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  • 1.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Properties of Polymeric Mixed Conductors2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 34, p. 6288-6296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoelectric (TE) phenomena are intensively explored by the scientific community due to the rather inefficient way energy resources are used with a large fraction of energy wasted in the form of heat. Among various materials, mixed ion-electron conductors (MIEC) are recently being explored as potential thermoelectrics, primarily due to their low thermal conductivity. The combination of electronic and ionic charge carriers in those inorganic or organic materials leads to complex evolution of the thermovoltage (Voc) with time, temperature, and/or humidity. One of the most promising organic thermoelectric materials, poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), is an MIEC. A previous study reveals that at high humidity, PEDOT-PSS undergoes an ionic Seebeck effect due to mobile protons. Yet, this phenomenon is not well understood. In this work, the time dependence of the Voc is studied and its behavior from the contribution of both charge carriers (holes and protons) is explained. The presence of a complex reorganization of the charge carriers promoting an internal electrochemical reaction within the polymer film is identified. Interestingly, it is demonstrated that the time dependence behavior of Voc is a way to distinguish between three classes of polymeric materials: electronic conductor, ionic conductor, and mixed ionic–electronic conductor

  • 2.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Javad Jafari, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rebis, T.
    Poznan University of Tech, Poland.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spectroelectrochemical investigation of redox states in a polypyrrole/lignin composite electrode material2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 24, p. 12927-12937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report spectroelectrochemical studies to investigate the charge storage mechanism of composite polypyrrole/lignin electrodes. Renewable bioorganic electrode materials were produced by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of a water-soluble lignin derivative acting as a dopant. The resulting composite exhibited enhanced charge storage abilities due to a lignin-based faradaic process, which was expressed after repeated electrochemical redox of the material. The in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemistry results show the formation of quinone groups, and reversible oxidation-reduction of these groups during charge-discharge experiments in the electrode materials. The most significant IR bands include carbonyl absorption near 1705 cm(-1), which is attributed to the creation of quinone moieties during oxidation, and absorption at 1045 cm(-1) which is due to hydroquinone moieties.

  • 3.
    Aldred, Nick
    et al.
    Newcastle University, England .
    Gohad, Neeraj V.
    Clemson University, SC USA .
    Petrone, Luigi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Orihuela, Beatriz
    Duke University, NC USA .
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mount, Andrew
    Clemson University, SC USA .
    Rittschof, Dan
    Duke University, NC USA .
    Clare, Anthony S.
    Newcastle University, England .
    Confocal microscopy-based goniometry of barnacle cyprid permanent adhesive2013In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 216, no 11, p. 1969-1972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological adhesives are materials of particular interest in the fields of bio-inspired technology and antifouling research. The adhesive of adult barnacles has received much attention over the years; however, the permanent adhesive of the cyprid - the colonisation stage of barnacles - is a material about which very little is presently known. We applied confocal laser-scanning microscopy to the measurement of contact angles between the permanent adhesive of barnacle cyprid larvae and self-assembled monolayers of OH- and CH3-terminated thiols. Measurement of contact angles between actual bioadhesives and surfaces has never previously been achieved and the data may provide insight into the physicochemical properties and mechanism of action of these functional materials. The adhesive is a dual-phase system post-secretion, with the behaviour of the components governed separately by the surface chemistry. The findings imply that the cyprid permanent adhesion process is more complex than previously thought, necessitating broad re-evaluation of the system. Improved understanding will have significant implications for the production of barnacle-resistant coatings as well as development of bio-inspired glues for niche applications.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics.
    Ulrich, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics.
    Characterization of Surface Modifications using Voltammetry and Imaging SPR2006In: Europtrode VIII, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bittoun, Eyal
    et al.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology.
    Marmur, Abraham
    Technion Israel Institute Technology.
    Östblom, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Filled Nanoporous Surfaces: Controlled Formation and Wettability2009In: LANGMUIR, ISSN 0743-7463, Vol. 25, no 20, p. 12374-12379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The controlled filling of hydrophobic nanoporous surfaces with hydrophilic molecules and their wetting properties are described and demonstrated by using thiocholesterol (TC) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold and mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) as the filling agent. A novel procedure was developed for filling the nanopores in the TC SAMs by immersing them into a "cocktail" solution of TC and MUA, with TC in huge excess. This procedure results in an increasing coverage of MUA with increasing immersion time up to an area fraction of similar to 23%, while the amount of TC remains almost constant. Our findings strongly support earlier observations where linear omega-substituted alkanethiols selectively fill defects (nanopores) in the TC SAM (Yang et al. Langmuir 1997, 12, 1704-1707). They also support the formation of a homogeneously mixed SAM, given by the distribution of TC on the gold surface, rather than of a phase-segregated overlayer structure with domains of varying size, shape, and composition. The wetting properties of the Filled SAMs were investigated by measuring the most stable contact angle as well as contact angle hysteresis. It is shown that the most stable contact angle is very well described by the Cassie equation, since the drops arc much larger than the scale of chemical heterogeneity of the SAM surfaces. In addition, it is demonstrated that contact angle hysteresis is sensitive to the chemical heterogeneity of the surface, even at the nanometric scale.

  • 6.
    Di Fino, A.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, England .
    Petrone, Luigi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aldred, N.
    Newcastle University, England .
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clare, A. S.
    Newcastle University, England .
    Correlation between surface chemistry and settlement behaviour in barnacle cyprids (Balanus improvisus)2014In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 143-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In laboratory-based biofouling assays, the influence of physico-chemical surface characteristics on barnacle settlement has been tested most frequently using the model organism Balanus amphitrite (= Amphibalanus amphitrite). Very few studies have addressed the settlement preferences of other barnacle species, such as Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus). This study aimed to unravel the effects of surface physico-chemical cues, in particular surface-free energy (SFE) and surface charge, on the settlement of cyprids of B. improvisus. The use of well-defined surfaces under controlled conditions further facilitates comparison of the results with recent similar data for B. amphitrite. Zero-day-old cyprids of B. improvisus were exposed to a series of model surfaces, namely self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols with varying end-groups, homogenously applied to gold-coated polystyrene (PS) Petri dishes. As with B. amphitrite, settlement of cyprids of B. improvisus was influenced by both SFE and charge, with higher settlement on low-energy (hydrophobic) surfaces and negatively charged SAMs. Positively charged SAMs resulted in low settlement, with intermediate settlement on neutral SAMs of similar SFE. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that despite previous suggestions to the contrary, these two species of barnacle show similar preferences in response to SFE; they also respond similarly to charge. These findings have positive implications for the development of novel antifouling (AF) coatings and support the importance of consistency in substratum choice for assays designed to compare surface preferences of fouling organisms.

