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  • 1.
    Aman, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish Sch Sport and Hlth Sci, Sweden.
    Larsen, Karin
    Swedish Sch Sport and Hlth Sci, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Swedish Sch Sport and Hlth Sci, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Näsmark, Annica
    Swedish Sch Sport and Hlth Sci, Sweden; Capio Artro Clin, Sweden.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish Sch Sport and Hlth Sci, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish Sch Sport and Hlth Sci, Sweden.
    A Nationwide Follow-up Survey on the Effectiveness of an Implemented Neuromuscular Training Program to Reduce Acute Knee Injuries in Soccer Players2018In: The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 2325-9671, Vol. 6, no 12, article id 2325967118813841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A cruciate ligament (CL) injury is a severe injury in soccer. Neuromuscular training programs have a well-documented preventive effect, but there are few studies on the effectiveness of such a program at a national level. The Swedish Knee Control Program (KCP) was found to be effective in preventing CL injuries in youth female soccer players. The KCP was implemented nationwide in Sweden in 2010. Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Swedish KCP in reducing acute knee injuries in soccer players at a nationwide level. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: All licensed soccer players in Sweden are covered by the same insurance company. Using this insurance database, around 17,500 acute knee injuries that were reported to the insurance company between 2006 and 2015 were included in the study. By matching the number of licensed soccer players with the number of reported injuries each year, the annual incidence of knee and CL injuries was able to be calculated. To evaluate the spread of the KCP nationally, a questionnaire was sent to all 24 Swedish district football associations (FAs) with questions regarding KCP education. The number of downloads of the KCP mobile application (app) was obtained. Results: The incidence of CL injuries decreased during the study period for both male (from 2.9 to 2.4 per 1000 player-years) and female players (from 4.9 to 3.9 per 1000 player-years). The overall incidence of knee injuries decreased in both male (from 5.6 to 4.6 per 1000 player-years) and female players (from 8.7 to 6.4 per 1000 player-years). Comparing before and after the nationwide implementation of the KCP, there was a decrease in the incidence of CL injuries by 6% (rate ratio [RR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98]) in male players and 13% (RR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.92]) in female players and a decrease in the incidence of knee injuries by 8% (RR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.89-0.96]) and 21% (RR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75-0.83]), respectively (P amp;lt; .01 for all). This trend corresponded to a reduction of approximately 100 CL injuries each year in Sweden. A total of 21 of 24 district FAs held organized KCP educational courses during the study period. The percentage of district FAs holding KCP courses was between 46% and 79% each year. There were 101,236 downloads of the KCP app. Conclusion: The KCP can be considered partially implemented nationwide, and the incidence of knee and CL injuries has decreased in both sexes at a nationwide level.

  • 2.
    Arundale, Amelia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Football Research Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fältström, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Jönköping County, Rehabilitation Centre, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Jumping performance based on duration of rehabilitation in female football players after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction2019In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 556-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To determine if female football players who had longer durations of rehabilitation, measured in months, after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction would have lower tuck jump scores (fewer technique flaws) and smaller asymmetries during drop vertical jump landing.

    Methods

    One-hundred-and-seventeen female football players, aged 16ᅵ25 years, after primary unilateral ACL reconstruction (median 16 months, range 6ᅵ39) were included. Athletes reported the duration of rehabilitation they performed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Athletes also performed the tuck jump and drop vertical jump tests. Outcome variables were: tuck jump score, frontal plane knee motion and probability of peak knee abduction moment during drop vertical jump landing.

    Results

    There was no difference in tuck jump score based on duration of rehabilitation (n.s.). No interaction (n.s.), difference between limbs (n.s.), or duration of rehabilitation (n.s.) was found for peak knee abduction moment during drop vertical jump landing. No interaction (n.s.) or difference between limbs (n.s.) was found for frontal plane knee motion, but there was a difference based on duration of rehabilitation (P?=?0.01). Athletes with >?9 months of rehabilitation had more frontal plane knee motion (medial knee displacement) than athletes with <?6 months (P?=?0.01) or 6ᅵ9 months (P?=?0.03).

    Conclusion

    As there was no difference in tuck jump score or peak knee abduction moment based on duration of rehabilitation, the results of this study press upon clinicians the importance of using objective measures to progress rehabilitation and clear athletes for return to sport, rather than time alone.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Hakan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Match Injury Rates in Professional Soccer Vary With Match Result, Match Venue, and Type of Competition2013In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 1505-1510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Player activities in soccer matches are influenced by the match result and match venue. It is not known whether injury rates are influenced by these factors. Purpose: To investigate whether there are associations between injury rates and the match result, venue, and type of competition in male soccer. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Twenty-six professional clubs from 10 countries were followed prospectively during 9 seasons (2001-2002 to 2009-2010). All matches, and injuries occurring in these matches, were registered by the teams medical staff. An injury was registered if it resulted in player absence from training or matches. Information about match result, venue, and type of competition for all reported matches was gathered by the authors from online databases. Injury rates in matches with varying match characteristics were compared by use of generalized estimating equations. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: A total of 2738 injuries during 6010 matches were registered. There were no associations between odds of 1 injury occurrence and match result or type of competition, whereas the odds were decreased in matches played away compared with home matches (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99). The odds of 2 or more injury occurrences in a match were increased in matches resulting in a draw (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.69) or loss (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.38-1.98) compared with matches won and were decreased in other cup matches compared with league matches (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39-0.84) and in matches played away compared with home matches (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.82). Finally, injuries with more than 1 weeks absence occurred more frequently in Champions League matches compared with league matches both for matches with 1 injury (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45) and matches with 2 or more injuries (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.13-2.20). Conclusion: The odds of 2 or more injury occurrences in professional soccer were higher in matches resulting in a loss or a draw compared with a win, whereas the odds of injury occurrences were lower in matches played away compared with home matches. The rate of moderate and severe injuries increased with the importance of the match.

  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Muscle injury rates in professional football increase with fixture congestion: an 11-year follow-up of the UEFA Champions League injury study2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 743-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The influence of fixture congestion on injury rates and team performance has only been scarcely investigated.

    Aim To study associations between recovery time and match load and injury rates and team performance in professional football.

    Methods Exposure and time loss injuries were registered prospectively from 27 teams over 11 seasons. Matches were grouped according to recovery days before each match (≤3 vs >3 days, and ≤4 vs ≥6 days). Injury rates and team performance were compared between groups. Match load in match sequences containing five consecutive matches was determined by the number of days separating the first match and the last training session during that match sequence. Linear regression was used to study associations between match load and injury rates and team performance.

    Results Team performance showed no association with match load, or recovery days prior to matches, except for Europa League matches that indicated more matches lost with short recovery (≤3 days) (p=0.048). Total injury rates and muscle injury rates were increased in league matches with ≤4 days compared with ≥6 days’ recovery (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.18, and RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.51, respectively), specifically hamstring and quadriceps injuries. High match load was associated with increase in muscle injury rate in matches in the same match sequence (p=0.012), and increase in ligament injury rate in training in the subsequent match sequence (p=0.003).

    Conclusions Fixture congestion was associated with increased muscle injury rates but had no, or very limited, influence on team performance.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Muscle injury rate in professional football is higher in matches played within 5 days since the previous match: a 14-year prospective study with more than 130 000 match observations2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 1116-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The association between match congestion and injury rates in professional football has yielded conflicting results. Aim To analyse associations between match congestion on an individual player level and injury rates during professional football matches. Methods Data from a prospective cohort study of professional football with 133 170 match observations were analysed with Poisson regressions. Associations between short-term match congestion, defined as number of days between two match exposures (3, 4, 5, 6 and 7-10 days) and injury rates were analysed. To analyse the influence of long-term match congestion, defined as individual match exposure hours in the 30 days preceding a match, observations were categorised into three groups (low, 4.5; medium, amp;gt;4.5to 7.5; and high, amp;gt;7.5hours). Results No differences in total match injury rates were found between the reference category (3 days) and the other categories of short-term congestion. Muscle injury rates were significantly lower in matches preceded by 6 (rate ratio (RR) 0.79; 95%CI 0.65 to 0.95) or 7-10 days (RR 0.81; 95%CI 0.71 to 0.93) compared with 3 days since the last match exposure. No differences in total and muscle injury rates between the three long-term match congestion groups were found. Conclusions In this study of male professional football players, there were no match congestion-related differences in total match injury rates, but muscle injury rates during matches were lower when players were given at least 6days between their match exposures.

