tests of phonological processing, and on measures requiring both fast visual judgment and phonological processing. There was a larger variation in performance among the individuals with USH2 than in the matched control group. Conclusion: The performance of the group with USH2 indicated similar problems with phonological processing skills and phonological WM as in individuals with long-term hearing loss. The group with USH2 also had significantly longer reaction times, indicating that processing of visual stimuli is difficult due to the visual impairment. These findings point toward the difficulties in accessing information that persons with USH2 experience, and could be part of the explanation of why individuals with USH2 report high levels of fatigue and feelings of stress (Wahlqvist et al., 2013).

  • 4.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fonologiska och lexikala färdigheter samt arbetsminneskapacitet hos barn med ushers syndrom typ 1 och cochleaimplantat2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro Universitetssjukhus, audiologiskt forskningscentrum, Örebro Universitet.
    Reading skill in five children with Usher Syndrome type 1 and Cochlear implants2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore and describe reading skill in children with Usher syndrome type 1 and who have cochlear implants (USH1+CI), and to position their performance in relation to that of three control groups: children with normal hearing (NH), children with hearing impairment and hearing aids (HI+HA), and children with other types of deafness and CI (other CI).

    Method: Reading comprehension and decoding was measured in five children with USH1+CI in the ages 7.5–16 years. The children participated during a test session of 2–2.5 hours and performed tests including reading skill, WM, phonological skills, and lexical skills.

    Results: Four of the children with USH1+CI achieved results similar to those of the control group with NH on the measures of reading skill. One child with USH1+CI performed below all control groups. Three of the children with USH1+CI had high performance on both the measures of phonological skill and on the tests of reading skill. The groups perform similar results on the tests of reading skill.

    Conclusions: Three of the children with USH1+CI decode non-words with a phonological decoding strategy, similar to the strategy applied by the control group with NH. Two of the children with USH1+CI relied on an orthographic decoding strategy, possibly relying on other cognitive skills than the phonological strategy.

  • 6.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Möller, Claes
    Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cognitive skills in children with Usher syndrome type 1 and cochlear implants2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro Universitetssjukhus, audiologiskt forskningscentrum, Örebro Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ongoing project: Phonological and lexical skills, and working memory in children with Usher type 1 and CI2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro Universitetssjukhus, audiologiskt forskningscentrum, Örebro Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phonological skills and working memory in children with C1 and Usher typ 12012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ushers syndrom (USH) innebär hörselnedsättning/dövhet i kombination med Retinitis Pigmentosa och, i två av de tre kliniska typer som finns, ingen eller gradvis förlust av balansfunktion. Det är den vanligaste orsaken till dövblindhet och har varit i fokus i många studier med molekylära, fysiologiska och funktionella konsekvenser av de genetiska mutationerna. Det finns dock få studier med inriktning mot kognitiva aspekter. Föreliggande studie har undersökt kognition med tydlig koppling till hörsel och talspråk hos barn med Ushers syndrom typ 1 och cochleaimplantat.

    Metod: Sju barn i åldrarna 7.5-16 år, med bekräftad USH1-diagnos och CI, deltog i studien. Deltagarnas prestation på 10 test, riktade mot fonologiska och lexikala färdigheter samt arbetsminne, jämfördes mot tre kontrollgrupper: barn med normal hörsel, barn med hörselnedsättning och hörapparat, samt barn med icke-syndromal dövhet och cochleaimplantat.

    Resultat och slutsats: Liksom i tidigare studier av barn med CI når gruppen med USH1 och CI inte samma nivå avseende fonologiska och lexikala färdigheter, samt presterar signifikant lägre avseende fonologiskt arbetsminne än barn med normal hörsel. Resultaten från föreliggande studie visar dock att deltagarna med USH1 generellt har högre prestationsnivå än andra barn med CI, och presterar på en liknande nivå som barn med hörselnedsättning och hörapparat.

  • 9.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro Universitetssjukhus, audiologiskt forskningscentrum, Örebro Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phonological skills and working memory in children with CI and Usher type I2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with CI have a distinctive pattern of development of phonological skills (Wass, 2010). Previous research (Spencer & Tomblin, 2009; Wass et al., 2009) has shown that deaf children with CI perform on par with children with normal hearing on some cognitive tasks, whereas they have a significantly lower performance level than children with normal hearing on tasks with high demands on phonological processing. The present project aims to examine phonological skills and working memory capacity in children with Usher type 1 and compare their performance with deaf children with CI and nonsyndromal deafness, with children with normal hearing and children with hearing impairment. Few studies have focused on cognitive development in children with Usher syndrome type I and there is a lack of knowledge on whether the deafness and the co-existing visual condition have an impact on cognitive development and the spoken language development which is an outcome of the CI. Six children with Usher syndrome type I, in ages 6-14 years participated in the study. Preliminary results revealed that children with Usher syndrome type I have a similar pattern of results on the tests as the comparison group of children with CI.