  • 7.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Neutrons for scattering: What they are, where to get them, and how to deal with them2018In: EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN 2101-6275, E-ISSN 2100-014X, Vol. 188, article id 01002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In neutron scattering studies of soft matter, a diverse array of methods and instruments are used, providing information on structure and dynamics on various length and energy scales. However, much of the infrastructure needed for neutron scattering is common for many instruments. After a brief historical retrospect of neutron scattering, this chapter introduces the basic infrastructure needed to conduct scattering experiments. This includes equipment that is used to produce, spectrally adjust and purify, and to deliver neutrons to the instruments where scattering experiments are conducted. The basics of the interaction of neutrons with matter is also introduced, as a preparation for the final sections on the different means at hand for neutron detection.

  • 8.
    Ederth, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swelling of grafted poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogels: a neutron re°ectivity studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogels are used to enhance biocompatibility and reduce inflammation in biomedical applications, and as area-enlarging matrices in bioanalytical devices. For either of these applications, the structure of the hydrogel is important for the function, and thus structural understanding of hydrogels in their wet state is highly relevant for the use and development of these materials. Also, processing of these materials is frequently made in ambient air, and it is of interest to relate the properties of dry, or humid air-swollen hydrogels, to their wet properties.

    We use neutron reflectometry to follow the swelling of hydrogels in air of controlled humidity. Comparing hydrogels prepared on silica and gold substrates { both of relevance to bioanalytical applications { we observe that the swelling is different, reflecting a structural difference between these polymers, but that the water content of the polymer films near saturation is near 33% in both cases. Upon immersion in water, the swelling is estimated to approximately 2 x the dry thickness of the polymer, though a consistent quantitative determination of the polymer profile could not be made. Finally, we observe that the hydrogels are unaffected by either positively and negatively charged proteins.

  • 9.
    Ederth, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. MariboHilleshog Res AB, Sweden.
    Swelling of Thin Poly(ethylene glycol)-Containing Hydrogel Films it Water Vapor-A Neutron Reflectivity Study2018In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 34, no 19, p. 5517-5526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogels are widely used in biomedicine and for bioanalytical purposes, normally under wet conditions. For certain applications, processing steps, or process monitoring, hydrogel films are used or treated under ambient conditions, and because they are hygroscopic, it is of interest to investigate how they respond to changes in atmospheric humidity. We have used neutron reflectometry to follow the swelling of thin UV-polymerized hydrogel films in air under different relative humidities (RHs). These polymers were prepared to similar thicknesses on silica and gold substrates, and the chemical similarity between them was verified by infrared spectroscopy. The swelling in response to variations in RH was different for the layers on the two substrate types, reflecting structural changes induced by differences in the UV exposure required to achieve a given polymer thickness, as demonstrated also by differences in the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, obtained by fitting a Flory-Huggins-type sorption model to the swelling data. Wetting studies show small changes in contact angles with surrounding humidity variations, indicating that structural reorganization at the interface in response to humidity changes is limited.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-04-19 12:32
  • 10.
    Ederth, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pettitt, Michala E
    University of Birmingham.
    Conlan, Sheelagh L
    Newcastle University.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Callow, Maureen E
    University of Birmingham.
    Callow, James A
    University of Birmingham.
    Mutton, Robert
    Newcastle University.
    Clare, Anthony S
    Newcastle University.
    D`Souza, Fraddry
    TNO Science and Industry.
    Donnelly, Glen
    TNO Science and Industry.
    Bruin, Anouk
    TNO Science and Industry.
    Willemsen, Peter R
    TNO Science and Industry.
    Su, Xueju J
    University of Dundee.
    Wang, Su
    University of Dundee.
    Zhao, Qi
    University of Dundee.
    Hederos, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resistance of Galactoside-Terminated Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers to Marine Fouling Organisms2011In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 3890-3901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of galactoside-terminated alkanethiols have protein-resistance properties which can be tuned via the degree of methylation [Langmuir 2005, 21, 2971-2980]. Specifically, a partially methylated compound was more resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption than the hydroxylated or fully methylated counterparts. We investigate whether this also holds true for resistance to the attachment and adhesion of a range of marine species, in order to clarify to what extent resistance to protein adsorption correlates with the more complex adhesion of fouling organisms. The partially methylated galactoside-terminated SAM was further compared to a mixed monolayer of omega-substituted methyl- and hydroxyl-terminated alkanethiols with wetting properties and surface ratio of hydroxyl to methyl groups matching that of the galactoside. The settlement (initial attachment) and adhesion strength of four model marine fouling organisms were investigated, representing both micro- and macrofoulers; two bacteria (Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus), barnacle cypris larvae (Balanus amphitrite), and algal zoospores (Ulva linza). The minimum in protein adsorption onto the partially methylated galactoside surface was partly reproduced in the marine fouling assays, providing some support for a relationship between protein resistance and adhesion of marine fouling organisms. The mixed alkanethiol SAM, which was matched in wettability to the partially methylated galactoside SAM, consistently showed higher settlement (initial attachment) of test organisms than the galactoside, implying that both wettability and surface chemistry are insufficient to explain differences in fouling resistance. We suggest that differences in the structure of interfacial water may explain the variation in adhesion to these SAMs.

  • 11.
    Ederth, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Porous nanoparticle assemblies as permeable supports for lipid bilayer membranes (Poster)2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoscale Surface Self-Assembly (EuChem Conference, June 19-23, 2005, Sigtuna, Sweden

  • 12.
    Ederth, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nygren, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östblom, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettitt, M.E.
    The University of Birmingham, School of Biosciences, Birmingham, UK.
    Callow, M.E.
    The University of Birmingham, School of Biosciences, Birmingham, UK.
    Callow, J.A.
    The University of Birmingham, School of Biosciences, Birmingham, UK.
    Interactions of algal spores and diatoms with mixed synthetic peptide SAMs2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ederth, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nygren, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettitt, M. E.
    University of Birmingham.
    Oumlstblom, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broo, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Callow, M. E.
    University of Birmingham.
    Callow, J.
    University of Birmingham.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anomalous settlement behavior of Ulva linza zoospores on cationic oligopeptide surfaces2008In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 303-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identification of settlement cues for marine fouling organisms opens up new strategies and methods for biofouling prevention, and enables the development of more effective antifouling materials. To this end, the settlement behaviour of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza onto cationic oligopeptide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been investigated. The spores interact strongly with lysine- and arginine-rich SAMs, and their settlement appears to be stimulated by these surfaces. Of particular interest is an arginine-rich oligopeptide, which is effective in attracting spores to the surface, but in a way which leaves a large fraction of the settled spores attached to the surface in an anomalous fashion. These 'pseudo-settled' spores are relatively easily detached from the surface and do not undergo the full range of cellular responses associated with normal commitment to settlement. This is a hitherto undocumented mode of settlement, and surface dilution of the arginine-rich peptide with a neutral triglycine peptide demonstrates that both normal and anomalous settlement is proportional to the surface density of the arginine-rich peptide. The settlement experiments are complemented with physical studies of the oligopeptide SAMs, before and after extended immersion in artificial seawater, using infrared spectroscopy, null ellipsometry and contact angle measurements.

