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  • 1.
    Hinnemo, Malkolm
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhao, Jie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ahlberg, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hägglund, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Djurberg, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Scheicher, Ralph H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    On Monolayer Formation of Pyrenebutyric Acid on Graphene2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 15, p. 3588-3593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a two-dimensional material with high charge carrier mobility, graphene may offer ultrahigh sensitivity in biosensing. To realize this, the first step is to functionalize the graphene. This is commonly done by using 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) as a linker for biornolecules. However, the adsorption of PBA on graphene remains poorly understood despite reports of successful biosensors functionalized via this route. Here, the PBA adsorption on graphene is characterized through a combination of Raman spectroscopy, ab initio calculations, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The PBA molecules are found to form a self-assembled monolayer on graphene, the formation of which is self-limiting and Langmuirian. Intriguingly, in concentrated solutions, the PBA molecules are found to stand up and stack horizontally with their edges contacting the graphene surface. This morphology could facilitate a surface densely populated with carboxylic functional groups. Spectroscopic analyses show that the monolayer saturates at 5.3 PBA molecules per nm(2) and measures similar to 0.7 nm in thickness. The morphology study of this PBA monolayer sheds light on the pi-pi stacking of small-molecule systems on graphene and provides an excellent base for optimizing functionalization procedures.

  • 2.
    Miao, Fengjuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Qiqihar Univ, Coll Commun & Elect Engn, Qiqihar 161006, Heilongjiang, Peoples R China.
    Majee, Subimal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Song, Man
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhao, Jie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhang, Shi–Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Inkjet printing of electrochemically-exfoliated graphene nano-platelets2016In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 220, p. 318-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we report on a facile method of inkjet printing of graphene nano-platelets (GNPs). The GNPs are exfoliated from graphite by means of an electrochemical process in an inorganic salt based electrolyte. The electrochemically exfoliated GNPs with oxygen-bearing functional groups exhibit spectroscopic features similar to those of reduced graphene oxides. As a result, ink formulation with such GNPs for inkjet printing readily accomplishes without using stabilizer and various conductive objects are easily fabricated on different substrates by inkjet printing. The as-printed films of the electrochemically exfoliated GNPs deliver an electrical conductivity of 44 S/m, a typical value for as-printed pristine GNP films in the literature. A simple thermal treatment results in an improved DC conductivity by two orders of magnitude to ~2.5 × 103 S/m.

  • 3.
    Song, Man
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Tahershamsi, Leili
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Zhao, Jie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Grennberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Efficient Gelation of Graphene Oxide Aqueous Dispersion Induced by Sonication-Promoted Leuckart Reaction2018In: ChemNanoMat, ISSN 2199-692X, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 1145-1152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Graphene oxide (GO) undergoes a rapid gelation process in the presence of ammonium hydroxide and formic acid at room temperature which is promoted by ultrasonication. Infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy proved partial reduction of GO and nitrogen incorporation, resulting from sonication-promoted Leuckart reactions at GO carbonyl groups. The amine groups produced via Leuckart reactions undergo further reactions that result in salt bridges with carboxylic groups and covalent cross-links, both of which contribute to the stabilization of the resulting hydrogel. The resultant GO hydrogel exhibits enhanced thermal stability.

  • 4.
    Song, Man
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhao, Jie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Grennberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Screen Printed Conductive Composites with Reduced Graphene Oxide and Silver2018In: 2018 IMAPS Nordic Conference on Microelectronics Packaging (NordPac), 2018, p. 35-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work provides a method to fabricate conductive composites by screen printing of aqueous hybrid inks with graphene oxide (GO) and silver acetate as silver source. The formulation of the aqueous hybrid inks is realized by mixing highly concentrated GO solution and reactive silver solution, which readily results in a formation of viscous pastes. Composite films with four-probe structure were fabricated by means of blade coating, followed by annealing at 160 °C in air and subsequently at 600 °C in Ar/H 2 . While the reactive silver solution without GO can be completely reduced when annealed at 90 °C in air, resulting in elemental Ag films with resistivity close to the bulk value, no reduction occurs in the hybrid inks under the same annealing condition. Silver nanoparticles are formed from the hybrid inks at 160 °C and discretely distributed on the reduced GOs (rGOs), which shows a retardation effect of GO on the reduction of silver. Further annealing at 600 °C in Ar/H 2 leads to partial restoration of sp 2 lattice in the rGOs. The resistivity of the composite films increases as the silver content is increased, which is interpreted by using a percolation model with rGO networks.

