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  • 1.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aijaz, Asim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kubart, Tomas
    The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Understanding the discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of oxides2013In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Ti-O and Al-O is investigated. It is found that for both metals, the discharge peak current significantly increases in the oxide mode in contrast to the behavior in reactive direct current magnetron sputtering where the discharge current increases for Al but decreases for Ti when oxygen is introduced. In order to investigate the increase in the discharge current in HiPIMS-mode, the ionic contribution of the discharge in the oxide and metal mode is measured using time-resolved mass spectrometry. The energy distributions and time evolution are investigated during the pulse-on time as well as in the post-discharge. In the oxide mode, the discharge is dominated by ionized oxygen, which has been preferentially sputtered from the target surface. The ionized oxygen determines the discharge behavior in reactive HiPIMS.

  • 2.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Jädernäs, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Effects on deposition rate when varying the magnetic field strength in magnetron sputtering2008In: 14th International Congress on Thin Films,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Poster

  • 3.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dual-magnetron open field sputtering system for sideways deposition of thin films2010In: SURFACE and COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 204, no 14, p. 2165-2169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual-magnetron system for deposition inside tubular substrates has been developed. The two magnetrons are facing each other and have opposing magnetic fields forcing electrons and thereby also ionized material to be transported radially towards the substrate. The depositions were made employing direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). To optimize the deposition rate, the system was characterized at different separation distances between the magnetrons under the same sputtering conditions. The deposition rate is found to increase with increasing separation distance independent of discharge technique. The emission spectrum from the HiPIMS plasma shows a highly ionized fraction of the sputtered material. The electron densities of the order of 10(16) m(-3) and 10(18) m(-3) have been determined in the DCMS and the HiPIMS plasma discharges respectively. The results demonstrate a successful implementation of the concept of sideways deposition of thin films providing a solution for coating complex shaped surfaces.

  • 4.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brenning, Nils
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges2012In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 23, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy that facilitates a substantial increase of carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges is presented in this work. The strategy is based on increasing the electron temperature in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge by using Ne as the sputtering gas. This allows for the generation of an energetic C+ ion population and a substantial increase in the C+ ion flux as compared to a conventional Ar-HiPIMS process. A direct consequence of the ionization enhancement is demonstrated by an increase in the mass density of the grown films up to 2.8 g/cm3; the density values achieved are substantially higher than those obtained from conventional magnetron sputtering methods.

  • 5.
    Brenning, N
    et al.
    Royal Institute Technology.
    Huo, C
    Royal Institute Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raadu, M A
    Royal Institute Technology.
    Vitelaru, C
    University of Paris 11.
    Stancu, G D
    University of Paris 11.
    Minea, T
    University of Paris 11.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Understanding deposition rate loss in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: I. Ionization-driven electric fields2012In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 025005-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lower deposition rate for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) compared with direct current magnetron sputtering for the same average power is often reported as a drawback. The often invoked reason is back-attraction of ionized sputtered material to the target due to a substantial negative potential profile, sometimes called an extended presheath, from the location of ionization toward the cathode. Recent studies in HiPIMS devices, using floating-emitting and swept-Langmuir probes, show that such extended potential profiles do exist, and that the electric fields E-z directed toward the target can be strong enough to seriously reduce ion transport to the substrate. However, they also show that the potential drops involved can vary by up to an order of magnitude from case to case. There is a clear need to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify the key discharge variables that can be used for minimizing the back-attraction. We here present a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the problem of electric fields E-z in the ionization region part of HiPIMS discharges, and their effect on the transport of ionized sputtered material. In particular, we have investigated the possibility of a sweet spot in parameter space in which the back-attraction of ionized sputtered material is low. It is concluded that a sweet spot might possibly exist for some carefully optimized discharges, but probably in a rather narrow window of parameters. As a measure of how far a discharge is from such a window, a Townsend product Pi(Townsend) is proposed. A parametric analysis of Pi(Townsend) shows that the search for a sweet spot is complicated by the fact that contradictory demands appear for several of the externally controllable parameters such as high/low working gas pressure, short/long pulse length, high/low pulse power and high/low magnetic field strength.