  • 10.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro Universitetssjukhus, audiologiskt forskningscentrum, Örebro Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phonological skills and working memory in children with Usher type 1 and C12012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro Universitetssjukhus, audiologiskt forskningscentrum, Örebro Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Cognitive skills in children with Usher syndrome type 1 and cochlear implants2012In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 76, no 10, p. 1449-1457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Usher syndrome is a genetic condition causing deaf-blindness and is one of the most common causes of syndromic deafness. Individuals with USH1 in Sweden born during the last 15 years have typically received cochlear implants (CI) as treatment for their congenital, profound hearing loss. Recent research in genetics indicate that the cause of deafness in individuals with Usher type 1 (USH1) could be beneficial for the outcome with cochlear implants (CI). This population has not previously been the focus of cognitive research.

    Objective: The present study aims to examine the phonological and lexical skills and working memory capacity (WMC) in children with USH1 and CI and to compare their performance with children with NH, children with hearing-impairment using hearing-aids and to children with non-USH1 deafness using CI. The participants were 7 children aged 7-16 years with USH1 and CI.

    Methods: The participants performed 10 sets of tasks measuring phonological and lexical skills and working memory capacity.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that children with USH1 and CI as a group in general have a similar level of performance on the cognitive tasks as children with hearing impairment and hearing aids. The group with USH1 and CI has a different performance profile on the tests of working memory, phonological skill and lexical skill than children with non-USH1 deafness using CI, on tasks of phonological working memory and phonological skill.

  • 12.
    Henricson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro Universitetssjukhus, audiologiskt forskningscentrum, Örebro Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Phonological skills and working memoryin children with CI and Usher type 12011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Audiovisual presentation of video-recorded stimuli at a high frame rate2014In: Behavior Research Methods, ISSN 1554-351X, E-ISSN 1554-3528, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 499-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for creating and presenting video-recorded synchronized audiovisual stimuli at a high frame rate-which would be highly useful for psychophysical studies on, for example, just-noticeable differences and gating-is presented. Methods for accomplishing this include recording audio and video separately using an exact synchronization signal, editing the recordings and finding exact synchronization points, and presenting the synchronized audiovisual stimuli with a desired frame rate on a cathode ray tube display using MATLAB and Psychophysics Toolbox 3. The methods from an empirical gating study (Moradi, Lidestam, and Ronnberg, Frontiers in Psychology 4: 359, 2013) are presented as an example of the implementation of playback at 120 fps.

  • 14.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of displayed emotion on attitude and impression formation in visual speech-reading2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 261-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two experiments on visual speech–reading, with a total of 132 normal–hearing participants, the effects of displayed emotion and task specificity on speech–reading performance, on attitude toward the task and on person impression were explored, as well as associations between speech–reading performance, attitude, and person impression. The results show that displayed emotion increased speech–reading performance and attitude ratings, and that the actor was perceived as more extraverted both when displaying emotions, and when his speech was high in specificity. The main conclusion was that displayed emotion enhances speech–reading performance by providing information that is useful to the speech–reader.

  • 15.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Semantic Framing of Speech: Emotional and Topical Cues in Perception of Poorly Specified Speech2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis was to test the effects of paralinguistic (emotional) and prior contextual (topical) cues on perception of poorly specified visual, auditory, and audiovisual speech. The specific purposes were to (1) examine if facially displayed emotions can facilitate speechreading performance; (2) to study the mechanism for such facilitation; (3) to map information-processing factors that are involved in processing of poorly specified speech; and (4) to present a comprehensive conceptual framework for speech perception, with specification of the signal being considered. Experi¬mental and correlational designs were used, and 399 normal-hearing adults participated in seven experiments. The main conclusions are summarised as follows. (a) Speechreading can be facilitated by paralinguistic information as constituted by facial displayed emotions. (b) The facilitatory effect of emitted emotional cues is mediated by their degree of specification in transmission and ambiguity as percepts; and by how distinct the perceived emotions combined with topical cues are as cues for lexical access. (c) The facially displayed emotions affect speech perception by conveying semantic cues; no effect via enhanced articulatory distinctiveness, nor of emotion-related state in the perceiver is needed for facilitation. (d) The combined findings suggest that emotional and topical cues provide constraints for activation spreading in the lexicon. (e) Both bottom-up and top-down factors are associated with perception of poorly specified speech, indicating that variation in information-processing abilities is a crucial factor for perception if there is paucity in sensory input. A conceptual framework for speech perception, comprising specification of the linguistic and paralinguistic information, as well as distinctiveness of primes, is presented. Generalisations of the findings to other forms of paralanguage and language processing are discussed.

  • 16.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Utformning av syntetiska ansikten som kommunikationsstöd.2002In: Vardagsliv ¿ livskvalitet ¿ habilitering: Åttonde forskningskonferensen,2002, Örebro: Örebro läns landsting , 2002, p. 57-59Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Visual discrimination of vowel duration.2009In: Scandinavian journal of psychology, ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 427-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrimination of vowel duration was explored with regard to discrimination threshold, error bias, and effects of modality and consonant context. A total of 122 normal-hearing participants were presented with disyllabic-like items such as /lal-lal/ or /mam-mam/ in which the lengths of the vowels were systematically varied and were asked to judge whether the first or second vowel was longer. Presentation was either visual, auditory, or audiovisual. Vowel duration differences varied in 24 steps: 12 with a longer first /a/ and 12 with a longer last /a/ (range: +/-33-400 ms). RESULTS: 50% JNDs were smaller than the lowest tested step size (33 ms); 75% JNDs were in the 33-66 ms range for all conditions but V /lal/, with a 75% JND at 66-100 ms. Errors were greatest for visual presentation and for /lal-lal/ tokens. There was an error bias towards reporting the first vowel as longer, and this was strongest for /mam-mam/ and when both vowels were short, possibly reflecting a sublinguistic processing strategy.