  • 6.
    Bjorneboe, John
    et al.
    Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
    Kristensson, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ronsen, Ola
    Aker Solut, Norway.
    Einar Andersen, Thor
    Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
    Role of illness in male professional football: not a major contributor to time loss2016In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 699-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There are limited data on the nature, type and incidence of illness in football. Previous studies indicate that gastrointestinal and respiratory tract illnesses are most common. Aim To describe the incidence and burden of illness in male professional football. Methods Over the 4-year study period, 2011-2014, 73 professional football teams in Europe participated, with a total of 1 261 367 player-days recorded. All time-loss illnesses were recorded by the medical staff of each club. A recordable illness episode was any physical or psychological symptom (not related to injury) that resulted in the player being unable to participate fully in training or match play. Results A total of 1914 illness episodes were recorded. The illness incidence was 1.5 per 1000 player-days, meaning that, on average, a player experienced an illness episode every second season, with a median of 3 days absence per illness episode. Severe illness (absence amp;gt;4 weeks) constituted 2% of all illnesses. Respiratory tract illness was the most common (58%), followed by gastrointestinal illness (38%). Respiratory tract illness, gastrointestinal illness and cardiovascular illness caused the highest illness burden. Conclusions The illness incidence among male professional football players is low compared with the injury incidence. We found that the highest illness burden was caused by illness to the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system.

  • 7.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Healy, Jeremiah C
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lee, Justin C
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med.
    English, Bryan
    University of London.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Hamstring muscle injuries in professional football: the correlation of MRI findings with return to play2012In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 112-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Hamstring injury is the single most common injury in professional football. MRI is commonly used to confirm the diagnosis and provide a prognosis of lay-off time. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective To evaluate the use of MRI as a prognostic tool for lay-off after hamstring injuries in professional football players and to study the association between MRI findings and injury circumstances. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods Prospective cohort study where 23 European professional teams, were followed between 2007 and 2011. Team medical staffs recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. Radiological grading was performed using a modified Peetrons classification into four grades where grades 2 and 3 represent fibre disruption. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults In total, 516 hamstring injuries occurred and 58% of these were examined by MRI. Thirteen per cent were grade 0 injuries, 57% grade 1, 27% of grade 2 and 3% of grade 3. Grade 0 and 1 injuries accounted for 56% (2141/3830 days) of the total lay-off. The layoff time differed between all four radiological grades of injury (8 +/- 3, 17 +/- 10, 22 +/- 11 and 73 +/- 60 days, p andlt; 0.0001). Eighty-three per cent of injuries affected the biceps femoris while 11% and 5% occurred to the semimembranosus and semitendinosus, respectively. Re-injuries (N=34/207) constituted 16% of injuries. All re-injuries occurred to the biceps femoris. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion MRI can be helpful in verifying the diagnosis of a hamstring injury and to prognosticate layoff time. Radiological grading is associated with lay-off times after injury. Seventy per cent of hamstring injuries seen in professional football are of radiological grade 0 or 1, meaning no signs of fibre disruption on MRI, but still cause the majority of absence days.

  • 8.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fuller, C.W
    Centre for Sports Medicine, University of Nottingham, UK.
    Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players. 2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 824-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to compare incidences and patterns of injury for female and male elite teams when playing football on artificial turf and grass. Twenty teams (15 male, 5 female) playing home matches on third-generation artificial turf were followed prospectively; their injury risk when playing on artificial turf pitches was compared with the risk when playing on grass. Individual exposure, injuries (time loss) and injury severity were recorded by the team medical staff. In total, 2105 injuries were recorded during 246 000 h of exposure to football. Seventy-one percent of the injuries were traumatic and 29% overuse injuries. There were no significant differences in the nature of overuse injuries recorded on artificial turf and grass for either men or women. The incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours) of acute (traumatic) injuries did not differ significantly between artificial turf and grass, for men (match 22.4 v 21.7; RR 1.0 (95% CI 0.9–1.2); training 3.5 v 3.5; RR 1.0 (0.8–1.2)) or women [match 14.9 v 12.5; RR 1.2 (0.8–1.8); training 2.9 v 2.8; RR 1.0 (0.6–1.7)]. During matches, men were less likely to sustain a quadriceps strain (P=0.031) and more likely to sustain an ankle sprain (P=0.040) on artificial turf.

  • 9.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kristenson, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Walden, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fewer ligament injuries but no preventive effect on muscle injuries and severe injuries: an 11-year follow-up of the UEFA Champions League injury study2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 732-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanLimited information is available on the variation in injury rates over multiple seasons of professional football. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAim less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanTo analyse time-trends in injury characteristics of male professional football players over 11 consecutive seasons. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanA total of 1743 players comprising 27 teams from 10 countries were followed prospectively between 2001 and 2012. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time loss injuries. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanA total of 8029 time loss injuries were recorded. The match unavailability due to injury was 14% and constant over the study period. On average, a player sustained two injuries per season, resulting in approximately 50 injuries per team and season. The ligament injury rate decreased during the study period (R-2=0.608, b=-0.040, 95% CI -0.065 to -0.016, p=0.005), whereas the rate of muscle injury (R-2=0.228, b=-0.013, 95% CI -0.032 to 0.005, p=0.138) and severe injury (R-2=0.141, b=0.015, 95% CI -0.013 to 0.043, p=0.255) did not change over the study period. In addition, no changes in injury rates over the 11-year period were found for either training (R-2=0.000, b=0.000, 95% CI -0.035 to 0.034, p=0.988) or match play (R-2=0.282, b=-0.015, 95% CI -0.032 to 0.003, p=0.093). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe injury rate has decreased for ligament injuries over the last 11years, but overall training, match injury rates and the rates of muscle injury and severe injury remain high.

  • 10.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tornqvist, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kristenson, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Upper extremity injuries in male elite football players2013In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1626-1632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the epidemiology of upper extremity injuries in male elite football players and to describe their characteristics, incidence and lay-off times. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanBetween 2001 and 2011, 57 male European elite football teams (2,914 players and 6,215 player seasons) were followed prospectively. Time-loss injuries and exposure to training and matches were recorded on individual basis. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanIn total, 11,750 injuries were recorded, 355 (3 %) of those affected the upper extremities giving an incidence of 0.23 injuries/1,000 h of football. The incidence in match play was almost 7 times higher than in training (0.83 vs. 0.12 injuries/1,000 h, rate ratio 6.7, 95 % confidence interval 5.5-8.3). As much as 32 % of traumatic match injuries occurred as a result of foul play situations. Goalkeepers had a significantly higher incidence of upper extremity injuries compared to outfield players (0.80 vs. 0.16 injuries/1,000 h, rate ratio 5.0, 95 % confidence interval 4.0-6.2). The average absence due to an upper extremity injury was 23 +/- A 34 days. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanUpper extremity injuries are uncommon among male elite football players. Goalkeepers, however, are prone to upper extremity injury, with a five times higher incidence compared to outfield players. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanII.

  • 11.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Epidemiology of Muscle Injuries in Professional Football (Soccer)2011In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1226-1232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Muscle injuries constitute a large percentage of all injuries in football.

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and nature of muscle injuries in male professional footballers.

    Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

    Methods: Fifty-one football teams, comprising 2299 players, were followed prospectively during the years 2001 to 2009. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. The first-team squads of 24 clubs selected by the Union of European Football Associations as belonging to the best European teams, 15 teams of the Swedish First League, and another 15 European teams playing their home matches on artificial turf pitches were included. A muscle injury was defined as “a traumatic distraction or overuse injury to the muscle leading to a player being unable to fully participate in training or match play.”

    Results: In total, 2908 muscle injuries were registered. On average, a player sustained 0.6 muscle injuries per season. A squad of 25 players can thus expect about 15 muscle injuries per season. Muscle injuries constituted 31% of all injuries and caused 27% of the total injury absence. Ninety-two percent of all muscle injuries affected the 4 major muscle groups of the lower limbs: hamstrings (37%), adductors (23%), quadriceps (19%), and calf muscles (13%). Sixteen percent of the muscle injuries were reinjuries. These reinjuries caused significantly longer absences than did index injuries. The incidence of muscle injury increased with age. When separated into different muscle groups, however, an increased incidence with age was found only for calf muscle injuries and not for hamstring, quadriceps, or hip/groin strains.

    Conclusion: Muscle injuries are a substantial problem for players and their clubs. They constitute almost one third of all time-loss injuries in men’s professional football, and 92% of all injuries affect the 4 big muscle groups in the lower limbs.

  • 12.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football - the UEFA injury study2011In: British journal of sports medicine, ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 553-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the injury characteristics in professional football and to follow the variation of injury incidence during a match, during a season and over consecutive seasons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study where teams were followed for seven consecutive seasons. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries from 2001 to 2008. SETTING: European professional men's football. PARTICIPANTS: The first team squads of 23 teams selected by UEFA as belonging to the 50 best European teams. Main outcome measurement: Injury incidence. RESULTS: 4,483 injuries occurred during 566,000 hours of exposure, giving an injury incidence of 8.0 injuries/1,000 hours. The injury incidence during matches was higher than in training (27.5 v 4.1, p<0.0001). A player sustained on average 2.0 injuries per season and a team with typically 25 players can thus expect about 50 injuries each season. The single most common injury subtype was thigh strain, representing 17% of all injuries. Re-injuries constituted 12% of all injuries and they caused longer absences than non re-injuries (24 v 18 days, p<0.0001). The incidence of match injuries showed an increasing injury tendency over time in both the first and second halves (p<0.0001). Traumatic injuries and hamstring strains were more frequent during the competitive season, while overuse injuries were common during the pre-season. Training and match injury incidences were stable over the period with no significant differences between seasons. CONCLUSIONS: The training and match injury incidences were stable over seven seasons. The risk of injury increased with time in each half of matches.

