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  • 1.
    Högdahl, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leucocyte esterase testing of first-voided urine and urethral and cervical smears to identify Mycoplasma genitalium-infected men and women.2007In: International Journal of STD and AIDS (London), ISSN 0956-4624, E-ISSN 1758-1052, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 835-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leucocyte esterase (LE) in first-voided urine (FVU) and presence of leucocytes in urethral and cervical smears were evaluated to identify Mycoplasma genitalium infection in 416 men and 417 women attending Department of Genitourinary Medicine. M. genitalium was diagnosed in FVU specimens by realtime polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of M. genitalium was 6.5% in women and 6.7% in men. In total, 88.5% (23/26) of M. genitalium-infected men were identified by a combination of urethral smear and the LE test. In women, the combination of urethral and/or cervical smears and/or a positive LE test identified 91.3% (21/23) of M. genitalium-infected patients. Organism load in FVU correlated significantly with presence of urethritis (> or =4 leucocytes per high-power field) in men. A combination of LE testing of urine and urethral and/or cervical smears can be used as screening tests to select patients for specific M. genitalium testing. By this strategy, about 10% of infected individuals will remain undetected.

  • 2.
    Högdahl, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Söderlund, G
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules in human coronary artery endothelial cells infected with Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae2008In: APMIS, ISSN 0903-4641, Vol. 116, no 12, p. 1082-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has during recent years been associated with cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Chemokines, leukocyte adhesion proteins and metalloproteinases are significant for chemotaxis and attachment of leukocytes to vessel walls, and for stability of atherosclerotic plaques. To determine the ability of C. pneumoniae to elicit inflammation in a relevant target host cell, we infected human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with a clinical isolate of C. pneumoniae. Extracellular release of five chemokines, two adhesion proteins and a metalloproteinase was measured at different time points after infection using a cytometric bead assay and ELISA. Secretion of IL-8, MCP-1, MIG, IP-10 and ICAM-1 was significantly increased 48 h after C. pneumoniae infection of HCAEC in comparison with uninfected controls. Release of RANTES occurred already 6 h after infection. C. pneumoniae did not elicit release of E-selectin or MMP-1. We conclude that C. pneumoniae induces expression of proinflammatory components in HCAEC, which would promote migration of leukocytes towards endothelial cells. This suggests that C. pneumoniae initiates and propagates vascular inflammation in ways that contribute to coronary artery disease.

  • 3.
    Schöier, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Högdahl, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Söderlund, Gustaf
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae-induced cell death in human coronary artery endothelial cells is caspase-independent and accompanied by subcellular translocations of Bax and apoptosis-inducing factor.2006In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 207-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease are causing high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Different risk factors have been demonstrated, but the exact mechanisms behind these diseases are still not fully understood. Recent studies have suggested Chlamydia pneumoniae to be involved in the pathogenesis, and increased apoptotic indexes in atherosclerotic plaques have been documented. In this study, we show that C. pneumoniae induces apoptosis and necrosis in populations of human coronary artery endothelial cells. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL and flow cytometry after staining of cells with annexin V and propidium iodide, and defined as TUNEL-reactive or annexin V-positive, propidium iodide-negative cells. The apoptosis was induced within 2 h postinfection and increased with inoculation dose. The general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not affect apoptotic frequencies. By immunochemistry and immunoblot, we demonstrated activation and subcellular translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax, and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from the cytosol to the nucleus. These results indicate that C. pneumoniae-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells is caspase-independent and regulated by Bax and apoptosis-inducing factor.

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