  • 6.
    Brenning, N
    et al.
    Royal Institute Technology, EE, Div Space and Plasma Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Merlino, R L
    University Iowa, Department Phys and Astron, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA .
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raadu, M A
    Royal Institute Technology, EE, Div Space and Plasma Phys, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Faster-than-Bohm Cross-B Electron Transport in Strongly Pulsed Plasmas2009In: PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, ISSN 0031-9007, Vol. 103, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the empirical discovery of an exceptionally high cross-B electron transport rate in magnetized plasmas, in which transverse currents are driven with abruptly applied high power. Experiments in three different magnetic geometries are analyzed, covering several orders of magnitude in plasma density, magnetic field strength, and ion mass. It is demonstrated that a suitable normalization parameter is the dimensionless product of the electron (angular) gyrofrequency and the effective electron-ion momentum transfer time, omega(ge)tau(EFF), by which all of diffusion, cross-resistivity, cross-B current conduction, and magnetic field diffusion can be expressed. The experiments show a remarkable consistency and yield close to a factor of 5 greater than the Bohm-equivalent values of diffusion coefficient D-perpendicular to, magnetic-diffusion coefficient D-B, Pedersen conductivity sigma(P), and transverse resistivity eta(perpendicular to).

  • 7.
    Brenning, Nils
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Axnas, I
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Raadu, M. A.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson , Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    A bulk plasma model for dc and HiPIMS magnetrons2008In: PLASMA SOURCES SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0963-0252 , Vol. 17, no 4, p. 045009-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A plasma discharge model has been developed for the bulk plasma (also called the extended presheath) in sputtering magnetrons. It can be used both for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and conventional dc sputtering magnetrons. Demonstration calculations are made for the parameters of the HiPIMS sputtering magnetron at Link "oping University, and also benchmarked against results in the literature on dc magnetrons. New insight is obtained regarding the structure and time development of the currents, the electric fields and the potential profiles. The transverse resistivity eta(perpendicular to) has been identified as having fundamental importance both for the potential profiles and for the motion of ionized target material through the bulk plasma. New findings are that in the HiPIMS mode, as a consequence of a high value of eta(perpendicular to), (1) there can be an electric field reversal that in our case extends 0.01-0.04m from the target, (2) the electric field in the bulk plasma is typically an order of magnitude weaker than in dc magnetrons, (3) in the region of electric field reversal the azimuthal current is diamagnetic in nature, i.e. mainly driven by the electron pressure gradient, and actually somewhat reduced by the electron Hall current which here has a reversed direction and (4) the azimuthal current above the racetrack can, through resistive friction, significantly influence the motion of the ionized fraction of the sputtered material and deflect it sideways, away from the target and towards the walls of the magnetron.

  • 8.
    Brenning, Nils
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Kirkpatrick, Scott
    University of Nebraska.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Anomalous transport through lower-hybrid waves in a HIPIMS sputtering magnetron2007In: International Vacuum Congress,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Gudmundsson, J. T.
    et al.
    University of Michigan.
    Brenning, N.
    KTH.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge2012In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 30, no 030801Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge is a recent addition to plasma based sputtering technology. In HiPIMS, high power is applied to the magnetron target in unipolar pulses at low duty cycle and low repetition frequency while keeping the average power about 2 orders of magnitude lower than the peak power. This results in a high plasma density, and high ionization fraction of the sputtered vapor, which allows better control of the film growth by controlling the energy and direction of the deposition species. This is a significant advantage over conventional dc magnetron sputtering where the sputtered vapor consists mainly of neutral species. The HiPIMS discharge is now an established ionized physical vapor deposition technique, which is easily scalable and has been successfully introduced into various industrial applications. The authors give an overview of the development of the HiPIMS discharge, and the underlying mechanisms that dictate the discharge properties. First, an introduction to the magnetron sputtering discharge and its various configurations and modifications is given. Then the development and properties of the high power pulsed power supply are discussed, followed by an overview of the measured plasma parameters in the HiPIMS discharge, the electron energy and density, the ion energy, ion flux and plasma composition, and a discussion on the deposition rate. Finally, some of the models that have been developed to gain understanding of the discharge processes are reviewed, including the phenomenological material pathway model, and the ionization region model.