  • 18.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Beskow, J.
    Centre for Speech Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Visual phonemic ambiguity and speechreading2006In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 835-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To study the role of visual perception of phonemes in visual perception of sentences and words among normal-hearing individuals. Method: Twenty-four normal-hearing adults identified consonants, words, and sentences, spoken by either a human or a synthetic talker. The synthetic talker was programmed with identical parameters within phoneme groups, hypothetically resulting in simplified articulation. Proportions of correctly identified phonemes per participant, condition, and task, as well as sensitivity to single consonants and clusters of consonants, were measured. Groups of mutually exclusive consonants were used for sensitivity analyses and hierarchical cluster analyses. Results: Consonant identification performance did not differ as a function of talker, nor did average sensitivity to single consonants. The bilabial and labiodental clusters were most readily identified and cohesive for both talkers. Word and sentence identification was better for the human talker than the synthetic talker. The participants were more sensitive to the clusters of the least visible consonants with the human talker than with the synthetic talker. Conclusions: It is suggested that ability to distiguish between clusters of the least visually distinct phonemes is important in speechreading. Specifically, it reduces the number of candidates, and thereby facilitates lexical identification. © American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

  • 19.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Beskow, Jonas
    TMH KTH.
    Motivation and appraisal in perception of poorly specified speech2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normal-hearing students (n=72) performed sentence, consonant, and word identification in either A (auditory), V (visual), or AV (audiovisual) modality. The auditory signal had difficult speech-to-noise relations. Talker (human vs. synthetic), topic (no cue vs. cue-words), and emotion (no cue vs. facially displayed vs. cue-words) were varied within groups. After the first block, effects of modality, face, topic, and emotion on initial appraisal and motivation were assessed. After the entire session, effects of modality on longer-term appraisal and motivation were assessed. The results from both assessments showed that V identification was more positively appraised than A identification. Correlations were tentatively interpreted such that evaluation of self-rated performance possibly depends on subjective standard and is reflected on motivation (if below subjective standard, AV group), or on appraisal (if above subjective standard, A group). Suggestions for further research are presented. © 2006 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  • 20.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lönnborg, Therése
    IBL Linköpings universitet.
    Mobile phone video as an aid to speech understanding for persons with hearing impairment2006In: Technology and Disability, ISSN 1055-4181, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if a mobile video telephone may facilitate distance communication for persons with impaired hearing, and how users' speech recognition performance is associated with difficulty ratings. Ten persons with impaired hearing participated. A mobile video telephone was used to record sentences and visual-contextual cues. Sentences were presented visually, auditorily, and audiovisually, and both with and without visual-contextual cues. The results showed that audiovisual presentation modality and visual-contextual cues together significantly enhanced speech recognition, and that both audiovisual presentation modality and visual-contextual cues by themselves gave tendencies toward significance. Also, speech recognition and difficulty ratings were significantly correlated over all conditions. It was concluded that mobile video telephones may today already enhance speech recognition for individuals with impaired hearing, but for substantial effects, audiovisual synchronization needs to be improved. © 2006 IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holgersson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Moradi, Shahram
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Comparison of informational vs. energetic masking effects on speechreading performance2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, no 639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of two types of auditory distracters (steady-state noise vs. four-talker babble) on visual-only speechreading accuracy were tested against a baseline (silence) in 23 participants with above-average speechreading ability. Their task was to speechread high frequency Swedish words. They were asked to rate their own performance and effort, and report how distracting each type of auditory distracter was. Only four-talker babble impeded speechreading accuracy. This suggests competition for phonological processing, since the four-talker babble demands phonological processing, which is also required for the speechreading task. Better accuracy was associated with lower self-rated effort in silence; no other correlations were found.

  • 22.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Lundqvist, Anna
    Rehabiliteringsmedicinska kliniken, US Landstinget i Östergötland.
    Persson, Lina
    IDA Linköpings universitet.
    Det svenska körprovet ur kognitivt perspektiv: Teoretiska, praktiskt formella och informella begrepp vid bedömning av riskmedvetande2007Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Anna
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Concepts from research literature and practical assessment of risk awareness: The Swedish driving test from the perspective of cognitive psychology2010In: TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART F-TRAFFIC PSYCHOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR, ISSN 1369-8478, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 409-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish driving test (SDT) was compared to theoretical concepts found in research literature (CRLs) with respect to the rated importance of the CRLs for the overall assessment of risk awareness and the five specific assessment areas used in the SDT. 116 traffic inspectors responded to questionnaires. Results show that visual search was the CRL given the highest rating, and that the assessment of risk awareness can be conceptualised as assessment of lower-order and higher-order cognitive functions. The assessment areas taxing higher-order cognitive functions were rated as most important for risk awareness, and visual search behaviour can be regarded as the best indicator of higher-order cognitive skills.