  • 14.
    Ederth, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettitt, M E
    University of Birmingham.
    Nygren, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhou, Ye
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Falk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Callow, M E
    University of Birmingham.
    Callow, J A
    University of Birmingham.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interactions of Zoospores of Ulva linza with Arginine-Rich Oligopeptide Monolayers2009In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 25, no 16, p. 9375-9383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently reported oil the strong interactions of zoospores of the green alga, Ulva linza with all arginine-rich oligopeptide self-assembled monolayer (SAM) [Biofouling 2008, 24, 303-312], where the arginine-rich peptide induced not only high spore settlement, but also a form of abnormal settlement, or "pseudo-settlement", whereby it proportion of spores do not go through the normal process of surface exploration, adhesive exocytosis, and loss of flagella. Further. it was demonstrated that both the total number of settled spores and the fraction of pseudosettled spores were related to the surface density of the arginine-rich peptide. Here we present a further investigation of the interactions of zoospores of ulva with a set of oligomeric, de nom designed, arginine-rich peptides, specifically aimed to test the effect of peptide primary structure on the interaction. Via variations in the peptide length and by permutations in the amino acid sequences, we gain further insight into the spore-surface interactions. The interpretation of the biological assays is supported by physicochemical characterization of the SAMs using infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and contact angle measurement. Results confirm the importance of arginine residues for the anomalous pseudosettlement, and we found that settlement is modulated by variations in both the total length and peptide primary structure. To elucidate the Causes of the anomalous settlement and the possible relation to peptide-membrane interactions, we also compared the settlement of the "naked" zoospores of Ulva(which present it lipoprotein membrane to the exterior without a discrete polysaccharide cell wall), with the settlement of diatoms (unicellular algae that are surrounded by it silica cell wall), onto the peptide SAMs. Cationic SAMs do not notably affect settlement (attachment), adhesion strength, or viability of diatom cells, Suggesting that the effect of the peptides on zoospores of Ulva is mediated via specific peptide-membrane interactions.

  • 15.
    Ederth, Thomas
    et al.
    Phys and Theoret Chem Lab, Oxford OX1 3QZ, England.
    Thomas, R K
    Phys and Theoret Chem Lab, Oxford OX1 3QZ, England; .
    A neutron reflectivity study of drainage and stratification of AOT foam films2003In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 19, no 19, p. 7727-7733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural properties of Aerosol-OT (AOT) foam films were studied by neutron reflectometry. The drainage of large (10 cm(2)), horizontally oriented AOT films under zero applied external pressure is slow and proceeds from thick colored or gray films to black films of approximately 200 Angstrom thickness over many hours, resulting in quasi-static conditions over the time scales required for the acquisition of reflectivity profiles throughout the whole drainage process. After formation of the foam film-while still showing colored interference fringes-and during the early stages of thinning, the appearance of Bragg diffraction peaks demonstrates that the film contains multilamellar structure, in agreement with studies at free air/water interfaces. Upon further reduction of the film thickness, below approximately 250 Angstrom, the reflectivity profile is well fitted by a three-layer slab model with two surfactant layers and an aqueous core with a high surfactant content. The composition of the aqueous core and the manner in which the reflectivity during the latter stages of draining evolves from Bragg peaks to a Kiessig fringe structure indicate stratification within the thin foam film.

  • 16.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tai, Feng-i
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg , Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lateral Control of Protein Adsorption on Charged Polymer Gradients2009In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 3755-3762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and protein adsorption behavior of charged polymer gradients. The thin gradient films were fabricated by a two-step technique using UV-initiated free-radical polymerization in a reactor with a moving shutter. A homogeneous layer of cationic poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride) was first formed, followed by a layer of oppositely charged poly(2-carboxyethyl acrylate) with a continuously increasing thickness. Adsorption from protein solutions as well as human blood plasma was investigated by imaging surface plasmon resonance and infrared microscopy. The results showed excessive protein adsorption in the areas where one of the polymers dominated the composition, while there was a clear minimum at an intermediate position of the gradient. The charge of the surface was estimated by direct force measurements and found to correlate well with the protein adsorption, showing the lowest net charge in the same area as the protein adsorption minimum. We therefore hypothesize that a combination of the charged polymers, in the right proportions, can result in a protein-resistant surface due to balanced charges.

  • 17.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology .
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Conlan, Sheelagh L.
    Liu, Yunli
    Zhao, Qi
    DSouza, Fraddry
    Donnelly, GlenT.
    Willemsen, Peter R.
    Pettitt, Michala E.
    Callow, Maureen E.
    Callow, James A.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Poly(ethylene glycol)-Containing Hydrogel Surfaces for Antifouling Applications in Marine and Freshwater Environments2008In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 2775-2783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 18.
    Fyrner, Timmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Nanyang Technology University, Singapore .
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping, .
    Synthesis of oligo(lactose)-based thiols and their self-assembly onto gold surfaces2013In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 105, p. 187-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to produce monomolecular coatings with well-defined structural and functional properties is of key importance in biosensing, drug delivery, and many recently developed applications of nanotechnology. Organic chemistry has proven to be a powerful tool to achieve this in many research areas. Herein, we present the synthesis of three oligo(lactosides) glycosylated in a (1 → 3) manner, and which are further functionalized with amide-linked short alkanethiol spacers. The oligosaccharides (di-, tetra-, and hexasaccharide) originate from the inexpensive and readily available lactose disaccharide. These thiolated derivatives were immobilized onto gold surfaces, and the thus formed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on planar gold were characterized by wettability, ellipsometry and infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy. Further, the ability of these SAMs to stabilize gold nanoparticles in saline solutions was also demonstrated, indicating that the oligosaccharides may be used as stabilizing agents in gold nanoparticle-based assays.

  • 19.
    Fyrner, Timmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Hung-Hsun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mangone, Alberto
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pettitt, Michala E
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Callow, Maureen E
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Callow, James A
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Conlan, Sheelagh L
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Mutton, Robert
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Clare, Anthony S
    Newcastle Universitym, UK.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Saccharide-Functionalized Alkanethiols for Fouling-Resistant Self-Assembled Monolayers: Synthesis, Monolayer Properties, and Antifouling Behavior2011In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 27, no 24, p. 15034-15047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the synthesis of a series of mono-, di-, and trisaccharide-functionalized alkanethiols as well as the formation of fouling-resistant self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) from these. The SAls,,Is were characterized using ellipsometry, wetting measurements, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (WAS). We show that the structure of the carbohydrate moiety affects the packing density and that this also alters the alkane chain organization. Upon increasing the size of the sugar moieties (from mono- to di- and trisaccharides), the structural qualities of the monolayers deteriorated with increasing disorder, and for the trisaccharide, slow reorganization dynamics in response to changes in the environmental polarity were observed. The antifouling properties of these SAMs were investigated through protein adsorption experiments from buffer solutions as well as settlement (attachment) tests using two common marine fouling species, zoospores of the green macroalga Ulva linza and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. The SAMs showed overall good resistance to fouling by both the proteins and the tested marine organisms. To improve the packing density of the SAMs with bulky headgroups, we employed mixed SAMs where the saccharide-thiols are diluted with a filler molecule having a small 2-hydroxyethyl headgroup. This method also provides a means by which the steric availability of sugar moieties can be varied, which is of interest for specific interaction studies with surface-bound sugars. The results of the surface dilution study and the low nonspecific adsorption onto the SAMs both indicate the feasibility of this approach.