  • 10.
    Gudmundsson, J T
    et al.
    University of Iceland.
    Sigurjonsson, P.
    University of Iceland.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the electron energy in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge2009In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 105, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal variation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) was measured with a Langmuir probe in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge at 3 and 20 mTorr pressures. In the HiPIMS discharge a high power pulse is applied to a planar magnetron giving a high electron density and highly ionized sputtered vapor. The measured EEDF is Maxwellian-like during the pulse; it is broader for lower discharge pressure and it becomes narrower as the pulse progresses. This indicates that the plasma cools as the pulse progresses, probably due to high metal content of the discharge.

  • 11.
    Huo, Chunqing
    et al.
    Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Raadu, Michael A
    Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China University of Iceland, Iceland .
    Anders, Andre
    University of Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA .
    Brenning, Nils
    Royal Institute Technology, Sweden .
    Gas rarefaction and the time evolution of long high-power impulse magnetron sputtering pulses2012In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 045004-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model studies of 400 mu s long discharge pulses in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering have been made to study the gas dynamics and plasma chemistry in this type of pulsed processing plasma. Data are taken from an experiment using square voltage pulses applied to an Al target in an Ar atmosphere at 1.8 Pa. The study is limited to low power densities, andlt; 0.5 kW cm(-2), in which the discharge is far away from the runaway self-sputtering mode. The model used is the ionization region model, a time-dependent plasma chemistry discharge model developed for the ionization region in magnetron sputtering discharges. It gives a close fit to the discharge current during the whole pulse, both an initial high-current transient and a later plateau value of constant lower current. The discharge current peak is found to precede a maximum in gas rarefaction of the order of Delta n(Ar)/n(Ar),(0) approximate to 50%. The time durations of the high-current transient, and of the rarefaction maximum, are determined by the time it takes to establish a steady-state diffusional refill of process gas from the surrounding volume. The dominating mechanism for gas rarefaction is ionization losses, with only about 30% due to the sputter wind kick-out process. During the high-current transient, the degree of sputtered metal ionization reaches 65-75%, and then drops to 30-35% in the plateau phase. The degree of self-sputtering (defined here as the metal ion fraction of the total ion current to the target) also varies during the pulse. It grows from zero at pulse start to a maximum of 65-70% coinciding in time with the maximum gas rarefaction, and then stabilizes in the range 40-45% during the plateau phase. The loss in deposition rate that can be attributed to the back-attraction of the ionized sputtered species is also estimated from the model. It is low during the initial 10-20 mu s, peaks around 60% during the high-current transient, and finally stabilizes around 30% during the plateau phase.

  • 12.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lai, W.-J.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan.
    Chen, L.-C.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan.
    Chen, K.-H.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan/Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epitaxial Growth of GaN (0001)/Al2O3 (0001) by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputter DepositionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial GaN (0001) thin films were grown on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of liquid Ga targets in a mixed N2/Ar discharge. A combination of x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, μ-Raman mapping and spectroscopy, μ-photoluminescence, time of flight elastic recoil detection, and cathodoluminescence showed the formation of relaxed and strained domains in the same films. While the strained domains form due to ion bombardment during growth, the relaxed domains exhibit

  • 13.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Cross-field ion Transport in High Power impulse Magnetron Sputtering and its Effect on Deposition Rates2008In: The 11:th International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 14.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Cross-field Ion Transport in High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering and it's Effect on Deposition Rates2008In: HIPIMS Days,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Effect on Thin Film Growth due to Anomalous Transport in High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering2008In: AVS 55:th International Symposium,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 16.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Plasma properties in high power impulse magnetron sputtering2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis involves experimental and theoretical studies related to plasma properties in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), and more specifically plasma transport. HiPIMS is an ionized PVD method based on conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS). In dcMS very little of the sputtered material is ionized since the plasma power density is not high enough. This is not the case for HiPIMS, where a substantial part is ionized, and thus presents many new opportunities for thin film growth. Understanding the dynamics of the charged species in the HiPIMS discharge is therefore of essential value when producing high-quality thin film coatings.