  • 24.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Factors in speechreading of natural and synthetic faces2005In: The Fourth Swedish Symposium on Multimodal Communication,2000, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Speechreading essentials: Signal, para-linguistic cues and skill2012In: Audiovisual speech processing / [ed] Gerard Bailly, Pascal Perrier, Eric Vatikiotis-Bateson, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012, p. -506Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "When we speak, we configure the vocal tract which shapes the visible motions of the face and the patterning of the audible speech acoustics. Similarly, we use these visible and audible behaviors to perceive speech. This book showcases a broad range of research investigating how these two types of signals are used in spoken communication, how they interact, and how they can be used to enhance the realistic synthesis and recognition of audible and visible speech. The volume begins by addressing two important questions about human audiovisual performance: how auditory and visual signals combine to access the mental lexicon and where in the brain this and related processes take place. It then turns to the production and perception of multimodal speech and how structures are coordinated within and across the two modalities. Finally, the book presents overviews and recent developments in machine-based speech recognition and synthesis of AV speech"--Provided by publisher.

  • 26.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Speech-reading: Cognitive predictors and displayed emotion1999In: Scandinavian Audiology, ISSN 0105-0397, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 211-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study had three aims: to examine the effects of displayed emotion and message length on speech-reading performance, and how measures of working memory (cf. Baddeley 1986) and verbal information processing speed relate to speech-reading performance. Words and sentences with either positive or negative meaning were used in a word decoding and a sentence-based speech-reading test. A total of 48 normal-hearing subjects participated. The results revealed general effects of displayed emotion, message meaning and message length and no effect of displayed emotion vs message length. Furthermore, working memory but not verbal information processing speed nor accuracy predicted speech-reading performance. The results were discussed with respect to a model of face-processing (Bruce & Young 1986) and with respect to clinical implications.

  • 27.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Lundeberg, M.
    Speechreading of synthetic and natural faces: Effects of contextual cueing and mode of presentation1999Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Lundeberg, Magnus
    Speech-reading of synthetic and natural faces: Contextual cueing and mode of presentation2001In: Scandinavian Audiology, ISSN 0105-0397, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 89-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A natural and a synthetic face were compared with regard to speechreading performance, with a visual and an audio-visual condition, and with three levels of contextual cueing in an experiment with 90 normal-hearing subjects. Auditory presentation (speech in noise) served as a control condition. The results showed main effects for type of face, presentation mode and contextual cueing, and also an interaction between presentation mode and type of face, such that performance was superior for the natural compared with the synthetic face, and especially in the audio-visual mode. Audiovisual speech-reading was more accurate than visual and auditory presentation and contextual cueing improved performance overall. It is suggested that a synthetic face can be a valuable and useful support if proper cueing and an auditory signal are provided, but it is outperformed by a natural face with regard to complementarity to an underspecified auditory speech signal.

  • 29.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Moradi, Shahram
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pettersson, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ricklefs, Theodor
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Audiovisual training is better than auditory-only training for auditory-only speech-in-noise identification2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 136, no 2, p. EL142-EL147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of audiovisual versus auditory training for speech-in-noise identification were examined in 60 young participants. The training conditions were audiovisual training, auditory-only training, and no training (n = 20 each). In the training groups, gated consonants and words were presented at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio; stimuli were either audiovisual or auditory-only. The no-training group watched a movie clip without performing a speech identification task. Speech-in-noise identification was measured before and after the training (or control activity). Results showed that only audiovisual training improved speech-in-noise identification, demonstrating superiority over auditory-only training.

  • 30.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Johansson, Karina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Facial expressions and speechreading performance1996In: Scandinavian Audiology, ISSN 0105-0397, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 97-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the role of facial expressions in visual speechreading (lipreading) was examined. Speechreading was assessed by three different tests: sentence-based speechreading, word-decoding, and word discrimination. Twenty-seven individuals participated as subjects in the study. The results revealed that no general improvement as a function of expression was obtained across all tests. Nevertheless, skilled speechreaders could significantly improve their performance as a function of emotional expression in the word-decoding and word-discrimination conditions. Furthermore, a correlational analysis indicated that there was a significant relationship between the subjects' rating of confidence regarding their responses to each test-item and performance on speechreading tests where lexical analysis is a necessary task-demand. The results are discussed with respect to how information from facial expressions is integrated with the information given by the lip movements in visual speechreading, and also with respect to general models of face-processing (i.e., Bruce ↦ Young. 1986; Young ↦ Bruce. 1991).