  • 20.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ATR-FTIR: a simple and rapid tool for bacterial resistance detection2015In: Conference on Advanced Vibrational Spectroscopy - ICAVS, Vienna, Austria, 12- 17 July 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Jiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Time-Resolved Chemical Mapping in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 2747-2757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An understanding of the doping and ion distributions in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) is required to approach a realistic conduction model which can precisely explain the electrochemical reactions, p-n junction formation, and ion dynamics in the active layer and to provide relevant information about LECs for systematic improvement of function and manufacture. Here, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is used to monitor anion density profile and polymer structure in situ and for time-resolved mapping of electrochemical doping in an LEC under bias. The results are in very good agreement with the electrochemical doping model with respect to ion redistribution and formation of a dynamic p-n junction in the active layer. We also physically slow ions by decreasing the working temperature and study frozen-junction formation and immobilization of ions in a fixed-junction LEC device by FTIR imaging. The obtained results show irreversibility of the ion redistribution and polymer doping in a fixed-junction device. In addition, we demonstrate that infrared microscopy is a useful tool for in situ characterization of electroactive organic materials.

  • 22.
    Klenkar, Goran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brian, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stengel, Gudrun
    Chalmers.
    Hook, Fredrik
    Chalmers.
    Piehler, Jacob
    University of Frankfurt.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Addressable adsorption of lipid vesicles and subsequent protein interaction studies2008In: BIOINTERPHASES, ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a convenient chip platform for the addressable immobilization of protein-loaded vesicles on a microarray for parallelized, high-throughput analysis of lipid-protein systems. Self-sorting of the vesicles on the microarray was achieved through DNA bar coding of the vesicles and their hybridization to complementary strands, which are preimmobilized in defined array positions on the chip. Imaging surface plasmon resonance in ellipsometric mode was used to monitor vesicle immobilization, protein tethering, protein-protein interactions, and chip regeneration. The immobilization strategy proved highly specific and stable and presents a mild method for the anchoring of vesicles to predefined areas of a surface, while unspecific adsorption to both noncomplementary regions and background areas is nonexistent or, alternatively, undetectable. Furthermore, histidine-tagged receptors have been stably and functionally immobilized via bis-nitrilotriacetic acid chelators already present in the vesicle membranes. It was discovered though that online loading of proteins to immobilized vesicles leads to cross contamination of previously loaded vesicles and that it was necessary to load the vesicles offline in order to obtain pure protein populations on the vesicles. We have used this cross-binding effect to our benefit by coimmobilizing two receptor subunits in different ratios on the vesicle surface and successfully demonstrated ternary complex formation with their ligand. This approach is suitable for mechanistic studies of complex multicomponent analyses involving membrane-bound systems.

  • 23.
    Li, Zaifang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yao, Yulong
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Xiao, Yiqun
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Shahi, Maryam
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cruce, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jiang, Youyu
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Meng, Wei
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Qin, Fei
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Xinhui
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brill, Joseph W.
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Free-Standing High-Output Power Density Thermoelectric Device Based on Structure-Ordered PEDOT:PSS2018In: Advanced Electronic Materials, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 1700496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A free-standing high-output power density polymeric thermoelectric (TE) device is realized based on a highly conductive (approximate to 2500 S cm(-1)) structure-ordered poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate film (denoted as FS-PEDOT:PSS) with a Seebeck coefficient of 20.6 mu V K-1, an in-plane thermal conductivity of 0.64 W m(-1) K-1, and a peak power factor of 107 mu W K-2 m(-1) at room temperature. Under a small temperature gradient of 29 K, the TE device demonstrates a maximum output power density of 99 +/- 18.7 mu W cm(-2), which is the highest value achieved in pristine PEDOT:PSS based TE devices. In addition, a fivefold output power is demonstrated by series connecting five devices into a flexible thermoelectric module. The simplicity of assembling the films into flexible thermoelectric modules, the low out-of-plane thermal conductivity of 0.27 W m(-1) K-1, and free-standing feature indicates the potential to integrate the FS-PEDOT:PSS TE modules with textiles to power wearable electronics by harvesting human bodys heat. In addition to the high power factor, the high thermal stability of the FS-PEDOT:PSS films up to 250 degrees C is confirmed by in situ temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction and grazing incident wide angle X-ray scattering, which makes the FS-PEDOT:PSS films promising candidates for thermoelectric applications.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-01-02 00:12
  • 24.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kariis, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spetz, Anita.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Recent developments in field-effect gas sensors1995In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 23, no 2-3, p. 127-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the ongoing studies at our laboratory of gas-sensitive field-effect devices with catalytic metal gates are reviewed. More particularly, we discuss the use of such devices in so-called electronic noses due to the possibility of changing the selectivity patterns of the devices by the choice of catalytic metal and operation temperature. Several examples of the application of electronic noses consisting of field-effect devices in combination with metal oxide-based sensors are given. Finally, a summary is given of some remaining scientific problems and studies related to the understanding and development of gas-sensitive field-effect devices.