  • 13.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Risk of injury in elite football played on artificial turf versus natural grass: a prospective two-cohort study.2006In: British journal of sports medicine, ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 975-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To compare injury risk in elite football played on artificial turf compared with natural grass.

    DESIGN: Prospective two-cohort study.

    SETTING: Male European elite football leagues.

    PARTICIPANTS: 290 players from 10 elite European clubs that had installed third-generation artificial turf surfaces in 2003-4, and 202 players from the Swedish Premier League acting as a control group.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Injury incidence.

    RESULTS: The incidence of injury during training and match play did not differ between surfaces for the teams in the artificial turf cohort: 2.42 v 2.94 injuries/1000 training hours and 19.60 v 21.48 injuries/1000 match hours for artificial turf and grass respectively. The risk of ankle sprain was increased in matches on artificial turf compared with grass (4.83 v 2.66 injuries/1000 match hours; rate ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 3.28). No difference in injury severity was seen between surfaces. Compared with the control cohort who played home games on natural grass, teams in the artificial turf cohort had a lower injury incidence during match play (15.26 v 23.08 injuries/1000 match hours; rate ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.91).

    CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of a greater risk of injury was found when football was played on artificial turf compared with natural grass. The higher incidence of ankle sprain on artificial turf warrants further attention, although this result should be interpreted with caution as the number of ankle sprains was low.

  • 14.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A congested football calendar and the wellbeing of players: The correlation between exposure to match play for football players in European clubs during the months prior to the World Cup 2002 and the injuries and performance of these players during the World Cup2004In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 38, p. 493-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Objectives: To investigate the correlation between exposure to match play for football players in European clubs during the months prior to the World Cup 2002 and the injuries and performance of these players during the World Cup.

    Methods: The team doctors at eleven of the best football clubs in Europe prospectively recorded player’s exposure and injuries during the 2001-2002 season (July 2001-May 2002). Sixty-five  players  participated in the World Cup in Korea/Japan (June 2002). During the World Cup, the clubs reported injuries sustained by these players, and their performance was evaluated by three international experts.

    Results: The number of  team matches during the season varied between 40 and 76 for the different countries involved. The individual player had a mean of 36 matches during the season. Top players played more matches, especially during the final period of the season. Players that participated in the World Cup (WC players) played more matches during the season compared to players who did not participate in the World Cup (46 vs 33 matches).

    WC players did not show an increased risk for injury during the season. Twenty-nine per cent of the WC players incurred injuries during the World Cup and 32% performed below their normal standard. The players who under-performed in the World Cup played more matches during the 10 weeks prior to the World Cup compared to those who performed better than expected (12.5 vs 9, p< 0.05). Twenty-three (60%) of the 38 players who had played more than 1 match/week prior to the World Cup incurred injuries or underperformed during the World Cup.

    Conclusions: There is a considerable variation in the number of matches played per season in European professional leagues. Top-level players are obliged to play many matches especially during the final period of the season.

  • 15.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. UEFA Medical Comm, Switzerland.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hamstring injuries have increased by 4% annually in mens professional football, since 2001: a 13-year longitudinal analysis of the UEFA Elite Club injury study2016In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 50, no 12, p. 731-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There are limited data on hamstring injury rates over time in football. Aim To analyse time trends in hamstring injury rates in male professional footballers over 13 consecutive seasons and to distinguish the relative contribution of training and match injuries. Methods 36 clubs from 12 European countries were followed between 2001 and 2014. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. Injuries per 1000 h were compared as a rate ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Injury burden was the number of lay off days per 1000 h. Seasonal trend for injury was analysed using linear regression. Results A total of 1614 hamstring injuries were recorded; 22% of players sustained at least one hamstring injury during a season. The overall hamstring injury rate over the 13-year period was 1.20 injuries per 1000 h; the match injury rate (4.77) being 9 times higher than the training injury rate (0.51; RR 9.4; 95% CI 8.5 to 10.4). The time-trend analysis showed an annual average 2.3% year on year increase in the total hamstring injury rate over the 13-year period (R-2=0.431, b=0.023, 95% CI 0.006 to 0.041, p=0.015). This increase over time was most pronounced for training injuries-these increased by 4.0% per year (R-2=0.450, b=0.040, 95% CI 0.011 to 0.070, p=0.012). The average hamstring injury burden was 19.7 days per 1000 h (annual average increase 4.1%) (R-2=0.437, b=0.041, 95% CI 0.010 to 0.072, p=0.014). Conclusions Training-related hamstring injury rates have increased substantially since 2001 but match-related injury rates have remained stable. The challenge is for clubs to reduce training-related hamstring injury rates without impairing match performance.

  • 16.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Risk for injury when playing in a national football team.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish male senior national football team was followed prospectively between 1991 and 1997. During these 6 years, the team played 73 official matches and had three training camps. The senior author (J. E.) attended 57 of these matches and the three training camps and these matches and training camps, are included in the present study. Exposure to football was recorded individually for each player. The team physician examined all injuries. Total exposure was 7245 h (6235 training and 1010 match hours) and there were 71 injuries (40 training and 31 match injuries). Five (16%) of the match injuries were major, with more than 4 weeks of absence from football. The injury incidence during training was 6.5/1000 h and the injury risk during matchplay was 30.3/1000 h. A significantly higher injury incidence was found for matches lost compared to matches won or drawn (52.5 vs. 22.7/1000 h, P=0.026). No statistically significant difference for injury was found between competitive matches and friendly matches. No difference was found between home and away matches or matches on neutral ground. The risk for injury when playing in a national team compares with previously reported figures for professional football at a high level.

  • 17.
    Fuller, Colin W
    et al.
    University of Nottingham.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Junge, Astrid
    FIFA-Medical Assessment and Research Centre.
    Andersen, Thor E
    Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center.
    Bahr, Roald
    Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center.
    Dvorak, Jiri
    FIFA-Medical Assessment and Research Centre.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    McCrory, Paul
    University of Melbourne.
    Meeuwisse, Willem H
    University of Calgary.
    Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures in studies of football (soccer) injuries.2006In: Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1050-642X, E-ISSN 1536-3724, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 97-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Variations in definitions and methodologies have created differences in the results and conclusions obtained from studies of football (soccer) injuries; this has made interstudy comparisons difficult. PROCEDURE: An Injury Consensus Group was established under the auspices of Fédération Internationale de Football Association Medical Assessment and Research Centre. Using a nominal group consensus model approach, a working document that identified the key issues related to definitions, methodology, and implementation was discussed by members of the group during a 2-day meeting. After this meeting, iterative draft statements were prepared and circulated to the members of the group for comment before the final consensus statement was produced. RESULTS: Definitions of injury, recurrent injury, severity, and training and match exposures in football, together with criteria for classifying injuries in terms of location, type, diagnosis, and causation are proposed. Proforma for recording players' baseline information, injuries, and training and match exposures are presented. Recommendations are made on how the incidence of match and training injuries should be reported and a checklist of issues and information that should be included in published reports of studies of football injuries is presented. CONCLUSIONS: The definitions and methodology proposed in the consensus statement will ensure that consistent and comparable results will be obtained from studies of football injuries.

  • 18.
    Fältström, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Factors associated with playing football after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in female football players.2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 1343-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether player-related factors (demographic, personality, or psychological factors) or the characteristics of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury were associated with the return to playing football in females after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). We also compared current knee function, knee related quality of life and readiness to return to sport between females who returned to football and those who had not returned. Females who sustained a primary ACL rupture while playing football and underwent ACLR 6-36 months ago were eligible. Of the 460 contacted, 274 (60%) completed a battery of questionnaires, and 182 were included a median of 18 months (IQR 13) after ACLR. Of these, 94 (52%) returned to football and were currently playing, and 88 (48%) had not returned. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two factors associated with returning to football: short time between injury and ACLR (0-3 months, OR 5.6; 3-12 months OR 4.7 vs reference group > 12 months) and high motivation. Current players showed higher ratings for current knee function, knee-related quality of life, and psychological readiness to return to sport (P < 0.001). Undergoing ACLR sooner after injury and high motivation to return to sports may impact a player's return to football after ACLR.