  • 31.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Gated auditory speech perception in elderly hearing aid users and elderly normal-hearing individuals: effects of hearing impairment and cognitive capacity2014In: Trends in Hearing, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) individuals on identification of auditory speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final word in sentences) that were different when considering their linguistic properties. We measured the accuracy with which the target speech stimuli were identified, as well as the isolation points (IPs: the shortest duration, from onset, required to correctly identify the speech target). The relationships between working memory capacity, the IPs, and speech accuracy were also measured. Twenty-four EHA users (with mild to moderate hearing impairment) and 24 ENH individuals participated in the present study. Despite the use of their regular hearing aids, the EHA users had delayed IPs and were less accurate in identifying consonants and words compared with the ENH individuals. The EHA users also had delayed IPs for final word identification in sentences with lower predictability; however, no significant between-group difference in accuracy was observed. Finally, there were no significant between-group differences in terms of IPs or accuracy for final word identification in highly predictable sentences. Our results also showed that, among EHA users, greater working memory capacity was associated with earlier IPs and improved accuracy in consonant and word identification. Together, our findings demonstrate that the gated speech perception ability of EHA users was not at the level of ENH individuals, in terms of IPs and accuracy. In addition, gated speech perception was more cognitively demanding for EHA users than for ENH individuals in the absence of semantic context.

  • 32.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli2016In: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 20, article id 2331216516653355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context.

  • 33.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. he Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Comparison of gated audiovisual speech perception between elderly hearing-aid users and elderly normal-hearing listeners2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of visual cues to amplified auditory signals by hearing aids resulted in better identification of speech stimuli relative to unaided audiovisual or aided auditory-only conditions (Walden et al., 2001). An important question that remains unexplored is whether hearing-aid users have the same level of ability for audiovisual speech perception relative to their age-matched normal hearing counterparts.

    Here we present the preliminary findings from collected data of 18 elderly hearing-aid users and 18 normal-hearing listeners in gated-audiovisual identification of different types of speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in low-predictable and high-predictable sentences). In terms of isolation point (IP; the shortest time from the onset of an speech stimulus required for correct identification of that speech stimulus), results showed that elderly hearing-aid users needed more IPs for identification of consonants and words than elderly normal-hearing individuals under quiet condition. There were no differences between two groups in IPs needed for identification of final words embedded in low-predictable or high-predictable sentences. In terms of accuracy, both elderly hearing-aid and elderly normal-hearing groups achieved ceiling on audiovisual identification of speech stimuli under quiet condition.

  • 34.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gated audiovisual speech identification in silence vs. noise: effects on time and accuracy2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 00359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the degree to which audiovisual presentation (compared to auditory-only presentation) affected isolation point (IPs, the amount of time required for the correct identification of speech stimuli using a gating paradigm) in silence and noise conditions. The study expanded on the findings of Moradi et al. (under revision), using the same stimuli, but presented in an audiovisual instead of an auditory-only manner. The results showed that noise impeded the identification of consonants and words (i.e., delayed IPs and lowered accuracy), but not the identification of final words in sentences. In comparison with the previous study by Moradi et al., it can be concluded that the provision of visual cues expedited IPs and increased the accuracy of speech stimuli identification in both silence and noise. The implication of the results is discussed in terms of models for speech understanding.

  • 35.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. he Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Greater explicit cognitive resources support speech-in-noise identification in elderly normal-hearing listeners2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies have demonstrated that cognitive capacity of listeners is a key factor in speech-in-noise tests in young-normal-hearing listeners (e.g., Moradi et al., 2014) and hearing-impaired individuals (e.g., Foo et al., 2007; Rudner et al., 2012). In addition, aging is associated with decline in sensory and cognitive functions that may impair speech perception in noisy conditions.

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between working memory and attentional capacities and speech-in-noise identification in elderly normal-hearing listeners. Twenty-four native Swedish speakers (13 women and 11 men) normal hearing were recruited to participate in the study. The mean age of participants was 71.5 years (SD = 3.1 years, range: 66–77 years). The reading span test (RST) and the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT) were used to measure working memory capacity and attentional capacity, respectively. The speech-in-noise identification measured using the HINT (at 50% correct level) and Hagerman test (at 80% correct level). Results showed that individuals with greater working memory and attentional capacities had better performance in HINT and Hagerman tests. These findings support the notion that explicit cognitive resources of listeners play a critical role in identification of speech stimuli under degraded listening conditions.

  • 36.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Time window of speech recognition in silent and noisy conditions: A gating paradigm study2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Saremi, Amin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. University of Oldenburg, Germany.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Gated auditory speech perception: effects of listening conditions and cognitive capacity2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, no 531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to measure the initial portion of signal required for the correct identification of auditory speech stimuli (or isolation points, IPs) in silence and noise, and to investigate the relationships between auditory and cognitive functions in silence and noise. Twenty-one university students were presented with auditory stimuli in a gating paradigm for the identification of consonants, words, and final words in highly predictable and low predictable sentences. The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT), the reading span test, and the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test were also administered to measure speech-in-noise ability, working memory and attentional capacities of the participants, respectively. The results showed that noise delayed the identification of consonants, words, and final words in highly predictable and low predictable sentences. HINT performance correlated with working memory and attentional capacities. In the noise condition, there were correlations between HINT performance, cognitive task performance, and the IPs of consonants and words. In the silent condition, there were no correlations between auditory and cognitive tasks. In conclusion, a combination of hearing-in-noise ability, working memory capacity, and attention capacity is needed for the early identification of consonants and words in noise.