  • 25.
    Maleshlijski, S.
    et al.
    Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany; Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany; Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Sendra, G. H.
    Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany; Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany; Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Aldred, N.
    Newcastle University, England.
    Clare, A. S.
    Newcastle University, England.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanyang Technology University, Singapore.
    Grunze, M.
    Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany; Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosenhahn, A.
    Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany; Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany; Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Imaging SPR combined with stereoscopic 3D tracking to study barnacle cyprid-surface interactions2016In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 643, p. 172-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barnacle larvae (cyprids) explore surfaces to identify suitable settlement sites. This process is selective, and cyprids respond to numerous surface cues. To better understand the settlement process, it is desirable to simultaneously monitor both the surface exploration behavior and any close interactions with the surface. Stereoscopic 3D tracking of the cyprids provides quantitative access to surface exploration and pre-settlement rituals. Imaging surface plasmon resonance (SPR) reveals any interactions with the surfaces, such as surface inspection during bipedal walking and deposition of temporary adhesives. We report on a combination of both techniques to bring together information on swimming behavior in the vicinity of the interface and physical interactions of the cyprid with the surface. The technical requirements are described, and we applied the setup to cyprids of Balanus amphitrite. Initial data shows the applicability of the combined instrument to correlate exploration and touchdown events on surfaces with different chemical termination. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 26.
    Mitraka, Evangelia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Oxygen-induced doping on reduced PEDOT2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 4404-4412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has shown promise as air electrode in renewable energy technologies like metal-air batteries and fuel cells. PEDOT is based on atomic elements of high abundance and is synthesized at low temperature from solution. The mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over chemically polymerized PEDOT: Cl still remains controversial with eventual role of transition metal impurities. However, regardless of the mechanistic route, we here demonstrate yet another key active role of PEDOT in the ORR mechanism. Our study demonstrates the decoupling of conductivity (intrinsic property) from electrocatalysis (as an extrinsic phenomenon) yielding the evidence of doping of the polymer by oxygen during ORR. Hence, the PEDOT electrode is electrochemically reduced (undoped) in the voltage range of ORR regime, but O-2 keeps it conducting; ensuring PEDOT to act as an electrode for the ORR. The interaction of oxygen with the polymer electrode is investigated with a battery of spectroscopic techniques.

  • 27.
    Nugraha, Roni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Finlay, John A.
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Hill, Sophie
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Fyrner, Timmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yandi, Wetra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Callow, Maureen E.
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Callow, James A.
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Antifouling properties of oligo(lactose)-based self-assembled monolayers2015In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 123-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antifouling (AF) properties of oligo(lactose)-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), using four different proteins, zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza and cells of the diatom Navicula incerta, were investigated. The SAM-forming alkylthiols, which contained 1, 2 or 3 lactose units, showed significant variation in AF properties, with no differences in wettability. Non-specific adsorption of albumin and pepsin was low on all surfaces. Adsorption of lysozyme and fibrinogen decreased with increasing number of lactose units in the SAM, in agreement with the generally observed phenomenon that thicker hydrated layers provide higher barriers to protein adsorption. Settlement of spores of U. linza followed an opposite trend, being greater on the bulkier, more hydrated SAMs. These SAMs are more ordered for the larger saccharide units, and it is therefore hypothesized that the degree of order, and differences in crystallinity or stiffness between the surfaces, is an important parameter regulating spore settlement on these surfaces.

  • 28.
    Nygren, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broo, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Secondary structure in de novo designed peptides induced by electrostatic interaction with particles and membranes.2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Nygren, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Secondary Structure in de Novo Designed Peptides Induced by Electrostatic Interaction with a Lipid Bilayer Membrane2010In: LANGMUIR, ISSN 0743-7463, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 6437-6448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that it is possible to induce a defined secondary structure in de nova designed peptides upon electrostatic attachment to negatively charged lipid bilayer vesicles without partitioning of the peptides into the membrane, and that the secondary structure can be varied via small changes in the primary amino acid sequence of the peptides. The peptides have a random-coil conformation in solution, and results from far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrate that the structure induced by the interaction with silica nanoparticles is solely alpha-helical and also strongly pH-dependent. The present study shows that negatively charged vesicles, to which the peptides are electrostatically adsorbed via cationic amino acid residues, induce either alpha-helices or beta-sheets and that the conformation is dependent on both lipid composition and variations in peptide primary structure. The pH-dependence of the vesicle-induced peptide secondary structure is weak, which correlates well with small differences in the vesicles electrophoretic mobility, and thus the surface charge, as the pH is varied.

  • 30.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wanzhu, Cai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ever Aguirre, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The contraction of PEDOT films formed on a macromolecular liquid-like surface2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 654-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vapour phase polymerized (VPP) PEDOT obtained using triblock copolymer PEG-PPG-PEG: Fe(III) tosylate polymeric oxidative layers has shown record-high conductivity and unique thermoelectric properties. These properties are related to the molecular weight, morphology and doping of PEDOT. Here we show that in its unwashed condition, the PEDOT chain adopts a neutral benzenoid conformation. The polymer chain converts into the charged quinoid structure after the removal of oxidizers with solvent washing. X-ray diffraction results suggest that the dopant is also incorporated into the packed polymer after the washing process. The changes in the chain structure and doping lead to the characteristic polaron and bipolaron absorption in the 800 and 1200 nm range. We observed a large contraction of the film after washing that is likely due to these changes, along with the removal of excessive polymer: oxidizer trapped in the PEDOT matrix. The contraction of films can be completely suppressed by mechanical clamping. PEDOT films without contraction show both a higher conductivity and higher optical transparency.

  • 31.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Imaging the Phase Separation Between PEDOT and Polyelectrolytes During Processing of Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Films2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 35, p. 19764-19773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treating PEDOT:PSS (Clevios) with certain additives, such as ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sorbitol, has been shown to increase the conductivity of this material from roughly 1 to nearly 1000 S/cm. Using a slow drying method, we show that the additive induced a separation between free PSS and reorganized PEDOT:PSS complexes in the highly conductive PEDOT:PSS films. Additives (DMSO, DEG, and PEG 400) were included in PEDOT:PSS aqueous dispersions at large volume fractions. The mixtures were slowly dried under room conditions. During drying, the evaporation of water resulted in an additive-rich solvent mixture from which the reorganized PEDOT:PSS complexes aggregated " into a dense film while free PSS remained in the solution. Upon complete drying, PSS formed a transparent rim film around the conducting PEDOT film. The chemical compositions of the two phases were studied using an infrared microscope. This removal of PSS resulted in more compact packing of PEDOT molecules, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscope measurements suggested the enrichment of PEDOT on the film surface after PSS separation. Through a simple drying process in an additive-containing dispersion, the conductivity of PEDOT films increased from 0.1 to 200-400 S/cm. Through this method, we confirmed the existence of two phases in additive-treated and highly conductive PEDOT:PSS films. The proper separation between PSS and PEDOT will be of relevance in designing strategies to process high-performance plastic electrodes.

  • 32.
    Petrone, Luigi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aldred, Nick
    Newcastle University, England.
    Emami, Kaveh
    Newcastle University, England.
    Enander, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Clare, Anthony S.
    Newcastle University, England.
    Chemistry-specific surface adsorption of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex2015In: Interface Focus, ISSN 2042-8898, E-ISSN 2042-8901, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 20140047-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gregarious settlement in barnacle larvae (cyprids) is induced by a contact pheromone, the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC). The SIPC has been identified both in the cuticle of adult barnacles and in the temporary adhesive secretion (footprint) of cyprids. Besides acting as a settlement inducer, the presence of the SIPC in footprints points to its additional involvement in the adhesion process. SIPC adsorption behaviour was therefore investigated on a series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by surface plasmon resonance at the pH of seawater (8.3). Fibrinogen and alpha(2)-macroglobulin (A2M) (blood complement protease inhibitors with which the SIPC shares 29% sequence homology) were used in the adsorption experiments as positive and negative standards, respectively. The mass uptake of the SIPC was comparable to that of fibrinogen, with adsorption observed even on the protein-resistant oligo(ethylene glycol) surface. Notably, on the positively charged SAM the SIPC showed a kinetic overshoot, indicating a metastable configuration causing the amount of adsorbed protein to temporarily exceed its equilibrium value. A2M adsorption was low or negligible on all SAMs tested, except for the positively charged surface, indicating that A2M adsorption is mainly driven by electrostatics. Evaluation of SIPC non-specific adsorption kinetics revealed that it adsorbed irreversibly and non-cooperatively on all surfaces tested.