    In the first part of the work a new type of anomalous electron transport was found. Investigations of the transport resulted in the discovery that this phenomenon could quantitatively be described as being related and mediated by highly nonlinear waves, likely due to the modified two-stream instability (MTSI), resulting in electric field oscillations in the MHz-range (the so-called lower hybrid frequency). Measurements in the plasma confirmed these oscillations as well as trends predicted by the theory of these types of waves. The degree of anomalous transport in the plasma could also be determined by measuring the current density ratio between the azimuthal current density (of which the Hall current density is one contribution) and the discharge current density, Jφ / JD. The results provided important insights into understanding the mechanism behind the anomalous transport.

    It was furthermore found that the current ratio Jφ / JD is inversely proportional to the transverse resistivity, eta_perpendicular , which governs how well momentum is transferred from the electrons to the ions in the plasma. By looking at the forces involved in the charged particle transport it was expected that the azimuthally rotating electrons would exert a volume force on the ions tangentially outwards from the circular race track region. The effect of having an anomalous transport would therefore be a large fraction of highly energetic ions being transported sideways and lost to the walls. In a series of experiments, deposition rates as well as incoming ion energy distributions were measured directly at the side of the magnetron. It was found that a substantial fraction of sputtered material is transported radially away from the cathode and lost to the walls in HiPIMS as well as dcMS, but more so for HiPIMS giving one possible explanation to why the deposition rate for substrates placed in front of the target is lower for HiPIMS compared to dcMS. Furthermore, the recorded, incoming ion energy distributions confirmed theoretical estimations on this type of transport regarding energy and direction.

  • 17.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The HiPIMS Process2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis involves experimental and theoretical studies related to a thin film deposition technique called high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), and more specifically the plasma properties and how they influence the coating. HiPIMS is an ionized physical vapor deposition technique based on conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). The major difference between the two methods is that HiPIMS has the added advantage of providing substantial ionization of the sputtered material, and thus presents many new opportunities for the coating industry. Understanding the dynamics of the charged species and their effect on thin film growth in the HiPIMS process is therefore essential for producing high-quality coatings.

    In the first part of the thesis a new type of anomalous electron transport was found. Investigations of the transport resulted in the discovery that this phenomenon could quantitatively be described as being related and mediated by highly nonlinear waves, likely due to the modified two-stream instability, resulting in electric field oscillations in the MHz-range (the lower hybrid frequency). Measurements in the plasma confirmed these oscillations as well as trends predicted by the theory of these types of waves. Using electric probes, the degree of anomalous transport in the plasma could also be determined by measuring the current density ratio between the azimuthal current density (of which the Hall current density is one contribution) and the discharge current density, Jϕ / JD. The results were verified in another series of measurements using Rogowski probes to directly gain insight into the internal currents in the HiPIMS discharge. The results provided important insights into understanding the mechanism behind the anomalous transport.

    It was furthermore demonstrated that the current ratio Jϕ / JD is inversely proportional to the transverse resistivity, η , which governs how well momentum in the direction of the current is transferred from the electrons to the ions in the plasma. By looking at the forces involved in the charged particle transport it was expected that the azimuthally rotating electrons would exert a volume force on the ions tangentially outwards from the circular race track region. The effect of having an anomalous transport would therefore be that the ions were transported across the magnetic field lines and to a larger extent deflected sideways, instead of solely moving from the target region towards a substrate placed in front of the target some distance away. From the experiments it was confirmed that a substantial fraction of sputtered material is transported radially away from the cathode and lost to the walls in HiPIMS as well as in DCMS, but more so for HiPIMS giving one possible explanation to why the deposition rate is lower for HiPIMS compared to DCMS. Moreover, in a separate investigation on the energy flux it could be determined that the heating due to radial energy flux reached as much as 60 % of the axial energy flux, which is likely a result of the anomalous transport of charged species present in the HiPIMS discharge. Also, the recorded ion energy flux confirmed theoretical estimations on this type of transport regarding energy and direction.In order to gain a better understanding of the complete discharge regime, as well as providing a link between the HiPIMS and DCMS processes, the current and voltage characteristics were investigated for discharge pulses longer than 100 μs. The current behavior was found to be strongly correlated with the chamber gas pressure. Based on these experiments it was suggested that high-current transients commonly seen in the HiPIMS process cause a depletion of the working gas in the area in front of the target, and thereby a transition to a DCMS-like high voltage, lower current regime, which alters the deposition conditions.