  • 38.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Audiovisual integration in noise and silent conditions: Using a gating paradigm procedure2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Moradi, Shahram
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gated audiovisual integration in silence and noise2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Signoret, Carine
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ellis, Rachel
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of cognitive ability and top-down support on speech-in-noise perception2013In: Abstract book: Second International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 2013, p. 191-191Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As recent results encourage the inclusion of speech in noise (SIN) testing as part of a routine hearing screening test (Arlinger, Lunner, Lyxell, & Pichora-Fuller, 2009), we need to understand exactly which abilities SIN tests are actually indexing. In this study, we investigated the effect of top-down support on speech-in-noi-se perception and the influence of cognitive ability on this relationship by using monosyllabic words presented with stationary background noise in an adaptive threshold procedure. Participants with normal-hearing had to identify (Condition 1) or recognize (Conditions 2 and 3) a target word in noise in descending (Conditions 1 and 3) or ascending (Condition 2) levels of difficulty. Cognitive ability was measured using the reading span and letter memory tests. The results showed a significant effect of top-down support on speech in noise perception thresholds. The magnitude of this effect was predicted by performance on the letter memory test, indicating that good updating ability is, in presence of top-down support, a good predictor of speech in noise perception, in accordance with the Ease of Language Understanding model (Rönnberg, Rudner, Foo, & Lunner, 2008; Rönnberg, 2003; Stenfelt & Rönnberg, 2009). The results of the study highlight the importance of considering that non-auditory factors may play a significant role in speech-in-noise perception. The degree to which non-auditory factors influence speech-in-noise perception is affected by both the test procedure chosen and the cognitive ability of the listener.

  • 41.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Helsingor, Denmark.
    Ng, Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yumba, Wycliffe
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Classon, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Signoret, Carine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Auditory, signal processing, and cognitive factors  influencing  speech  perception  in  persons with hearing loss fitted with hearing aids – the N200 study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess aided speech-in-noise outcomes and relate those measures to auditory sensitivity and processing, different types of cognitive processing abilities, and signal processing in hearing aids.

    Material and method: Participants were 200 hearing-aid wearers, with a mean age of 60.8 years, 43% females, with average hearing thresholds in the better ear of 37.4 dB HL. Tests of auditory functions were hearing thresholds, DPOAEs, tests of fine structure processing, IHC dead regions, spectro-temporal modulation, and speech recognition in quiet (PB words). Tests of cognitive processing function were tests of phonological skills, working memory, executive functions and inference making abilities, and general cognitive tests (e.g., tests of cognitive decline and IQ). The outcome test variables were the Hagerman sentences with 50 and 80% speech recognition levels, using two different noises (stationary speech weighted noise and 4-talker babble), and three types of signal processing (linear gain, fast acting compression, and linear gain plus a non-ideal binary mask). Another sentence test included typical and atypical sentences with contextual cues that were tested both audio-visually and in an auditory mode only. Moreover, HINT and SSQ were administrated.

    Analysis: Factor analyses were performed separate for the auditory, cognitive, and outcome tests.

    Results: The auditory tests resulted in two factors labeled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE, the cognitive tests in one factor (COGNITION), and the outcome tests in the two factors termed NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT that relates to the level of context in the different outcome tests. When age was partialled out, COGNITION was moderately correlated with the TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and NO CONTEXT factors but only weakly correlated with the CONTEXT factor. SENSITIVITY correlated weakly with TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and CONTEXT, and moderately with NO CONTEXT, while TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE showed weak correlation with CONTEXT and moderate correlation with NO CONTEXT. CONTEXT and NO CONTEXT had a  moderate correlation. Moreover, the overall results of the Hagerman sentences showed 0.9 dB worse SNR with fast acting compression compared with linear gain and 5.5 dB better SNR with linear  gain and noise reduction compared with only linear gain.

    Conclusions: For hearing aid wearers, the ability to recognize speech in noise is associated with both sensory and cognitive processing abilities when the speech materials have low internal context. These associations are less prominent when the speech material has contextual cues.

  • 42.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahlström, Christer
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Peters, Björn
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Olle
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden .
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss2014In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To examine eye tracking data and compare visual behavior in individuals with normal hearing (NH) and with moderate hearing loss (HL) during two types of driving conditions: normal driving and driving while performing a secondary task.

    Methods

    24 participants with HL and 24 with NH were exposed to normal driving and to driving with a secondary task (observation and recall of 4 visually displayed letters). Eye movement behavior was assessed during normal driving by the following performance indicators: number of glances away from the road; mean duration of glances away from the road; maximum duration of glances away from the road; and percentage of time looking at the road. During driving with the secondary task, eye movement data were assessed in terms of number of glances to the secondary task display, mean duration of glances to the secondary task display, and maximum duration of glances to the secondary task display. The secondary task performance was assessed as well, counting the number of correct letters, the number of skipped letters, and the number of correct letters ignoring order.