  • 33.
    Petrone, Luigi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Di Fino, Alessio
    Newcastle University.
    Aldred, Nick
    Newcastle University.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clare, Anthony S
    Newcastle University.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of surface charge and Gibbs surface energy on the settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids (Balanus amphitrite)2011In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1043-1055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gibbs surface energy has long been considered to be an important parameter in the design of fouling-resistant surfaces for marine applications. Rigorous testing of the hypothesis that settlement is related to Gibbs surface energy however has never been accomplished, due mainly to practical limitations imposed by the necessary combination of surface engineering and biological evaluation methods. In this article, the effects of surface charge and Gibbs surface energy on the settlement of cyprids of an important fouling barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, were evaluated. Settlement assays were conducted on a range of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) (CH(3)-, OH-, COOH-, N(CH(3))(3)(+)-, NH(2)-terminated), presented in gold-coated polystyrene well plates, varying in terms of their surface charge and Gibbs surface energy. Contrary to contemporary theory, settlement was not increased by high-energy surfaces, rather the opposite was found to be the case with cyprids settling in greater numbers on a low-energy CH(3)- SAM compared to a high-energy OH- SAM. Settlement was also greater on negatively-charged SAMs, compared to neutral and positively-charged SAMs. These findings are discussed in the context of data drawn from surfaces that varied in multiple characteristics simultaneously, as have been used previously for such experiments. The finding that surface charge, rather than total surface energy, may be responsible for surface selection by cyprids, will have significant implications for the design of future fouling-resistant materials.

  • 34.
    Rosenhahn, Axel
    et al.
    Univ Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Pettitt, Michala E.
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Biosci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.
    Advanced nanostructures for the control of biofouling: The FP6 EU Integrated Project AMBIO2008In: BIOINTERPHASES, ISSN 1559-4106, Vol. 3, no 1, p. IR1-IR5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The colonization of man made structures by marine or freshwater organisms or "biofouling" is a problem for maritime and aquaculture industries. Increasing restrictions on the use of toxic coatings that prevent biofouling, create a gap in the market that requires new approaches to produce novel nonbiocidal alternatives. This review details the systematic strategy adopted by an FP6 EU Integrated Project "AMBIO" to develop fundamental understanding of key surface properties that influence settlement and adhesion of fouling organisms. By this approach the project contributes to the understanding of fundamental phenomena involved in biofouling, and to the development of environmentally benign solutions by coating manufacturers within the consortium. (c) 2008 American Vacuum Society.

  • 35.
    Stuppy, S.M.
    et al.
    Applied Physical Chemistry, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Institute for Functional Interfaces, IFG, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Arpa Sancet, M. P.
    Applied Physical Chemistry, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Institute for Functional Interfaces, IFG, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Heydt, M.
    Ocean Engineering and Oceanography, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne Florida, USA.
    Schilp, S.
    Ocean Engineering and Oceanography, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne Florida, USA.
    Zargiel, K.
    Ocean Engineering and Oceanography, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne Florida, USA.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swain, G. W.
    Ocean Engineering and Oceanography, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne Florida, USA.
    Callow, J. A.
    School of Bioscience, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Callow, M. E.
    School of Bioscience, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Rosenhahn, A.
    Institute for Functional Interfaces, IFG, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Grunze, M.
    Applied Physical Chemistry, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Institute for Toxicology and Genetics, ITG, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    From lab to field - chemistry depending surface colonization and 3D tracking2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Suriyanarayanan, Subramanian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden .
    Petrone, Luigi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden .
    Biotinyl moiety-selective polymer films with highly ordered macropores2013In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 49, no 46, p. 5274-5276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroporous polymer films with long-range uniformity and biotinyl-moiety selective recognition sites have been developed. A hierarchical molecular imprinting strategy afforded significant enhancements in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensitivities towards biotinylated compounds.

  • 37.
    Tai, Feng-I
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics.
    Sterner, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics.
    Andersson, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics.
    pH-control of the protein resistance of hydrogel gradient films2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Tai, Feng-i
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sterner, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekblad, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    pH-control of the protein resistance of thin hydrogel gradient films2014In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 10, no 32, p. 5955-5964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the preparation and characterization of thin polyampholytic hydrogel gradient films permitting pH-controlled protein resistance via the regulation of surface charges. The hydrogel gradients are composed of cationic poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride) (PAEMA), and anionic poly(2-carboxyethyl acrylate) (PCEA) layers, which are fabricated by self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP). Using a two-step UV exposure procedure, a polymer thickness gradient of one component is formed on top of a uniform layer of the oppositely charged polymer. The swelling of the gradient films in water and buffers at different pH were characterized by imaging spectroscopic ellipsometry. The surface charge distribution and steric interactions with the hydrogel gradients were recorded by direct force measurement with colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that formation of a charged polymer thickness gradient on top of a uniform layer of opposite charge can result in a region of charge-neutrality. This charge-neutral region is highly resistant to non-specific adsorption of proteins, and its location along the gradient can be controlled via the pH of the surrounding buffer. The pH-controlled protein adsorption and desorption was monitored in real-time by imaging surface plasmon resonance, while the corresponding redistribution of surface charge was confirmed by direct force measurements.

  • 39.
    Tang, Zheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tress, Wolfgang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    , Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving Cathodes with a Polymer Interlayer in Reversed Organic Solar Cells2014In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 4, no 15, article id 1400643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of cathode modification by a conjugated polymer interlayer PFPA1 on the performance of reversed organic solar cells (substrate/cathode/active layer/transparent anode) based on different active material systems and different substrate electrodes are systematically investigated. A reduction of the work function irrespective of the substrate cathode used is observed upon the deposition of the PFPA1 interlayer, which is further related to an improved built-in electric field and open-circuit voltage. The amphiphilic character of the PFPA1 interlayer alters the surface energy of the substrate cathode, leading to the formation of a better active layer morphology aiding efficient exciton dissociation and photocurrent extraction in the modified solar cells. Hence, internal quantum efficiency is found to be significantly higher than that of their unmodified counterparts, while optically, the modified and unmodified solar cells are identical. Moreover, the deep highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the PFPA1 interlayer improves the selectivity for all investigated substrate cathodes, thus enhancing the fill factor.