  • 5.
    Song, Man
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhao, Jie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Meng, Yu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Met Res, Shenyang Natl Lab Mat Sci, Shenyang 110016, Liaoning, Peoples R China.
    Riekehr, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Hou, Peng-Xiang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Met Res, Shenyang Natl Lab Mat Sci, Shenyang 110016, Liaoning, Peoples R China.
    Grennberg, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nitrogen-doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Hydrogel Achieved via a One-Step Hydrothermal Process2019In: CHEMNANOMAT, ISSN 2199-692X, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 1144-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report an efficient one-step method to achieve highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hydrogel doped with nitrogen where the rGO sheets are interconnected forming a porous structure by means of hydrothermal process. During the synthesis, ammonium formate is used as reducing reagent and simultaneously as nitrogen supplier, which delivers nitrogen-doped rGO (NRGO) hydrogel that exhibits C/O atomic ratio as high as at ~11.1 and contains decent ~5.4 at.% nitrogen. As comparison, the reduction efficiency is only half of the value and no nitrogen doping can be obtained when L-ascorbic acid is used as reducing reagent. The resultant NRGO shows enhanced electrocatalytic ability for oxygen reduced reaction indicating its great potential of the one-step method for the catalyst and energy applications. 

  • 6.
    Zhao, Jie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Solution-Processable Conductive Graphene-Based Materials for Flexible Electronics2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work explores electrical conductors based on few-layer graphene flakes as an enabler for low-cost, mechanically flexible, and high-conductivity conductors in large area flexible and printed electronic devices. The flakes are deposited from aqueous solutions and processed at low temperature.

    Graphene is selected for its excellent properties in mechanical, optical, electronic, and electrical aspects. However, thin films of pristine few-layer graphene flakes deposited from dispersions normally exhibit inferior electrical conductivity. One cause responsible for this problem is the loose stacking and random orientation of graphene flakes in a graphene deposition. We have solved this problem by implementing a simple post-deposition treatment leading to dramatically densified and planarized thin films. Significantly increased electrical conductivity by ~20 times is obtained. The 1-pyrenebutyric acid tetrabutylammonium salt as an exfoliation enhancer and dispersant in water yields ~110 S/m in conductivity when the graphene based thin films are processed at 90 °C. In order to achieve higher conductivity, a room-temperature method for site-selective copper electroless deposition has been developed. This method is of particular interest for the self-aligned copper deposition to the predefined graphene films. The resultant two-layer graphene/copper structure is characterized by an overall conductivity of ~7.9 × 105 S/m, an increase by ~7000 times from the template graphene films. Several electronic circuits based on the graphene/copper bilayer interconnect have been subsequently fabricated on plastic foils as proof-of-concept demonstrators. Alternatively, highly conductive composites featuring graphene flakes coated with silver nanoparticles with electrical conductivity beyond 106 S/m can be readily obtained at 100 oC. Moreover, a highly conductive reduced-graphene-oxide/copper hybrid hydrogel has been achieved by mixing aqueous graphene oxide solution and copper-containing Fehling's solution. The corresponding aerogel of high porosity exhibits an apparent electrical conductivity of ~430 S/m and delivers a specific capacity of ~453 mAh g−1 at current density of 1 A/g. The experimental results presented in this thesis show that the solution-phase, low-temperature fabrication of highly conductive graphene-based materials holds promises for flexible electronics and energy storage applications. 

  • 7.
    Zhao, Jie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Pan, Ruijun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Sun, Rui
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Wen, Chenyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Wu, Biao
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    High-Conductivity Reduced-Graphene-Oxide/Copper Aerogel for Energy Storage2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 60, p. 760-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports a room-temperature, solution-phase and one-pot method for macro-assembly of a three-dimensional (3D) reduced-graphene-oxide/copper hybrid hydrogel. The hydrogel is subsequently transformed into a highly conductive aerogel via freeze-drying. The aerogel, featuring reduced graphene oxide (rGO) networks decorated with Cu and CuxO nanoparticles (Cu/CuxO@rGO), exhibits a specific surface area of 48 m(2)/g and an apparent electrical conductivity of similar to 33 and similar to 430 S/m prior to and after mechanical compression, respectively. The compressed Cu/CuxO@rGO aerogel delivers a specific capacity of similar to 453 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 1 A/g and similar to 184 mAh g(-1) at 50 A/g in a 3 M KOH aqueous electrolyte evidenced by electrochemical measurements. Galvanostatic cycling tests at 5 A/g demonstrates that the Cu/CuxO@rGO aerogel retains 38% (similar to 129 mAh g(-1)) of the initial capacity (similar to 339 mAh g(-1)) after 500 cycles. The straightforward manufacturing process and the promising electrochemical performances make the Cu/CuxO@rGO aerogel an attractive electrode candidate in energy storage applications.