  • 19.
    Fältström, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Jönköping County, Rehabilitation Centre, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Functional Performance Among Active Female Soccer Players After Unilateral Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Knee-Healthy Controls2017In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Good functional performance with limb symmetry is believed to be important to minimize the risk of injury after a return to pivoting and contact sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate any side-to-side limb differences in functional performance and movement asymmetries in female soccer players with a primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–reconstructed knee and to compare these players with knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams.

    Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

    Methods: This study included 77 active female soccer players at a median of 18 months after ACLR (interquartile range [IQR], 14.5 months; range, 7-39 months) and 77 knee-healthy female soccer players. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.3 years for players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and 19.5 ± 2.2 years for controls. We used a battery of tests to assess postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test) and hop performance (1-legged hop for distance, 5-jump test, and side hop). Movement asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk were assessed with the drop vertical jump and the tuck jump using 2-dimensional analyses.

    Results: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ in any of the tests. In the 5-jump test, players with an ACL-reconstructed knee performed worse than controls (mean 8.75 ± 1.05 m vs 9.09 ± 0.89 m; P = .034). On the drop vertical jump test, the ACL-reconstructed limb had significantly less knee valgus motion in the frontal plane (median 0.028 m [IQR, 0.049 m] vs 0.045 m [IQR, 0.043 m]; P = .004) and a lower probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) (median 69.2% [IQR, 44.4%] vs 79.8% [IQR, 44.8%]; P = .043) compared with the control players’ matched limb (for leg dominance). Results showed that 9% to 49% of players in both groups performed outside recommended guidelines on the different tests. Only 14 players with an ACL-reconstructed knee (18%) and 15 controls (19%) had results that met the recommended guidelines for all 5 tests (P = .837).

    Conclusion: The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ, and players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls differed only minimally on the functional performance tests, indicating similar function. It is worth noting that many players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and controls had movement asymmetries and a high pKAM pattern, which have previously been associated with an increased risk for both primary and secondary ACL injury in female athletes.

  • 20.
    Fältström, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Patient-Reported Knee Function, Quality of Life, and Activity Level After Bilateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries2013In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2805-2813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: About 12% of patients who have undergone primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction sustain a contralateral ACL injury within 5 years. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanPurpose: To investigate patient-reported knee function, quality of life, and activity level in patients with bilateral ACL injuries. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanStudy Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: A search of hospital records identified 147 patients, aged 18 to 45 years, with bilateral ACL injuries. Of these, 83 met the inclusion criteria, having had their first ACL injury up to 12 years ago with no other major injuries to the knee joint. Sixty-six of these patients (80% of total; 47% female; mean age, 29.1 7.2 years) answered a questionnaire packet. Patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction (n = 182) were used for comparison. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Patients with bilateral ACL injuries had a median Lysholm knee score of 82 (range, 34-100). The mean EuroQol index (EQ-5D) score of the overall health status was 0.77 +/- 0.22, and the mean EQ-5D visual analog scale score was 75.5 +/- 17.6. The median Tegner activity level was 9 (range, 1-9) before any injuries, 7 (range, 1-9) before the second ACL injury, and 4 (range, 1-9) at the time of follow-up. The activity level before the second injury was higher compared with the follow-up for patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction. At follow-up, 23% of the patients with bilateral ACL injuries returned to their previous activity, and 12% of patients returned to the same level as before their injuries compared with 43% (P = .004) and 28% (P = .01) in patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction, respectively. Patients with bilateral ACL injuries had significantly lower values in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales for pain, function in sports and recreation, and knee-related quality of life as well as the ACL Deficiency Quality of Life (ACL-QOL) score compared with patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Patients with bilateral ACL injuries reported poorer knee function and quality of life compared with those who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction. Their activities had changed, and they were dissatisfied with their current activity level. They had a high activity level before their first and second ACL injuries but an impaired activity level after their contralateral injury at follow-up.

  • 21.
    Fältström, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Physiotherapy, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Forssblad, Magnus
    Carpio Artro Clinic AB, Sophiahemmet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Predictors for additional anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: data from the Swedish national ACL register.2016In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 885-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To identify predictors for additional anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

    METHODS: Patients from the Swedish national ACL register who underwent ACL reconstruction between January 2005 and February 2013 (follow-up duration 6-104 months) were included. Cox regression analyses included the following independent variables regarding primary injury: age, sex, time between injury and primary ACL reconstruction, activity at primary injury, concomitant injuries, injury side, graft type, and pre-surgery KOOS and EQ-5D scores.

    RESULTS: Among ACL reconstruction procedures, 93 % involved hamstring tendon (HT) autografts. Graft type did not predict additional ACL reconstruction. Final regression models only included patients with HT autograft (n = 20,824). Of these, 702 had revision and 591 contralateral ACL reconstructions. The 5-year post-operative rates of revision and contralateral ACL reconstruction were 4.3 and 3.8 %, respectively. Significant predictors for additional ACL reconstruction were age (fourfold increased rate for <16-year-old patients vs. >35-year-old patients), time between injury and primary surgery (two to threefold increased rate for ACL reconstruction within 0-90 days vs. >365 days), and playing football at primary injury.

    CONCLUSION: This study identified younger age, having ACL reconstruction early after the primary injury, and incurring the primary injury while playing football as the main predictors for revision and contralateral ACL reconstruction. This suggests that the rate of additional ACL reconstruction is increased in a selected group of young patients aiming to return to strenuous sports after primary surgery and should be taken into consideration when discussing primary ACL reconstruction, return to sports, and during post-surgery rehabilitation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

  • 22.
    Fältström, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gauffin, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Football Research Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Female Soccer Players With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Have a Higher Risk of New Knee Injuries and Quit Soccer to a Higher Degree Than Knee-Healthy Controls2019In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Many patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction who return to sport suffer new ACL injuries or quit sports soon after returning.

    Purpose:

    To prospectively follow a cohort of female soccer players with primary unilateral ACL reconstruction and matched knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams to compare (1) the rate of new traumatic and nontraumatic knee injuries and other injuries, (2) the proportion of players who quit soccer, and (3) player-reported activity level and satisfaction with activity level and knee function.

    Study Design:

    Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

    Methods:

    A total of 117 active female soccer players (mean ± SD age, 19.9 ± 2.5 years) 18.9 ± 8.7 months after ACL reconstruction and 119 knee-healthy female soccer players (19.5 ± 2.5 years) matched from the same teams were prospectively followed for 2 years for new knee injuries, other injuries, soccer playing level, activity level according to the Tegner Activity Scale, and satisfaction with activity level and knee function.

    Results:

    Players with ACL reconstruction had a higher rate of new ACL injuries (n = 29 vs 8; 19 vs 4 per 100 player years; rate ratio [RR], 4.82; 95% CI, 2.20-10.54; P < .001), other traumatic knee injuries (29 vs 16 per 100 player years; RR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.16-2.93; P < .01), and nontraumatic knee injuries (33 vs 9 per 100 player years; RR, 3.62; 95% CI, 2.11-6.21; P < .001) as compared with controls. There was no difference in the rate of other (not knee) injuries (43 vs 48 per 100 player years; RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.65-1.23; P = .494). During the 2-year follow-up, 72 (62%) players with ACL reconstruction quit soccer, as opposed to 43 (36%) controls (P = .001). The median Tegner Activity Scale score decreased in both groups (P < .001) but more for the ACL-reconstructed group (P < .015).

    Conclusion:

    Female soccer players with ACL reconstruction had nearly a 5-fold-higher rate of new ACL injuries and a 2- to 4-fold-higher rate of other new knee injuries, quit soccer to a higher degree, and reduced their activity level to a greater extent as compared with knee-healthy controls.

  • 23.
    Gomez-Piqueras, Pedro
    et al.
    Univ Castilla La Mancha, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Villora, Sixto
    Univ Castilla La Mancha, Spain.
    Grassi, Alberto
    Ist Ortoped Rizzoli, Italy.
    Gojanovic, Boris
    Hop Tour, Switzerland.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Are we making SMART decisions regarding return to training of injured football players? Preliminary results from a pilot study2018In: Isokinetics and exercise science, ISSN 0959-3020, E-ISSN 1878-5913, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: "When will I be able to play again?" is the most frequent question asked by injured athletes. Due to the complex nature of sports injury, deciding when an injured athlete may safely return to training is a critical and difficult decision. OBJECTIVE: To study if the Safe Multidimensional Algorithm for Return to Training (SMART) scores, applied before the release to full return to training after injury differs between football players who suffer a subsequent re-injury and football players who do not. METHOD: Seventy one male professional football players were prospectively monitored for injuries during two seasons. The SMART tool was applied in injured players with an absence amp;gt; 10 days. The injured player had to carry out 17 multidimensional tests included in the algorithm in his final days of the planned rehabilitation. The results of the SMART were compared between players who sustained re-injuries and those who did not. RESULTS: Fifty-five injuries with absence amp;gt; 10 days were recorded and re-injuries occurred in 12 of these cases (22%). There was a lower re-injury rate in players who presented a better recovery in pain (p amp;lt; 0.001), agility (RR 21.0, 95% CI: 2.0 to 213.2), advanced agility (RR 26.7, 95% CI: 4.9 to 142.8), anxiety (RR 8.6, 95% CI: 2.0 to 36.2), depression (RR 10.3, 95% CI: 1.5 to 65.7), self-perception (p amp;lt; 0.001), advanced skills mode (RR 20.5, 95% CI: 3.3 to 125.9) and group skills mode (p amp;lt; 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A multidimensional approach of Return to Training that includes objective measures may indicate potential deficiencies in the recovery of injured players.