    In the second part of the thesis, using the results and ideas from the fundamental plasma investigations, it was possible to successfully implement different coating improvements. First, the concept of sideways deposition of thin films was examined in a dual-magnetron system providing a solution for coating complex shaped surfaces. Here, the two magnetrons were facing each other having opposing magnetic fields forcing electrons, and thereby also ionized material to be transported radially towards the substrate. In this way deposition inside tubular substrates can be made in a beneficial way.

    Last, the densification process of thin films using HiPIMS was investigated for eight different materials (Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Zr, Ag, Ta, and Pt). Through careful characterization of the thin film properties it was determined that the HiPIMS coatings were approximately 5-15 % denser compared to the DCMS coatings. This could be attributed to the increased ion bombardment seen in the HiPIMS process, where the momentum transfer between the growing film and the incoming ions is very efficient due to the equal mass of the atoms constituting the film and the bombarding species, leading to a less pronounced columnar microstructure. The deposition conditions were also examined using a global plasma model, which was in good agreement with the experimental results.

  • 18.
    Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Al Sahab, Seham
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brenning, Nils
    Division of Space and Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Huo, Chunqing
    Division of Space and Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internal current measurements in high power impulse magnetron sputtering2011In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 045003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport of charged particles in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge is of great interest when optimizing this promising deposition technique with respect to deposition rate and control of the ion acceleration. In this study the internal current densities Jϕ (azimuthal direction) and JD⊥ (axial direction) have therefore been spatially and temporally resolved in the bulk plasma region above a cylindrical magnetron using Rogowski coils. From the measurements a phenomenological model has been constructed describing the evolution of the current density in this pulsed plasma. The core of the model is based on six different types of current systems, which characterize the operating transport mechanisms, such as current transport along and across magnetic field lines, as well as the initiation, buildup and steady-state of a HiPIMS plasma. Furthermore, the data also shows that there are spatial and temporal variations of the key transport parameter Jϕ/JD⊥ , governing the cross-B resistivity and also the energy of the charged particles. The previously reported faster-than-Bohm cross-B electron transport is here verified, but is not found to be present during the whole discharge regime as well as for all locations. These results on the plasma dynamics are essential input when modeling the axial electric field, governing the back-attraction of ionized sputtered material, and might furthermore provide a link between the different resistivities reported in HiPIMS, pulsed-DC, and DC magnetron discharges.

  • 19.
    Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brenning, Nils
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jädernäs, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wallin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lattemann, Martina
    Tech University of Darmstadt.
    Raadu, Michael A
    Royal Institute Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transition between the discharge regimes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering and conventional direct current magnetron sputtering2009In: PLASMA SOURCES SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0963-0252, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 045008-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current and voltage have been measured in a pulsed high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) system for discharge pulses longer than 100 mu s. Two different current regimes could clearly be distinguished during the pulses: (1) a high-current transient followed by (2) a plateau at lower currents. These results provide a link between the HiPIMS and the direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) discharge regimes. At high applied negative voltages the high-current transient had the characteristics of HiPIMS pulses, while at lower voltages the plateau values agreed with currents in DCMS using the same applied voltage. The current behavior was found to be strongly correlated with the chamber gas pressure, where increasing gas pressure resulted in increasing peak current and plateau current. Based on these experiments it is suggested here that the high-current transients cause a depletion of the working gas in the area in front of the target, and thereby a transition to a DCMS-like high-voltage, lower current regime.