  • 8.
    Zhao, Jie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Song, Man
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Wen, Chenyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Majee, Subimal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Yang, Dong
    Northwest Univ, Coll Chem & Mat Sci, Minist Educ, Key Lab Synthet & Nat Funct Mol Chem, Xian 710069, Shaanxi, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Biao
    Northwest Univ, Coll Chem & Mat Sci, Minist Educ, Key Lab Synthet & Nat Funct Mol Chem, Xian 710069, Shaanxi, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Microstructure-tunable highly conductive graphene-metal composites achieved by inkjet printing and low temperature annealing2018In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 28, no 3, article id 035006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for fabricating highly conductive graphene-silver composite films with a tunable microstructure achieved by means of an inkjet printing process and low temperature annealing. This is implemented by starting from an aqueous ink formulation using a reactive silver solution mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), followed by inkjet printing deposition and annealing at 100 degrees C for silver formation. Due to the hydrophilic surfaces and the aid of a polymer stabilizer in an aqueous solution, the GNPs are uniformly covered with a silver layer. Simply by adjusting the content of GNPs in the inks, highly conductive GNP/Ag composites (> 106 S m(-1)), with their microstructure changed from a large-area porous network to a compact film, is formed. In addition, the printed composite films show superior quality on a variety of unconventional substrates compared to its counterpart without GNPs. The availability of composite films paves the way to the metallization in different printed devices, e.g. interconnects in printed circuits and electrodes in energy storage devices.

  • 9.
    Zhao, Jie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Northwest Univ, Coll Chem & Mat Sci, Minist Educ, Key Lab Synthet & Nat Funct Mol Chem, Xian, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    Wen, Chenyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Sun, Rui
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Wu, Biao
    Northwest Univ, Coll Chem & Mat Sci, Minist Educ, Key Lab Synthet & Nat Funct Mol Chem, Xian, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    A Sequential Process of Graphene Exfoliation and Site-Selective Copper/Graphene Metallization Enabled by Multifunctional 1-Pyrenebutyric Acid Tetrabutylammonium Salt2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 6448-6455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a procedure leading to shear exfoliation of pristine few-layer graphene flakes in water and subsequent site-selective formation of Cu/graphene films on polymer substrates, both of which are enabled by employing the water soluble 1-pyrenebutyric acid tetrabutylammonium salt (PyB-TBA). The exfoliation with PyB-TBA as an enhancer leads to as-deposited graphene films dried at 90 °C that are characterized by electrical conductivity of ∼110 S/m. Owing to the good affinity of the tetrabutylammonium cations to the catalyst PdCl42–, electroless copper deposition selectively in the graphene films is initiated, resulting in a self-aligned formation of highly conductive Cu/graphene films at room temperature. The excellent solution-phase and low-temperature processability, self-aligned copper growth, and high electrical conductivity of the Cu/graphene films have permitted fabrication of several electronic circuits on plastic foils, thereby indicating their great potential in compliant, flexible, and printed electronics.

  • 10.
    Zhao, Jie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Northwest Univ Xian, Key Lab Synthet & Nat Funct Mol Chem, Minist Educ, Coll Chem & Mat Sci, Xian 710069, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    Zeng, Shuangshuang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Wu, Biao
    Northwest Univ Xian, Key Lab Synthet & Nat Funct Mol Chem, Minist Educ, Coll Chem & Mat Sci, Xian 710069, Shaanxi, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Zhang, Zhi-Bin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Re-organized graphene nanoplatelet thin films achieved by a two-step hydraulic method2018In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 84, p. 141-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Film deposition of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) from dispersion via casting and printing approaches features cost- and material-efficiency, however, it usually suffers from poor uniformity, rough surface and loose flake stacking due to adverse effect of hydraulic force. Here, a simple two-step method exploiting hydraulic force is presented to readily deliver GNP films of improved quality from an aqueous dispersion. While as-deposited GNP films exhibit the aforementioned film defects, the hydraulic force in the subsequent step constituting soaking in water and drying leads to an efficient re-organization of the individual GNPs in the films, The majority of GNPs thus are oriented horizontally and closely stacked. As a result, densified, smoothened and homogenized GNP thin films can be readily achieved. The GNP re-organization reduces resistivity from > 1 Omega cm to 10(-2) Omega cm. The method developed is universally applicable to solution-phase film deposition of 2D materials.

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