  • 24.
    Hagglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    UEFA injury study-an injury audit of European Championships 2006 to 20082009In: BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, ISSN 0306-3674, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 483-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the incidence and nature of injuries at European Championships, to compare training and match injury characteristics and to study differences in injury incidence between tournaments. Design: Team physicians prospectively recorded individual player exposure and time loss injuries during 12 European Championships (mens EURO n = 1, mens Under-21 n = 2, mens Under-19 n = 3, mens Under-17 n = 3, womens Under-19 n = 3) from 2006 to 2008. Setting: International football tournaments Participants: 1594 men and 433 women Main outcome measurement: Injury incidence Results: 224 injuries (45 training, 179 match play) were registered among 208 (10%) players. No differences in training injury incidence were seen between tournaments (range 1.3-3.9 injuries/1000 hours). The mens EURO had the highest match injury incidence (41.6 injuries/1000 hours) followed by the mens Under-21 tournaments (33.9). The lowest match injury incidence was seen in the womens Under-19 tournaments (20.5). Training injuries constituted 20% of all injuries and caused 26% of all match unavailability. A greater proportion of match injuries were due to trauma (83 vs 47%, p less than 0.001) and occurred from player contact (75 vs 48%, p = 0.018) compared to training injuries. A higher frequency of reinjury was found among training injuries than match injuries (20 vs 6%, p = 0.009). Conclusions: Match injury incidence increased with age, indicating greater risk with higher intensity of play. Training injury incidence was relatively low, but training injuries were responsible for a quarter of all match unavailability and may thus have a profound impact on team performance and should be the object of preventive measures.

  • 25.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Data collection procedures for football injuries in lower leagues: Is there a need for an updated consensus statement?2016In: Science and medicine in Football, ISSN 2473-3938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 26.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Epidemiology and prevention of football injuries2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this thesis were to study the incidence, severity and pattern of injury in male and female elite football players; to study time trends in injury risk; to identify risk factors for injury; and to test the effectiveness of an intervention programme aimed at preventing re-injury.

    All studies followed a prospective design using standardised definitions and data collection forms. Individual training and match exposure was registered for all players participating. Time loss injuries were documented by each team’s medical staff.

    The amount of training increased by 68% between the 1982 and 2001 Swedish top male division seasons, reflecting the shift from semi-professionalism to full professionalism. No difference in injury incidence or injury severity was found between seasons. The injury incidence was 4.6 vs. 5.2/1000 training hours and 20.6 vs. 25.9/1000 match hours. The incidence of severe injury (absence >4 weeks) was 0.8/1000 hours in both seasons.

    The Swedish and Danish top male divisions were followed during the spring season of 2001. A higher risk for training injury (11.8 vs. 6.0/1000 hours, p<0.01) and severe injury (1.8 vs. 0.7/1000 hours, p=0.002) was observed among the Danish players. Re-injury accounted for 30% and 24% of injuries in Denmark and Sweden respectively.

    The Swedish top male division was studied over two consecutive seasons, 2001 and 2002, and comparison of training and match injury incidences between seasons showed similar results. Players who were injured in the 2001 season were at greater risk for injury in the following season compared to non-injured players (relative risk 2.7; 95% CI 1.7-4.3). Players with a previous hamstring injury, groin injury and knee joint trauma were two to three times more likely to suffer an identical injury to the same limb in the following season, but no such relationship was found for ankle sprain. Age was not associated with an increased injury risk.

    The effectiveness of a coach-controlled rehabilitation programme on the rate of re-injury was studied in a randomised controlled trial at amateur male level. In the control group, 23 of 79 injured players suffered a recurrence during the season compared to 10 of 90 players in the intervention group. There was a 75% lower re-injury risk in the intervention group for lower limb injuries (relative risk 0.25; 95% CI 0.11-0.57). The preventive effect was greatest during the first weeks after return to play.

    Both the male and female Swedish top divisions were followed during the 2005 season. Male elite players had a higher risk for training injury (4.7 vs. 3.8/1000 hours, p<0.05) and match injury (28.1 vs. 16.1/1000 hours, p<0.001) than women. However, no difference was observed in the rate of severe injury (0.7/1000 hours in both groups). The thigh was the most common site of injury in both men and women, while injury to the hip/groin was more frequent in men and to the knee in women. Knee sprain accounted for 31% and 37% of the time lost from training and match play in men and women respectively.

  • 27.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Atroshi, Isam
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wagner, Philippe
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Walden, Markus
    Hassleholm Kristianstad Ystad Hospital, Sweden.
    Superior compliance with a neuromuscular training programme is associated with fewer ACL injuries and fewer acute knee injuries in female adolescent football players: secondary analysis of an RCT2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 974-979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Little is known about the influence of compliance with neuromuscular training (NMT) on the knee injury rate in football.

    Aim To evaluate team and player compliance with an NMT programme in adolescent female football and to study the association between compliance and acute knee injury rates.

    Methods Prospective cohort study based on a cluster randomised controlled trial on players aged 12–17 years with 184 intervention teams (2471 players) and 157 control teams (2085 players). Exposure and acute time loss knee injuries were recorded. Team and player compliance was recorded by the coaches on a player attendance form. The intervention group was divided into tertiles of compliance. Injury rates were compared by calculating rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs using exact Poisson tests with the low-compliance tertile as reference. Seasonal compliance trends were analysed using linear regression.

    Results Players in the high-compliance tertile had an 88% reduction in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rate (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.85), whereas the rate in the control group players was not significantly different from those in the low-compliance tertile (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.27 to 2.21). A significant deterioration occurred in team (b=−3.0% per month, 95% CI −5.2 to −0.8) and player (b=−5.0% per month, 95% CI −7.1 to −2.9) compliance over the season.

    Conclusions Players with high compliance with the NMT programme had significantly reduced ACL injury rate compared with players with low compliance. Significant deterioration in team and player compliance occurred over the season.

  • 28.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Walden, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kristenson, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Hakan
    Football Research Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Injuries affect team performance negatively in professional football: an 11-year follow-up of the UEFA Champions League injury study2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 738-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The influence of injuries on team performance in football has only been scarcely investigated.

    Aim To study the association between injury rates and team performance in the domestic league play, and in European cups, in male professional football.

    Methods 24 football teams from nine European countries were followed prospectively for 11 seasons (2001–2012), including 155 team-seasons. Individual training and match exposure and time-loss injuries were registered. To analyse the effect of injury rates on performance, a Generalised Estimating Equation was used to fit a linear regression on team-level data. Each team's season injury rate and performance were evaluated using its own preceding season data for comparison in the analyses.

    Results 7792 injuries were reported during 1 026 104 exposure hours. The total injury incidence was 7.7 injuries/1000 h, injury burden 130 injury days lost/1000 h and player match availability 86%. Lower injury burden (p=0.011) and higher match availability (p=0.031) were associated with higher final league ranking. Similarly, lower injury incidence (p=0.035), lower injury burden (p<0.001) and higher match availability (p<0.001) were associated with increased points per league match. Finally, lower injury burden (p=0.043) and higher match availability (p=0.048) were associated with an increase in the Union of European Football Association (UEFA) Season Club Coefficient, reflecting success in the UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

    Conclusions Injuries had a significant influence on performance in the league play and in European cups in male professional football. The findings stress the importance of injury prevention to increase a team's chances of success.