  • 20.
    Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kirkpatrick, Scott
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
    Rohde, Suzanne
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
    Brenning, Nils
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Anomalous electron transport in high power impulse magnetron sputtering2008In: Plasma Sources Science and Technology, ISSN 0963-0252, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 025007-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oscillating electric fields in the megahertz range have been studied in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) plasma with the use of electric field probe arrays. One possible reason for these oscillations to occur is charge perturbation—or so-called modified two-stream instabilities (MTSIs). It is known that MTSIs give rise to acceleration of the charged plasma species and can give a net transport of electrons across the magnetic field lines. Measurements of these oscillations confirm trends, specifically of the frequency dependence on ion mass and magnetic field strength as expected from the theory of MTSI waves. These results help to explain the previously reported anomalous fast electron transport in HIPIMS discharges, where classical theory of diffusion using collisions to transport electrons has failed.

  • 21.
    Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Kirkpatrick, Scott
    University of Nebraska.
    Brenning, Nils
    KTH.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Anomalous electron transport in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas2007In: International Vacuum Congress,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wallin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lattemann, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brenning, Nils
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cross-field ion transport during high power impulse magnetron sputtering2008In: Plasma Sources Science and Technology, ISSN 0963-0252, Vol. 17, no 035021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the effect on thin film growth due to an anomalous electron transport, found in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), has been investigated for the case of a planar circular magnetron. An important consequence of this type of transport is that it affects the way ions are being transported in the plasma. It was found that a significant fraction of ions are transported radially outwards in the vicinity of the cathode, across the magnetic field lines, leading to increased deposition rates directly at the side of the cathode (perpendicular to the target surface). Furthermore, this mass transport parallel to the target surface leads to that the fraction of sputtered material reaching a substrate placed directly in front of the target is substantially lower in HiPIMS compared with conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS). This would help to explain the lower deposition rates generally observed for HiPIMS compared with dcMS. Moreover, time-averaged mass spectrometry measurements of the energy distribution of the cross-field transported ions were carried out. The measured distributions show a direction-dependent high-energy tail, in agreement with predictions of the anomalous transport mechanism.

  • 23.
    Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High power pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition: a brief overview of general concepts and early results2013In: NINETEENTH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (EUROCVD 19), 2013, Vol. 46, p. 3-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general concepts of the emerging plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique High Power Pulsed PECVD (HiPP-PECVD) are outlined; the main feature of HiPP-PECVD is the use of a power scheme characterized by high power pulses with a duty cycle of a few percent or less to generate a process plasma with a significantly higher plasma density compared to traditional PECVD. The higher plasma density leads to a more reactive plasma chemistry, which results in a higher rate of dissociation of the precursor molecules, i.e. a more efficient use of the source material. The high plasma density also leads to a higher degree of ionization of the growth species, enabling the possibility to guide the growth species to the substrate or applying an energetic bombardment of the growing film by applying a substrate bias. Early results on HiPP-PECVD have shown that HiPP-PECVD enables deposition of phase pure alpha-Al2O3 at substrate temperatures as low as 560 degrees C with mechanical properties comparable to standard thermal CVD grown material. Also, deposition of amorphous, copper containing carbon films at deposition rates higher than 30 mu m/h has been demonstrated together with results showing the more efficient plasma chemistry. It is suggested that HiPPPECVD is a promising tool for low temperature deposition of films with tailored properties for e.g. the hard coatings industry. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 24.
    Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An introduction to thin film processing using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering2012In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 780-792Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is a promising sputtering-based ionized physical vapor deposition technique and is already making its way to industrial applications. The major difference between HiPIMS and conventional magnetron sputtering processes is the mode of operation. In HiPIMS the power is applied to the magnetron (target) in unipolar pulses at a low duty factor (andlt;10%) and low frequency (andlt;10 kHz) leading to peak target power densities of the order of several kilowatts per square centimeter while keeping the average target power density low enough to avoid magnetron overheating and target melting. These conditions result in the generation of a highly dense plasma discharge, where a large fraction of the sputtered material is ionized and thereby providing new and added means for the synthesis of tailor-made thin films. In this review, the features distinguishing HiPIMS from other deposition methods will be addressed in detail along with how they influence the deposition conditions, such as the plasma parameters and the sputtered material, as well as the resulting thin film properties, such as microstructure, phase formation, and chemical composition. General trends will be established in conjunction to industrially relevant material systems to present this emerging technology to the interested reader.