    Results

    While driving with the secondary task, drivers with HL looked twice as often in the rear-view mirror than during normal driving and twice as often as drivers with NH regardless of condition. During secondary task, the HL group looked away from the road more frequently but for shorter durations than the NH group. Drivers with HL had fewer correct letters and more skipped letters than drivers with NH.

    Conclusions

    Differences in visual behavior between drivers with NH and with HL are bound to the driving condition. Driving with a secondary task, drivers with HL spend as much time looking away from the road as drivers with NH, however with more frequent and shorter glances away. Secondary task performance is lower for the HL group, suggesting this group is less willing to perform this task. The results also indicate that drivers with HL use fewer but more focused glances away than drivers with NH, they also perform a visual scan of the surrounding traffic environment before looking away towards the secondary task display.

  • 43.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VTI, Linköping.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Peters, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VTI, Linköping.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hearing Loss and transport2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research regarding importance of auditory information in traffic situations is limited and not very up to date. Studies performed in several countries around 1980 state that hearing disorders or deafness should not be an exclusion criterion for driver’s license, since individuals with hearing loss are not considered as an increased risk to traffic safety. Research made tend to answer the question if road users with hearing loss pose a higher risk than road users with normal hearing. Possible risks which road users with a hearing disorder are exposed to have not yet been investigated.

     

    According to brief discussions with individuals with hearing loss, concerns include; signing while driving, trying to speech read passenger while driving, hearing emergency sirens, knowing the direction from which a sound is coming, hearing seatbelt warning or other warnings your car may give.

    Hearing loss is often age related. With longer life length and increasing transport habits of older people, the proportion of older road users (and road users with hearing loss) increase. Furthermore, support systems in cars tend to use auditory signals for warnings, which make them less accessible for users with hearing disorders. Other modalities for warning signals (light or vibration) could be a solution.

     

    Auditory information is an issue also for road users with normal hearing; cars tend to be more silent and could therefore be hard to notice for vulnerable road users, bicycle riders with music players more or less isolate themselves from surrounding impressions. This presentation invites to a discussion regarding traffic situations where auditory information is important and how support could be given if necessary.

  • 44.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VTI, Linköping .
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Peters, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VTI, Linköping.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hörselnedsättning, trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet: En enkätstudie2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine how road users with different degree of hearing loss experience safety and mobility in transport situations compared to road users without hearing loss.

    Methods: The participants were recruited from the local branch of HRF. A hearing control group, matched on age, gender and geographical location, was selected from a commercial database. The individuals with hearing hearing-loss were grouped into four groups according the degree of their hearing-loss.

    Results: Hearing loss affects some specific aspects regarding transport situations, while others remain unaffected. Individuals with hearing loss are not as likely to have a driving license, but for those who have, hearing loss has no effect on mileage per year. Loss of hearing has an effect on criteria for choosing transportation, but the use of each transportation mode is unaffected. Degree of hearing loss affects most questions regarding hearing in relation to driver abilities, while avoidance of specific traffic situations or environments is only associated with hearing loss in specific situations. Hearing loss has only minor effect on the factors causing inattention when driving and on the interest in a warning system for driver inattention. The general interest in a warning system for driver inattention is high.

    Conclusions: Hearing loss influences the prevalence of driving license and criteria for choosing transportation, however has no effect on the frequency of any transportation mode. In general, in this study, respondents with profound hearing loss are less concerned, indicating that they might be coping. The interest in warning system for inattention and the attitude towards strengthening of auditory information in traffic situations is high regardless of hearing category. This suggests further research on coping strategies and on design of support systems accessible for drivers with hearing loss.

  • 45.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VTI, Linköping.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Peters, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VTI, Linköping.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trafikanter med hörselnedsättning: En enkätstudie2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hörselintryckens betydelse för trafikanten är ett tämligen outforskat område. Studier som genomförts har främst handlat om exklusionskriterier för körkort och man har då kommit fram till att hörselskadade inte utgör en större risk än hörande bilförare. Således utgör inte hörselskada eller dövhet ett hinder för körkort. Det saknas dock forskning kring vilka risker individer utsätts för då hörselintrycken i trafiken helt eller delvis faller bort. Enligt SCB finns det 1.3 miljoner invånare i Sverige som har svårigheter att höra i en eller flera olika situationer. Den vanligaste typen av hörselnedsättning är åldersrelaterad. Ökad livslängd samt vanan att själv kunna transportera sig lätt, gör att vi får allt fler äldre bilförare och därmed även allt fler bilförare med nedsatt hörsel. En annan relevant aspekt handlar om den ökande andelen stödsystem i bilarna, vilka ofta använder sig av auditiva signaler (t.ex. varningar, GPS navigering). För maximal nytta av sådana system är det viktigt att de är tillgängliga för samtliga trafikantgrupper. Man bör därför undersöka möjligheten att använda sig av andra eller ytterligare signalmodaliteter, t.ex. ljus eller vibrationer. En ytterligare aspekt är att fordon blir allt tystare, vilket innebär att även trafikanter utan hörselnedsättning får mindre auditiv information eller feedback. Då kan det vara svårt att som oskyddad trafikant höra en bil som utgör en risk. Även oskyddade trafikanter med hörlurar kan gå miste om dylik information.