  • 40.
    Tang, Zheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tress, Wolfgang
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Polymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Universal modification of poor cathodes into good ones by a polymer interlayer for high performance reversed organic solar cells2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells, energy losses at the active layer/electrode interface are often observed. Modification of these interfaces with organic interlayers optimizes charge carrier injection and extraction and thus improves device performance. In this work, the effects of cathode modification by a conjugated polymer interlayer PFPA1 on the performance of reversed organic solar cells (substrate/cathode/active layer/transparent anode) based on different active material systems and different substrate electrodes are systematically investigated. A reduction of the work function irrespective of the substrate cathode used is observed upon the deposition of the PFPA1 interlayer; further related to an improved built-in electric field and open-circuit voltage. The amphiphilic character of the PFPA1 interlayer alters the surface energy of the substrate cathode, leading to the formation of a better active layer morphology aiding efficient exciton dissociation and photocurrent extraction in the modified solar cells. Hence, internal quantum efficiency is found significantly higher than that of their unmodified counterparts, while optically, the modified and unmodified solar cells are identical. Moreover, the deep HOMO of the PFPA1 interlayer improves the selectivity for all investigated substrate cathodes, thus enhancing the fill factor. We demonstrate a possibility of improving photovoltaic performance of reversed solar cells via a simple and universal interface modification and provide the basic guidelines for development and characterization of interface materials for organic solar cells in general.

  • 41.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bubnova, Olga
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evans, Drew R.
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Australia.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Acido-basic control of the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)tosylate (PEDOT-Tos) thin films2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, p. 10616-10623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PEDOT-Tos is one of the conducting polymers that displays the most promising thermoelectric properties. Until now, it has been utterly difficult to control all the synthesis parameters and the morphology governing the thermoelectric properties. To improve our understanding of this material, we study the variation in the thermoelectric properties by a simple acido-basic treatment. The emphasis of this study is to elucidate the chemical changes induced by acid (HCl) or base (NaOH) treatment in PEDOT-Tos thin films using various spectroscopic and structural techniques. We could identify changes in the nanoscale morphology due to anion exchange between tosylate and Cl- or OH-. But, we identified that changing the pH leads to a tuning of the oxidation level of the polymer, which can explain the changes in thermoelectric properties. Hence, a simple acid-base treatment allows finding the optimum for the power factor in PEDOT-Tos thin films.

  • 42.
    Vater, Svenja M.
    et al.
    Heidelberg University, Germany; Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany.
    Finlay, John
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Callow, Maureen E.
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Callow, James A.
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanyang Technology University, Singapore.
    Grunze, Michael
    Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany.
    Rosenhahn, Axel
    Heidelberg University, Germany; Karlsruhe Institute Technology, Germany; Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany.
    Holographic microscopy provides new insights into the settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza on cationic oligopeptide surfaces2015In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 229-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction of zoospores of Ulva linza with cationic, arginine-rich oligopeptide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is characterized by rapid settlement. Some spores settle (ie permanently attach) in a normal manner involving the secretion of a permanent adhesive, retraction of the flagella and cell wall formation, whilst others undergo pseudosettlement whereby motile spores are trapped (attached) on the SAM surface without undergoing the normal metamorphosis into a settled spore. Holographic microscopy was used to record videos of swimming zoospores in the vicinity of surfaces with different cationic oligopeptide concentrations to provide time-resolved insights into processes associated with attachment of spores. The data reveal that spore attachment rate increases with increasing cationic peptide content. Accordingly, the decrease in swimming activity in the volume of seawater above the surface accelerated with increasing surface charge. Three-dimensional trajectories of individual swimming spores showed a hit and stick motion pattern, exclusively observed for the arginine-rich peptide SAMs, whereby spores were immediately trapped upon contact with the surface.

  • 43.
    Villamil Giraldo, Ana M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Appelqvist, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Lysosomotropic agents: impact on lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death2014In: Biochemical Society Transactions, ISSN 0300-5127, E-ISSN 1470-8752, Vol. 42, p. 1460-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lysosomes are acidic organelles essential for degradation, signalling and cell homoeostasis. In addition, they play a key role in cell death. Permeabilization of the lysosomal membrane and release of hydrolytic enzymes to the cytosol accompanies apoptosis signalling in several systems. The regulatory mechanism of lysosomal stability is, however, poorly understood. Lipophilic or amphiphilic compounds with a basic moiety will become protonated and trapped within lysosomes, and such lysosomotropic behaviour is also found in many pharmacological drugs. The natural sphingolipid sphingosine exhibits lysosomotropic detergent ability and is an endogenous candidate for controlling lysosomal membrane permeabilization. The lysosomotropic properties of certain detergents might be of use in lysosome-targeting anticancer drugs and drug delivery system in the future. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the targeting and permeabilizing properties of lysosomotropic detergents from a cellular and physicochemical perspective.

  • 44.
    Villamil Giraldo, Ana Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fyrner, Timmy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry.
    Wennmalm, Stefan
    Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Parikh, Atul N.
    University of Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA; University of Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spontaneous Vesiculation and pH-Induced Disassembly of a Lysosomotropic Detergent: Impacts on Lysosomotropism and Lysosomal Delivery2016In: LANGMUIR, ISSN 0743-7463, Vol. 32, no 50, p. 13566-13575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lysosomotropic detergents (LDs) selectively rupture lysosomal membranes through mechanisms that have yet to be characterized. A consensus view, currently, holds that LDs, which are weakly basic, diffuse across cellular membranes as monomers in an uncharged state, and via protonation in the acidic lysosomal compartment, they become trapped, accumulate, and subsequently solubilize the membrane and induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Here we demonstrate that the lysosomotropic detergent O-methyl-serine dodecylamide hydrochloride (MSDH) spontaneously assembles into vesicles at, and above, cytosolic pH, and that the vesicles disassemble as the pH reaches 6.4 or lower. The aggregation commences at concentrations below the range of those used in cell studies. Assembly and disassembly of the vesicles was studied via dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, cryo-TEM, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and was found to be reversible via control of the pH. Aggregation of MSDH into closed vesicles under cytosolic conditions is at variance with the commonly held view of LD behavior, and we propose that endocytotic pathways should be considered as possible routes of LD entry into lysosomes. We further demonstrate that MSDH vesicles can be loaded with fluorophores via a solution transition from low to high pH, for subsequent release when the pH is lowered again. The ability to encapsulate molecular cargo into MSDH vesicles together with its ability to disaggregate at low pH and to permeabilize the lysosomal membrane presents an intriguing possibility to use MSDH as a delivery system.