  • 25.
    Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stahl, Marc
    University of Kiel.
    Kersten, Holger
    University of Kiel.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy flux measurements in high power impulse magnetron sputtering2009In: JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0022-3727, Vol. 42, no 18, p. 185202-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The total energy flux in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) plasma has been measured using thermal probes. Radial flux (parallel to the magnetron surface) as well as axial flux (perpendicular to the magnetron surface) were measured at different positions, and resulting energy flux profiles for the region between the magnetron and the substrate are presented. It was found that the substrate heating is reduced in the HiPIMS process compared with conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) at the same average power. On the other hand, the energy flux per deposited particle is higher for HiPIMS compared with DCMS, when taking into account the lower deposition rate for pulsed sputtering. This is most likely due to the highly energetic species present in the HiPIMS plasma. Furthermore, the heating due to the radial energy flux reached as much as 60% of the axial energy flux, which is likely a result of the anomalous transport of charged species present in the HiPIMS discharge. Finally, the experimental results were compared with theoretical calculations on energy flux of charged species and were found to be in good agreement.

  • 26.
    Muhammad, Junaid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lai, W-J
    National Taiwan University.
    Chen, L-C
    National Taiwan University.
    Chen, K-H
    National Taiwan University.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Two-domain formation during the epitaxial growth of GaN (0001) on c-plane Al2O3 (0001) by high power impulse magnetron sputtering2011In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 110, no 12, p. 123519-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of high power pulses in reactive magnetron sputter epitaxy on the structural properties of GaN (0001) thin films grown directly on Al2O3 (0001) substrates. The epilayers are grown by sputtering from a liquid Ga target, using a high power impulse magnetron sputtering power supply in a mixed N2/Ar discharge. X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, micro-photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy investigations show the formation of two distinct types of domains. One almost fully relaxed domain exhibits superior structural and optical properties as evidenced by rocking curves with a full width at half maximum of 885 arc sec and a low temperature band edge luminescence at 3.47 eV with the full width at half maximum of 10 meV. The other domain exhibits a 14 times higher isotropic strain component, which is due to the higher densities of the point and extended defects, resulting from the ion bombardment during growth. Voids form at the domain boundaries. Mechanisms for the formation of differently strained domains, along with voids during the epitaxial growth of GaN are discussed.

  • 27.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aijaz, Asim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel high-power pulse PECVD method2012In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, no 22, p. 4562-4566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) technique has been developed in order to combine energetic particle bombardment and high plasma densities found in ionized PVD with the advantages from PECVD such as a high deposition rate and the capability to coat complex and porous surfaces. In this PECVD method, an ionized plasma is generated above the substrate by means of a hollow cathode discharge. The hollow cathode is known to generate a highly ionized plasma and the discharge can be sustained in direct current (DC) mode, or in high-power pulsed (HiPP) mode using short pulses of a few tens of microsecond. The latter option is similar to the power scheme used in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), which is known to generate a high degree of ionization of the sputtered material, and thus providing new and added means for the synthesis of tailor-made thin films. In this work amorphous carbon coatings containing copper, have been deposited using both HiPP and DC operating conditions. Investigations of the bulk plasma using optical emission spectroscopy verify the presence of Ar+, C+ as well as Cu+ when running in pulsed mode. Deposition rates in the range 30 mu m/h have been obtained and the amorphous, copper containing carbon films have a low hydrogen content of 4- 5 at%. Furthermore, the results presented here suggest that a more efficient PECVD process is obtained by using a superposition of HiPP and DC mode, compared to using only DC mode at the same average input power.