  • 29.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Hassleholm Kristianstad Ystad Hosp, Dept Orthopaed, Hassleholm, Sweden.
    Risk factors for acute knee injury in female youth football.2016In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 737-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate risk factors for acute time-loss knee injury, in particular ACL injury, in female youth football players.andlt;br /andgt;Methods: Risk factors were studied in 4556 players aged 12-17 years from a randomised controlled trial during the 2009 season. Covariates were both intrinsic (body mass index, age, relative age effect, onset of menarche, previous acute knee injury or ACL injury, current knee complaints, and familial disposition of ACL injury) and extrinsic (no. of training sessions/week, no. of matches/week, match exposure ratio, match play with other teams, and artificial turf exposure). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from individual variable and multiple Cox regression analyses.andlt;br /andgt;Results: Ninety-six acute knee injuries were recorded, 21 of them ACL injuries. Multiple Cox regression showed a fourfold higher ACL injury rate for players with familial disposition of ACL injury (HR 3.57; 95 % CI 1.48-8.62). Significant predictor variables for acute knee injury were age andgt;14 years (HR 1.97; 95 % CI 1.30-2.97), knee complaints at the start of the season (HR 1.98; 95 % CI 1.30-3.02), and familial disposition of ACL injury (HR 1.96; 95 % CI 1.22-3.16). No differences in injury rates were seen when playing on artificial turf compared with natural grass.andlt;br /andgt;Conclusion: Female youth football players with a familial disposition of ACL injury had an increased risk of ACL injury and acute knee injury. Older players and those with knee complaints at pre-season were more at risk of acute knee injury. Although the predictive values were low, these factors could be used in athlete screening to target preventive interventions.andlt;br /andgt;Level Of Evidence: II.

  • 30.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Atroshi, Isam
    Hassleholm Hospital.
    Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players - design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595]2009In: BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 10, no 75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods: In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters) in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13-17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams) or a control group (256 teams). The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October) and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1) baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2) computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3) injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion) and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks). Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Discussion: Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of knee injury, it can have a major impact by reducing the future knee injury burden in female football as well as the negative long-term disabilities associated with knee injury.

  • 31.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Bahr, R
    Sports and psysical education Norwegian university, Oslo.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Methods for epidemiological study of injuries to prfessional football players: developing the UEFA model2005In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 39, p. 340-346Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Exposure and injury risk in Swedish elite football: a comparison between seasons 1982 and 20012003In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 364-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term development of injury risk in Swedish male elite football was studied. Two prospective cohort studies from seasons 1982 and 2001 were compared with respect to exposure to football, injury incidence and injury severity.

    The mean number of training sessions during the season had increased by 68% between 1982 and 2001 (142 vs. 238, P<0.001), whereas teams played more matches in 1982 (49 vs. 41, P=0.02). The total exposure to football had increased by 27%. Three out of four players incurred an injury in both seasons. In 2001, players suffered more training injuries due to an increased training exposure. Accounting for risk exposure, there was no difference in injury incidence or severity between the two seasons. The incidence was 8.3 injuries/ 1000 h of total exposure (4.6 in training and 20.6 in matches) in 1982, compared to 7.8 1000 h−1 (5.2 in training and 25.9 in matches) in 2001. Major injuries accounted for 9% of all injuries, corresponding to an incidence of 0.8 /1000 h of football, in both seasons.

    A trend from semi-professionalism to full professionalism in Swedish elite football was seen during the last two decades. The injury risk did not change over the same period.

  • 33.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Injuries among male and female elite football players2009In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE and SCIENCE IN SPORTS, ISSN 0905-7188, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 819-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All 12 female football clubs (228 players) and 11 of 14 male clubs (239 players) in the Swedish premier league were followed prospectively during the 2005 season. Individual exposure (playing time), injuries (time loss), and injury severity (days lost due to injury) were recorded by the team medical staffs. Injury incidence was higher for male players during both training (4.7 vs 3.8 injuries/1000 h, P=0.018) and match play (28.1 vs 16.1, P andlt; 0.001). However, no difference was found in the incidence of severe injury (absence andgt; 4 weeks) (0.7/1000 h in both groups). The thigh, especially the hamstrings, was the overall most commonly injured region in both sexes, while the hip/groin was more commonly injured in male players and the knee in female players. Knee ligament injuries accounted for 31% and 37% of the total time lost from football for male and female players, respectively. In conclusion, male elite players had a higher injury incidence than their female counterparts although no difference was observed in the incidence of moderate to severe injury. We recommend that preventive measures should be focused on hamstring and knee ligament injury in order to reduce the overall injury burden.

  • 34.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Injuries among male and female elite football playersManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Injury incidence and distribution in elite football - a prospective study of the Danish and the Swedish top divisions2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Danish and Swedish male top football divisions were studied prospectively from January to June 2001. Exposure to football and injury incidence, severity and distribution were compared between the countries.

    Swedish players had greater exposure to training (171 vs. 123 h per season, P<0.001), whereas exposure to matches did not differ between the countries. There was a higher risk for injury during training in Denmark than in Sweden (11.8 vs. 6.0 per 1000 h, P<0.01), whereas for match play there was no difference (28.2 vs. 26.2 per 1000 h). The risk for incurring a major injury (absence from football more than 4 weeks) was greater in Denmark (1.8 vs. 0.7 per 1000 h, P=0.002). The distribution of injuries according to type and location was similar in both countries. Of all injuries in Denmark and Sweden, overuse injury accounted for 39% and 38% (NS), and re-injury for 30% and 24% (P=0.032), respectively.

    The greater training exposure and the long pre-season period in Sweden may explain some of the reported differences.

  • 36.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Injury recurrence is lower at the highest professional football level than at national and amateur levels: does sports medicine and sports physiotherapy deliver?2016In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 50, no 12, p. 751-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previous injury is a well-documented risk factor for football injury. The time trends and patterns of recurrent injuries at different playing levels are not clear. Aim To compare recurrent injury proportions, incidences and patterns between different football playing levels, and to study time trends in recurrent injury incidence. Methods Time-loss injuries were collected from injury surveillance of 43 top-level European professional teams (240 team-seasons), 19 Swedish premier division teams (82 team-seasons) and 10 Swedish amateur teams (10 team-seasons). Recurrent injury was defined as an injury of the same type and at the same site as an index injury within the preceding year, with injury amp;lt;2 months defined as an early recurrence, and amp;gt;2 months as a delayed recurrence. Seasonal trend for recurrent injury incidence, expressed as the average annual percentage of change, was analysed using linear regression. Results 13 050 injuries were included, 2449 (18.8%) being recurrent injuries, with 1944 early (14.9%) and 505 delayed recurrences (3.9%). Recurrence proportions were highest in the second half of the competitive season for all cohorts. Recurrence proportions differed between playing levels, with 35.1% in the amateur cohort, 25.0% in the Swedish elite cohort and 16.6% in the European cohort (chi(2) overall effect, pamp;lt;0.001). A decreasing trend was observed in recurrent injury incidence in the European cohort, a -2.9% average annual change over the 14-year study period (95% CI -5.4% to -0.4%, p=0.026). Similarly, a decreasing tendency was also seen in the Swedish premier division. Conclusions Recurrence proportions showed an inverse relationship with playing level, and recurrent injury incidence has decreased over the past decade.

  • 37.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lower re-injury rate with a coach-controlled rehabilitation program in amateur male soccer: A randomized controlled trial2007In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 1433-1442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Soccer injuries are common, and athletes returning to play after injury are especially at risk. Few studies have investigated how to prevent reinjury.

    Hypothesis: The rate of reinjury is reduced using a coach-controlled rehabilitation program.

    Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.

    Methods: Twenty-four male amateur soccer teams were randomized into an intervention (n = 282) and control group (n = 300). The intervention was implemented by team coaches and consisted of information about risk factors for reinjury, rehabilitation principles, and a 10-step progressive rehabilitation program including return to play criteria. During the 2003 season, coaches reported individual exposure and all time loss injuries were evaluated by a doctor and a physiotherapist. Four teams (n = 100) withdrew from the study after randomization, leaving 10 teams with 241 players for analysis in both groups.

    Results: There were 90 injured players (132 injuries) in the intervention group, and 10 of these (11%) suffered 14 reinjuries during the season. In the control group, 23 of 79 injured players (29%) had 40 recurrences (134 injuries). A Cox regression analysis showed a 66% reinjury risk reduction in the intervention group for all injury locations (hazard ratio [HR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16–0.72, P = .0047) and 75% for lower limb injuries (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.11–0.57, P < .001). The preventive effect was greatest within the first week of return to play. Injured players in the intervention group complied with the intervention for 90 of 132 injuries (68%).

    Conclusion: The reinjury rate in amateur male soccer players was reduced after a controlled rehabilitation program implemented by coaches.

  • 38.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Previous injury as a risk factor for injury in elite football: a prospective study over two consecutive seasons2006In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, Vol. 40, p. 767-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous injury is often proposed to be a risk factorfor football injury, but most studies rely on players reportingtheir own medical history and are thus potentially subject torecall bias. Little is known about the natural variation ininjury pattern between seasons.

    Objectives: To study whether prospectively recorded injuriesduring one season are associated with injuries sustained duringthe following season, and to compare injury risk and injurypattern between consecutive seasons.

    Methods: The medical staffs of 12 elite Swedish male footballteams prospectively recorded individual exposure and time lossinjuries over two full consecutive seasons (2001 and 2002).A multivariate model was used to determine the relation betweenprevious injury, anthropometric data, and the risk of injury.