  • 45.
    Wang, Xiangjun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In-situ Wilhelmy balance surface energy determination of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) during electrochemical doping-dedoping2006In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 22, no 22, p. 9287-9294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the contact angle between conjugated polymers surface poly(3-hexylthiophene) [P3HT] and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) upon electrochemical doping−dedoping in aqueous electrolyte were determined in situ using a Wilhelmy plate tensiometer in an electrochemical cell. The hydrophobic P3HT was less hydrophobic in the oxidized state than in the neutral state; the more hydrophilic PEDOT was less hydrophilic in the oxidized state than when neutral. The tensiometry results were in good agreement with those measured by contact angle goniometry, and further corroborated by the capillary rise upon doping in a fluid cell with two parallel polymer coated plates, another in situ dynamic determination method. The contact angle changes depend on doping potential, electrolyte type, and concentration. We also deconvoluted the surface energy into components of van der Waals and acid−base interactions, using three probe liquids on the polymer surfaces, ex situ the electrochemical cell. The methods and the obtained results are relevant for the science and technology areas of printed electronics and electrochemical devices and for the understanding of surface energy modification by electrochemical doping.

  • 46.
    Wang, Yuming
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Nana
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qian, Deping
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Wang, Jianpu
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Wei
    Nanjing Tech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Light-induced degradation of fullerenes in organic solar cells: a case study on TQ1:PC71BM2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 25, p. 11884-11889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of organic solar cells (OSCs) is critical for practical applications of this emerging technology. Unfortunately, in spite of intensive investigations, the degradation mechanisms in OSCs have not been clearly understood yet. In this report, we employ a range of spectroscopic and transport measurements, coupled with drift-diffusion modelling, to investigate the light-induced degradation mechanisms of fullerene-based OSCs. We find that trap states formed in the fullerene phase under illumination play a critical role in the degradation of the open-circuit voltage (V-OC) in OSCs. Our results indicate that the degradation is intrinsic to the fullerenes in OSCs and that alternative acceptor materials are desired for the development of stable OSCs.

  • 47.
    Wibisono, Yusuf
    et al.
    University of Twente, Netherlands; Wetsus, Netherlands.
    Yandi, Wetra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    Nugraha, Roni
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cornelissen, Emile R.
    KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Netherlands.
    Kemperman, Antoine J. B.
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nijmeijer, Kitty
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Hydrogel-coated feed spacers in two-phase flow cleaning in spiral wound membrane elements: A novel platform for eco-friendly biofouling mitigation2015In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 71, p. 171-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofouling is still a major challenge in the application of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. Here we present a platform approach for environmentally friendly biofouling control using a combination of a hydrogel-coated feed spacer and two-phase flow cleaning. Neutral (polyHEMA-co-PEG(10)MA), cationic (polyDMAEMA) and anionic (polySPMA) hydrogels have been successfully grafted onto polypropylene (PP) feed spacers via plasma-mediated UV-polymerization. These coatings maintained their chemical stability after 7 days incubation in neutral (pH 7), acidic (pH 5) and basic (pH 9) environments. Anti-biofouling properties of these coatings were evaluated by Escherichia coli attachment assay and nanofiltration experiments at a TMP of 600 kPag using tap water with additional nutrients as feed and by using optical coherence tomography. Especially the anionic polySPMA-coated PP feed spacer shows reduced attachment of E. coli and biofouling in the spacer-filled narrow channels resulting in delayed biofilm growth. Employing this highly hydrophilic coating during removal of biofouling by two-phase flow cleaning also showed enhanced cleaning efficiency, feed channel pressure drop and flux recoveries. The strong hydrophilic nature and the presence of negative charge on polySPMA are most probably responsible for the improved antifouling behavior. A combination of polySPMA-coated PP feed spacers and two-phase flow cleaning therefore is promising and an environmentally friendly approach to control biofouling in NF/RO systems employing spiral-wound membrane modules.

  • 48.
    Yandi, Wetra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics.
    Mieszkin, Sophie
    University of Birmingham, England; Newcastle University, England.
    Callow, Maureen E.
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Callow, James A.
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Finlay, John A.
    University of Birmingham, England; Newcastle University, England.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nanyang Technology University, Singapore.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Antialgal activity of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes against the marine alga Ulva2017In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 169-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine biofouling has detrimental effects on the environment and economy, and current antifouling coatings research is aimed at environmentally benign, non-toxic materials. The possibility of using contact-active coatings is explored, by considering the antialgal activity of cationic poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The antialgal activity was investigated via zoospore settlement and sporeling growth assays of the marine algae Ulva linza and U. lactuca. The assay results for PDMAEMA brushes were compared to those for anionic and neutral surfaces. It was found that only PDMAEMA could disrupt zoospores that come into contact with it, and that it also inhibits the subsequent growth of normally settled spores. Based on the spore membrane properties, and characterization of the PDMAEMA brushes over a wide pH range, it is hypothesized that the algicidal mechanisms are similar to the bactericidal mechanisms of cationic polymers, and that further development could lead to successful contact-active antialgal coatings.

  • 49.
    Yandi, Wetra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mieszkin, Sophie
    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    di Fino, Alessio
    Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.
    Martin-Tanchereau, Pierre
    International Paint Ltd, Gateshead, UK.
    Callow, Maureen E
    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Callow, James A.
    University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Tyson, Lyndsey
    International Paint Ltd, Gateshead, UK.
    Clare, Anthony S.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Charged hydrophilic polymer brushes and their relevance for understanding marine biofouling2016In: Biofouling (Print), ISSN 0892-7014, E-ISSN 1029-2454, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 609-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resistance of charged polymers to biofouling was investigated by subjecting cationic (PDMAEMA), anionic (PSPMA), neutral (PHEMA-co-PEG10MA), and zwitterionic (PSBMA) brushes to assays testing protein adsorption; attachment of the marine bacterium Cobetia marina; settlement and adhesion strength of zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza; settlement of barnacle (Balanus amphitrite and B. improvisus) cypris larvae; and field immersion tests. Several results go beyond the expected dependence on direct electrostatic attraction; PSPMA showed good resistance towards attachment of C. marina, low settlement and adhesion of U. linza zoospores, and significantly lower biofouling than on PHEMA-co-PEG10MA or PSBMA after a field test for one week. PDMAEMA showed potential as a contact-active anti-algal coating due to its capacity to damage attached spores. However, after field testing for eight weeks, there were no significant differences in biofouling coverage among the surfaces. While charged polymers are unsuitable as antifouling coatings in the natural environment, they provide valuable insights into fouling processes, and are relevant for studies due to charging of nominally neutral surfaces.

  • 50.
    Yandi, Wetra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mieszkin, Sophie
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Martin-Tanchereau, Pierre
    International Paint Ltd, Newcastle, United Kingdom; Department of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Callow, Maureen E.
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Callow, James A.
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Tyson, Lyndsey
    International Paint Ltd, Newcastle, United Kingdom.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hydration and chain entanglement determines the optimum thickness of poly(HEMA-co-PEG10MA) brushes for effective antifouling properties2015Conference paper (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 53
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