  • 28.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raadu, Michael A
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas
    University of Iceland.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the film density using high power impulse magnetron sputtering2010In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, no 2, p. 591-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence on thin film density using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been investigated for eight different target materials (Al, Ti, Cr. Cu, Zr, Ag, Ta, and Pt). The density values as well as deposition rates have been compared to results obtained from thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) under the same experimental conditions. Overall, it was found that the HIPIMS deposited coatings were approximately 5-15% denser compared to the DCMS deposited coatings This could be attributed to the increased metal ion bombardment commonly seen in HIPIMS discharges, which also was verified using a global plasma model to assess the degree of ionization of sputtered metal One key feature is that the momentum transfer between the growing film and the incoming metal ions is very efficient due to the equal mass of film and bombarding species, leading to a less pronounced columnar microstructure As expected the deposition rates were found to be lower for HiPIMS compared to DCMS For several materials this decrease is not as pronounced as previously reported in the literature, which is shown in the case of Ta. Pt, and Ag with rate(HIPIMS)/rate(DCMS)-70-85%. while still achieving denser coatings

  • 29.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bjorefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Walivaara, Bengt
    Impact Coatings, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ljungcrantz, Henrik
    Impact Coatings, Linköping, Sweden.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of ionization degree on film properties when using high power impulse magnetron sputtering2012In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 031507-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium thin films are deposited by combining direct current magnetron sputtering and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) on a single cathode in an industrial deposition system. While maintaining a constant deposition rate and unchanged metal ion energy distribution function, the fraction of the total power supplied by either deposition technique is altered, and thereby also the metal ion to metal neutral ratio of the deposition flux. It is observed that the required total average power needed to be proportionally increased as the HiPIMS fraction is increased to be able to keep a constant deposition rate. The influence on microstructure, electrical, and electrochemical properties of the films is investigated and shows improvements with the use of HiPIMS. However, considerable influence of the studied properties occurs already when only some 40% of the total power is supplied by the HiPIMS technique. Further increase of the HiPIMS power fraction results in comparatively minor influence of the studied properties yet significant deposition rate efficiency reduction. The results show that the degree of ionization can be controlled separately, and that the advantages associated with using HiPIMS can be obtained while much of the deposition rate reduction, often reported for HiPIMS, can be avoided.

  • 30.
    Sigurjonsson, Pall
    et al.
    University of Iceland.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas
    University of Iceland.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Electron energy in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge2007In: Symposium on Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Sigurjonsson, Pall
    et al.
    University of Iceland.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas
    University of Iceland.
    The plasma parameters in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge (HiPIMS)2007In: 60th Gaseous Electronics Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 32.
    Stahl, M.
    et al.
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Kersten, H.
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy influx measurements in HiPIMS plasmas2009In: 36th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2009, EPS 2009 - Europhysics Conference Abstracts, vol 33 E1, 2009, Vol. 33 E1, p. 230-233Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 33.
    Vitelaru, C
    et al.
    University of Paris 11.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stancu, G D
    University of Paris 11.
    Brenning, N
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bretagne, J
    University of Paris 11.
    Minea, T
    University of Paris 11.
    Argon metastables in HiPIMS: time-resolved tunable diode-laser diagnostics2012In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 025010-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-resolved tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy measurements were performed on the argon metastable (Ar-m) level 3s(2)3p(5)(P-2(3/2)degrees)4s excited at 801.478 nm, in the dense plasma region in front of the magnetron target in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge. From the Doppler profile the evolution of the temperature and density was derived during the pulse as well as during the plasma decay, i.e. in the afterglow. It is shown that the Ar-m density sharply increases at the beginning of the discharge pulse, followed by a severe Ar-m depletion along with increasing gas temperature around the peak of the HiPIMS discharge current. The strong dynamics of these parameters involve many elementary processes such as electron-impact excitation, electron-impact de-excitation and ionization of Ar-m, gas rarefaction, electron temperature increase at the end of the pulse and gas diffusion. These phenomena are discussed with respect to several parameters: distance from the target, peak discharge current during the pulse, pulse length, and gas pressure.

1 - 33 of 33
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