    På VTI har ett doktorandprojekt inletts tillsammans med forskarskolan HEAD (HEaring And Deafness) vid LiU i syfte att utreda hörselintryckens betydelse för trafiksäkerheten. Projektet inleds med en kartläggning av transportvanor hos olika grupper av individer med hörselnedsättning i Sverige med hjälp av en webenkät som skickats ut under maj 2011. Vid analysen kommer en kategorisering i grupper att göras på basis av deras hörsel (Audiogram). Projektet genomförs i samverkan med Hörselskadades Riksförbund (HRF) som ställt sig positiva till den här forskningen och de har varit behjälpliga med att rekrytera deltagare. Enkäten kommer även att skickas till en kontrollgrupp av hörande individer. Undersökning har genom gått etisk prövning. Resultaten av studien kommer att presenteras på Transportforum 2012.

  • 46.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Peters, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Herbert, Nicholas
    Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, UK.
    Holmqvist, Kenneth
    University of Lund, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Black, Alexander
    School of Optometry, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements2013In: Journal of Eye Movement Research, E-ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking,recording the point of gaze within the scene. Analysis was performed on predefined regions. A questionnaire examined participant's experience of the navigation systems. Hearing loss was associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. Additionally, tactile support led to less time spent viewing the navigation display.

  • 47.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Peters, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To compare the effect of cognitive workload in individuals with and without hearing loss, respectively, in driving situations with varying degree of complexity.

    Methods

    24 participants with moderate hearing loss (HL) and 24 with normal hearing (NH) experienced three different driving conditions: Baseline driving; Critical events with a need to act fast; and a Parked car event with the possibility to adapt the workload to the situation. Additionally, a Secondary task (observation and recalling of 4 visually displayed letters) was present during the drive, with two levels of difficulty in terms of load on the phonological loop. A tactile signal, presented by means of a vibration in the seat, was used to announce the Secondary task and thereby simultaneously evaluated in terms of effectiveness when calling for driver attention. Objective driver behavior measures (M and SD of driving speed, M and SD of lateral position, time to line crossing) were accompanied by subjective ratings during and after the test drive.

    Results

    HL had no effect on driving behavior at Baseline driving, where no events occurred. Both during Secondary task and at the Parked car event HL was associated with decreased mean driving speed compared to baseline driving. The effect of HL on the Secondary task performance, both at Baseline driving and at the lower Difficulty Level at Critical events, was more skipped letters and fewer correctly recalled letters. At Critical events, task difficulty affected participants with HL more. Participants were generally positive to use vibrations in the seat as a means for announcing the Secondary task.

    Conclusions

    Differences in terms of driving behavior and task performance related to HL appear when the driving complexity exceeds Baseline driving either in the driving task, Secondary task or a combination of both. This leads to a more cautious driving behavior with a decreased mean driving speed and less focus on the Secondary task, which could be a way of compensating for the increasing driving complexity. Seat vibration was found to be a feasible way to alert drivers with or without HL.

  • 48.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Peters, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Drivers with hearing loss and the design of driver support system. A simulator study2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Peters, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hearing impairments and transport2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden .
    Peters, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute), Linköping, Sweden .
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Influence of Hearing Loss on Transport Safety and Mobility2013In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To examine how road users with different degree of hearing loss experience safety and mobility in transport situations, compared to road users with normal hearing.

    Methods

    A questionnaire study was conducted with participants recruited from the local branch of The Swedish hard of hearing society. A normal hearing control group, matched on age, gender and geographical location, was selected from a commercial database. The response rate was 35 % (n = 194) in the group with Hearing Loss (HL) and 42 % (n = 125) in the group with Normal Hearing (NH). The individuals with hearing loss were grouped into four groups according to the degree of their hearing loss (mild, moderate, severe and profound).

    Results

    Hearing loss affected some specific aspects regarding transport situations, while others remained unaffected. Individuals with hearing loss were not as likely to have a driving license, but for those who have, hearing loss had no effect on mileage per year. Loss of hearing had an effect on criteria for choosing mode of transportation, but in the aggregate, no difference between the groups could be shown in the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. With a few exceptions, hearing loss did not affect the ratings of importance of hearing for different transportation modes. Hearing loss affected most questions regarding hearing and driver abilities, while avoidance of specific traffic situations was not associated with hearing loss. Hearing loss had only minor effects on the factors causing inattention when driving, and on the interest in a warning system for driver inattention. The interest in a warning system for driver inattention was high regardless of hearing category.

    Conclusions

    Hearing loss influences the prevalence of driving license and criteria for choosing mode of transportation, however has no effect on the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. In general, in this study, respondents with higher degree of hearing loss were less concerned about the effect of hearing loss, indicating that they might be using coping strategies. The interest in warning system for inattention and the attitude towards strengthening of auditory information in traffic situations is high regardless of hearing category. This suggests further research on coping strategies and on design of support systems accessible for drivers with hearing loss.

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