    Results: The training and match injury incidences were similarbetween seasons (5.1 v 5.3 injuries/1000 training hours and25.9 v 22.7/1000 match hours), but analysis of injury severityand injury patterns showed variations between seasons. Playerswho were injured in the 2001 season were at greater risk ofany injury in the following season compared with non-injuredplayers (hazard ratio 2.7; 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 4.3,p<0.0001). Players with a previous hamstring injury, groininjury, and knee joint trauma were two to three times more likelyto suffer an identical injury in the following season, whereasno such relation was found for ankle sprain. Age was not associatedwith an increased injury risk.

    Conclusions: This study confirmed previous results showing thatprevious injury is an important risk factor for football injury.Overall injury incidences were similar between consecutive seasons,indicating that an injury surveillance study covering one fullseason can provide a reasonable overview of the injury problemamong elite football players in a specific environment. However,a prolonged study period is recommended for analyses of specificinjury patterns.

  • 39.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Muscle Injury in Professional Soccer: The UEFA Injury Study2013In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 327-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Muscle injury is the most common injury type in professional soccer players. Despite this, risk factors for common lower extremity injuries remain elusive.

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of various player- and match-related risk factors on the occurrence of lower extremity muscle injury in male professional soccer.

    Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

    Methods: Between 2001 and 2010, 26 soccer clubs (1401 players) from 10 European countries participated in the study. Individual player exposure and time loss muscle injuries in the lower extremity were registered prospectively by the club medical staffs during 9 consecutive seasons. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for player-related factors from simple and multiple Cox regression, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for match-related variables from simple and multiple logistic regression, presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    Results: There were 2123 muscle injuries documented in the major lower extremity muscle groups: adductors (n = 523), hamstrings (n = 900), quadriceps (n = 394), and calf (n = 306). Injuries to the adductors (56%; P = .015) and quadriceps (63%; P< .001) were more frequent in the kicking leg. Multiple analysis indicated that having a previous identical injury in the preceding season increased injury rates significantly for adductor (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.00-1.96), hamstring (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.12-1.75), quadriceps (HR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.21-4.36), and calf injuries (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.52-3.57). Older players (above mean age) had an almost 2-fold increased rate of calf injury (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.38-2.71), but no association was found in other muscle groups. Goalkeepers had reduced injury rates in all 4 muscle groups. Match play on away ground was associated with reduced rates of adductor (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43-0.73) and hamstring injuries (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.92). Quadriceps injuries were more frequent during preseason, whereas adductor, hamstring, and calf injury rates increased during the competitive season.

    Conclusion: Intrinsic factors found to increase muscle injury rates in professional soccer were previous injury, older age, and kicking leg. Injury rates varied during different parts of the season and also depending on match location.

  • 40.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thomee, R.
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Should patients reach certain knee function benchmarks before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? Does intense prehabilitation before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction influence outcome and return to sports?2015In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 49, no 22, p. 1423-1424Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 41.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Til, Lluis
    FC Barcelona, Olympic Training Center, Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.
    Pruna, Ricard
    FC Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    The importance of epidemiological research in sports medicine2010In: Apunts Med Esport, ISSN 1886-6581, Vol. 45, no 166, p. 57-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zwerver, Johannes
    University Medical Center Groningen.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Epidemiology of Patellar Tendinopathy in Elite Male Soccer Players2011In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 1906-1911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patellar tendinopathy is common among athletes in jumping sports and in sports with prolonged repetitive stress of the knee extensor apparatus. The epidemiology in soccer is not well described. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanPurpose: This study was undertaken to investigate and describe the epidemiology of patellar tendinopathy in elite male soccer players and evaluate potential risk factors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanStudy Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Between 2001 and 2009, the authors followed 51 European elite soccer clubs (2229 players) from 3 different cohorts: the Swedish First League cohort (SWE) and Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Champions League cohort (UCL), both playing on natural grass; and the Artifical Turf cohort (ART), playing on third-generation artificial turf. Individual player exposure in training and matches and time-loss injuries were recorded. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: In total, 137 patellar tendinopathies were recorded, comprising 1.5% of all injuries and corresponding to an incidence of 0.12 injuries/1000 hours. Each season, 2.4% of players were affected, with most injuries (61%) resulting in absence up to 1 week or less. Twenty percent of tendinopathies were recurrent complaints. No significant difference in season prevalence (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.44; P = .74) or incidence (rate ratio [RR] 1.20; 95% CI, 0.82-1.75; P = .36) was observed between teams playing on artificial turf and natural grass, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that a high total exposure hours (OR, 1.02 per 10-hour increase; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04; P = .033) was a significant risk factor for patellar tendinopathy, and increased body mass was borderline significant (OR, 1.15 per 5-kg increase; 95% CI, 1.00-1.33; P = .055). In addition, 2 acute partial tendon ruptures were recorded, but no total rupture. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Although mainly mild in nature, patellar tendinopathy is a fairly common condition in elite soccer and the recurrence rate is high. Exposure to artificial turf did not increase the prevalence or incidence of injury. High total amount of exposure was identified as a risk factor for patellar tendinopathy.

  • 43.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, Halmstad University, Box 823, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, Halmstad University, Box 823, S-301 18 Halmstad, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Jón
    Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, S-413 45 Sweden ; Sahlgrenska Academy Institute of Clinical Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, S-405 30 Sweden ; Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden..
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden .
    Börjesson, Mats
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Box 5626, S-114 86 Sweden ; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, S-171 77 Sweden..
    Rehabilitation after first-time anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction in female football players: a study of resilience factors.2016In: BMC sports science, medicine and rehabilitation, ISSN 2052-1847, Vol. 8, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Most of the research in the area of psychosocial factors in rehabilitation after sports injuries has focused on risk behaviors, while relatively few studies have focused on behaviors that facilitate rehabilitation. The objective of our study was to understand the psychosocial features that characterize elite female football players who express a resilient behaviour during rehabilitation after a first-time anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction.

    METHODS: A qualitative method was used based on individual in-person interviews and video communication of players who incurred a first-time ACL tear during the 2012 season of the Swedish Women's Elite Football League. In total, 13 players had a first-time ACL and were interviewed post-season. The interviews were followed by a thematic content analysis. Based on this, eight players were identified as showing resilient behaviors during their rehabilitation and were included in the final analysis.

    RESULTS: Three core themes representing psychosocial factors that help players cope successfully with rehabilitation were identified: (I) constructive communication and rich interaction with significant others; (II) strong belief in the importance and efficacy of one's own actions; and (III) the ability to set reasonable goals.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest three core themes of psychosocial factors that characterize first-time ACL-injured elite female football players showing resilience during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Suggestions for medical teams about ways to support communication, self-efficacy, and goal-setting during the rehabilitation process, are provided.

  • 44.
    Johnson, Urban
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Sport Health and Physical activity.
    Karlsson, Jón
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Waldén, Markus
    Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden & Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Mats
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden & Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rehabilitation after first-time anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction in female football players: a study of resilience factors2016In: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 2052-1847, Vol. 8, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Most of the research in the area of psychosocial factors in rehabilitation after sports injuries has focused on risk behaviors, while relatively few studies have focused on behaviors that facilitate rehabilitation. The objective of our study was to understand the psychosocial features that characterize elite female football players who express a resilient behaviour during rehabilitation after a first-time anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction.

    Methods

    A qualitative method was used based on individual in-person interviews and video communication of players who incurred a first-time ACL tear during the 2012 season of the Swedish Women’s Elite Football League. In total, 13 players had a first-time ACL and were interviewed post-season. The interviews were followed by a thematic content analysis. Based on this, eight players were identified as showing resilient behaviors during their rehabilitation and were included in the final analysis.

    Results

    Three core themes representing psychosocial factors that help players cope successfully with rehabilitation were identified: (I) constructive communication and rich interaction with significant others; (II) strong belief in the importance and efficacy of one’s own actions; and (III) the ability to set reasonable goals.

    Conclusions

    The findings suggest three core themes of psychosocial factors that characterize first-time ACL-injured elite female football players showing resilience during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Suggestions for medical teams about ways to support communication, self-efficacy, and goal-setting during the rehabilitation process, are provided. © 2016 The Author(s).

  • 45.
    Kilic, O.
    et al.
    Acad Med Ctr, Netherlands.
    Aoki, H.
    St Marianna Univ, Japan.
    Goedhart, E.
    Royal Netherlands Football Assoc KNVB, Netherlands.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.
    Acad Med Ctr, Netherlands; Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Netherlands.
    Kuijer, P. P. F. M.
    Acad Med Ctr, Netherlands.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gouttebarge, V.
    Acad Med Ctr, Netherlands; Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Netherlands; World Players Union FIFPro, Netherlands; Univ Cape Town, South Africa.
    Severe musculoskeletal time-loss injuries and symptoms of common mental disorders in professional soccer: a longitudinal analysis of 12-month follow-up data2018In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 946-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological factors have shown to be predictors of injury in professional football. However, it seems that this is a two-way relationship, as severe musculoskeletal time-loss injuries have shown to be associated with the onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD). There is no longitudinal study performed exploring this interaction between symptoms of CMD and injuries. The purpose of this study was to explore the interaction between severe musculoskeletal time-loss injuries and symptoms of CMD in professional football players over a 12-month period. Players were recruited by their national players unions in five European countries. Symptoms of CMD included in the study were related to distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance and adverse alcohol use. A total of 384 professional football players were enrolled in the study, of whom 262 (68%) completed the 12-month follow-up period. The mean age of the participants at baseline was 27 +/- 5 years, and they had played professional football for 8 +/- 5 years on average. Symptoms of CMD at baseline were not associated with the onset of severe musculoskeletal time-loss injuries during the follow-up period with relative risks (and 95% CI) ranging from 0.6 (0.3-1.0) to 1.0 (0.5-2.2). In contrast, severe musculoskeletal time-loss injuries reported at baseline were associated with the onset of symptoms of CMD during the follow-up period with relative risks ranging from 1.8 (0.8-3.7) to 6.9 (4.0-11.9). No relationship was found between symptoms of CMD and the onset of severe musculoskeletal time-loss injuries. However, professional football players who suffered from severe musculoskeletal time-loss injuries are likely to develop subsequent symptoms of CMD. This study emphasizes the need for an interdisciplinary medical approach, which not only focuses on the physical but also on the mental health of professional football players. An early identification of players at risk of symptoms of CMD, such as those suffering from severe musculoskeletal injuries, creates the opportunity for an interdisciplinary clinical medical team to treat the players timely and adequately. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  • 46.
    Kristenson, Karolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bjørneboe, John
    Department of Sports Medicine, Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersen, Thor Einar
    Department of Sports Medicine, Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
    Injuries in male professional football: a prospective comparison between individual and team-based exposure registration2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1225-1232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methodological considerations of football injury epidemiology have only scarcely been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter-rater agreement in injury capture rate and injury categorisation for data registered in two different prospective injury surveillance audits studying the same two Norwegian male professional football clubs for two consecutive seasons, 2008-2009. One audit used team-based exposure (TBE) recording and the other individual-based exposure (IBE). The number of injuries recorded and corresponding injury rates (injuries/1000 h exposure) were compared between audits. Cohen’s Kappa and Prevalence Adjusted Bias Adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficients were calculated for injury variables. Of 323 injuries included, the IBE audit captured 318 (overall capture rate 98.5%, training 98.9%, match 97.8%) and the TBE audit 303 injuries (overall capture rate 93.8%, training 91.4%, match 97.1%). Agreement analysis showed Kappa and PABAK coefficients regarded as almost perfect (> 0.81) for 8 of 9 injury variables, and substantial (ƙ 0.75) for the variable injury severity. In conclusion, the capture rate for training injuries was slightly higher with individual-based exposure recording, and inter-agreement in injury categorisation was very high.

  • 47.
    Kristenson, Karolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bjørneboe, John
    Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersen, Thor Einar
    Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Nordic Football Injury Audit: higher injury rates for professional football clubs with third-generation artificial turf at their home venue2013In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 775-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Previously, no difference in acute injury rate has been found when playing football on artificial turf (AT) compared with natural grass (NG).

    Aim To compare acute injury rates in professional football played on AT and NG at the individual player level; and to compare, at club level, acute and overuse injury rates between clubs that have AT at their home venue (AT clubs) and clubs that have NG (NG clubs).

    Methods 32 clubs (AT, n=11; NG, n=21) in the male Swedish and Norwegian premier leagues were followed prospectively during the 2010 and 2011 seasons. Injury rate was expressed as the number of time loss injuries/1000 h and compared with rate ratio (RR) and 99% CI.

    Results No statistically significant differences were found in acute injury rates on AT compared with NG during match play (RR 0.98, 99% CI 0.79 to 1.22) or training (RR 1.14, 99% CI 0.86 to 1.50) when analysing at the individual player level. When analysing at the club level, however, AT clubs had a significantly higher acute training injury rate (RR 1.31, 99% CI 1.04 to 1.63) and overuse injury rate (RR 1.38, 99% CI 1.14 to 1.65) compared with NG clubs.

    Conclusions At the individual player level, no significant differences were found in acute injury rates when playing on AT compared with NG. However, clubs with AT at their home venue had higher rates of acute training injuries and overuse injuries compared with clubs that played home matches on NG.

  • 48.
    Kristenson, Karolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bjørneboe, John
    Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersen, Thor Einar
    Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    No association between surface shifts and time-loss overuse injury risk in male professional football: a prospective cohort study2016In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 218-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate frequent surface shifts, match play on an unaccustomed surface, and climate type as potential risk factors for injury in Scandinavian male professional football.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Methods: 32 clubs from two climate zones, warm temperate (n=19) and snow climates (n=13), were followed during seasons 2010 and 2011. The association between number of surface shifts during fivematch sequences and subsequent overuse injury risk was evaluated with generalized estimating equations. Injury rate was expressed as time loss injuries/1000 hours, and compared between groups with a rate ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI).

    Results: No association was found between the number of surface shifts and subsequent overuse injury risk (risk ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.12). Grass clubs (grass installed at home venue) had a lower match injury rate when playing away matches on artificial turf vs. away matches on grass (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.40-0.89). Analyses on the total cohort showed no difference in injury rates between clubs in the two climate zones, but sub-analyses revealed that grass clubs from the snow climate zone had lower training and match injury rates than grass clubs from the warm temperate zone (rate ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.87).

    Conclusions: No influence on injury risk was seen from frequent surface shifts or from playing matches on an unaccustomed surface. Climate type at club home venue had minimal influence on injury rates.

  • 49.
    Kristenson, Karolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lower Injury Rates for Newcomers to Professional Soccer: a Prospective Cohort Study over Nine Consecutive Seasons2013In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1419-1425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: No study has investigated whether newcomers to professional soccer have a different injury rate than established players.                     

    Purpose: The primary objective was to investigate whether being a newcomer to professional soccer influences injury rates. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether playing position and player age influence injury rates.                     

    Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.                     

    Methods: Twenty-six soccer clubs, with 1401 players, were followed prospectively over 9 consecutive seasons between 2001 and 2010. Club medical staff recorded time-loss injuries and soccer exposure on an individual level. Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between time-loss injuries and time in professional soccer, playing position, and age.                     

    Results: In total, 6140 injuries and 797,389 hours of exposure were registered. A decreased general injury rate was observed for newcomers (n = 116) compared with established players (n = 3091) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.99). In contrast, newcomers had a higher rate of fractures (rate ratio [RR], 1.77; 95% CI, 1.05-2.97), especially stress-related bone injuries (RR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.08-6.69). Using goalkeepers as a reference, all outfield playing positions had significantly higher adjusted injury rates: defenders with an HR of 1.91 (95% CI, 1.64-2.24), midfielders with an HR of 1.78 (95% CI, 1.53-2.07), and forwards with an HR of 1.82 (95% CI, 1.55-2.14). Using players aged ≤21 years as a reference, the overall adjusted injury rate increased with age, with a peak injury rate among players aged 29 to 30 years (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.68).                     

    Conclusion: Newcomers to professional soccer had a lower general injury rate than established players but a higher rate of stress-related bone injuries. Being a goalkeeper was associated with lower injury rates than all outfield playing positions. Injury rates increased with age, a pattern that persisted after adjusting for playing position and match exposure.

  • 50.
    Kvist, Joanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Gauffin, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Tigerstrand Grevnerts, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Activity and Health.
    Ardern, Clare
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stalman, Anders
    Capio ArtroClin, Sweden.
    Frobell, Richard
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Natural corollaries and recovery after acute ACL injury: the NACOX cohort study protocol2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 6, article id e020543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can result in joint instability, decreased functional performance, reduced physical activity and quality of life and an increased risk for post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Despite the development of new treatment techniques and extensive research, the complex and multifaceted nature of ACL injury and its consequences are yet to be fully understood. The overall aim of the NACOX study is to evaluate the natural corollaries and recovery after an ACL injury. Methods and analysis The NACOX study is a multicentre prospective prognostic cohort study of patients with acute ACL injury. At seven sites in Sweden, we will include patients aged 15-40 years, within 6 weeks after primary ACL injury. Patients will complete questionnaires at multiple occasions over the 3 years following injury or the 3 years following ACL reconstruction (for participants who have surgical treatment). In addition, a subgroup of 130 patients will be followed with clinical examinations, several imaging modalities and biological samples. Data analyses will he specific to each aim. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the regional Ethical committee in Linkoping, Sweden (Dnr 2016/44-31 and 2017/221-32). We plan to present the results at national and international conferences and in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Participants will receive a short summary of the results following completion of the study.

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