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  • 1.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ambiguities and challenges in the functions approach to TIS analysis: a critical literature review2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on an approach often used in empirical studies of sustainable transitions: the functions of technological innovation system approach. After its introduction by Johnson and Jacobsson (2001), the functions approach has reached a quite widespread diffusion among innovation scholars, especially those interested in sustainability. However, during this diffusion process, the approach has to some extent been “re-invented” (Rogers, 1983) by its users, and many of the original definitions and assumptions are no longer applied. In order to take stock of the work so far and suggest possible avenues for further research in this field, the purpose of this paper is to identify similarities and differences in how the functions approach is applied by different (groups of) researchers. The paper first gives an overview of the functions literature and then critically reviews it. A clear lack of agreement between researchers is identified with regards to how the concepts of ‘function’ and ‘functionality’ are defined and conceptualised. Based on this analysis, the paper discusses the implications of this lack of agreement and identifies a number of critical choices that have to be made by individual researchers, but possibly also by the ‘functions’ community as a whole, in order to increase the lucidity and applicability of the functions approach to TIS analysis.

  • 2.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Att bryta ny väg genom att fortsätta i gamla hjulspår: hur stigberoende möjliggör innovation i mogna brancher2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Hans Andersson, Christian Berggren, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2015, p. 32-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Elcertifikatsystemet och innovationssystemen inom förnybar energiteknik.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entreprenörer och entreprenörskap på det turistiska fältet2013In: Det turistiska fältet och dess aktörer / [ed] Josefina Syssner & Lars Kvarnström, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 127-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Levelling the playing field? The influence of national wind power planning instruments on conflicts of interests in a Swedish county2010In: ENERGY POLICY, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 2357-2369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slow and complicated wind power planning and permitting procedures have been a large obstacle for wind power diffusion in Sweden and other countries. This paper complements previous siting-oriented literature with a planning perspective on these problems. The focus is two national planning instruments implemented in Sweden in the early 2000s: a national planning target and an appointment of areas of national interest for wind power. The paper identifies different types of conflicts of interest related to wind power - in addition to the conflict between wind power as a national public interest and various local private interests - and analyses the impact of the national planning instruments on the handling of these conflicts in the land-use planning process in the County of Ostergotland. The analysis shows that the planning target actually made local planning officials even more inclined to treat wind power as a private rather than a public interest and that the method used to identify areas of national interest of wind power forced wind power to compete with the combined strengths of all other public interest. The planning instruments thus left wind power to fight an uphill battle rather than to meet other interests face-to-face on a level playing field.

  • 6.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Technological dynamics and policy: how to derive policy prescriptions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The innovation literature acknowledges that innovation policy should be based on an analysis of underlying innovation system dynamics. Whereas policy prescriptions have been derived from analyses of the functional dynamics of emerging innovation systems in the ‘fluid’ phase of the technology life cycle and for the rejuvenation of path-dependent, mature innovation systems associated with a ‘specific’ phase of technology development, the role of policy in the “transitional” phase remains unclear. Through a discussion about the challenges associated with specific functions of a technological innovation system in the transitional phase, this paper identifies a number of potential system weaknesses specifically associated with this phase, for example demand-side path dependency, lack of informational increasing returns to adoption, imbalanced development of components and complementary technologies, lack of financial, physical and human resources and various forms of delegitimation. It also suggests that policy intervention might be justified to remedy these weaknesses, since many of them are out of reach of system actors. Other weaknesses can take too long time for system actors to handle, if a technological transformation is urgent from a societal perspective. Removing obstacles for mass market formation and stimulating system coordination should be a priority for policy aimed at the transitional phase. This would require policy to play the part as an innovation intermediary within the innovation system rather than as an external supplier of pushes and pulls. 

  • 7.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The pitfalls of green innovation policy: the case of green certificates2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Role of Entrepreneurship and Markets for Sustainable Innovation2012In: Creating a Sustainable Economy: An Institutional and Evolutionary Approach to Environmental Policy / [ed] Gerardo Marletto, Abingdon: Routledge, 2012, , p. 288p. 205-231Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    General versus Technology-Specific Policies for Sustainable Innovation: A Cross-Sector Analysis2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Policy for environmental innovation: a comparative review of empirical evidence from two sectors2012In: Innovation and Competitiveness: Dynamics of Organizations, Industries, Systems and Regions, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s, governments have sought to encourage technological development to reduce pollution. These efforts now include global greenhouse emissions, especially in sectors such as transport and energy generation. A variety of means are applied: general taxes and trading systems, subsidies and technology-forcing standards. At the macro-level, economists argue that general economic instruments are a more efficient way to regulate emissions than administrative or technology-specific measures. The effectiveness of general economic instruments needs to be examined in relation to their innovation impact in different (sub-) sectors, however. This paper builds on research in the automotive and energy sectors to compare general and specific, economic and administrative, means in terms of their impact on different types of innovation. The review shows that the effectiveness of policy instruments is conditioned by the type of innovation needed (incremental, modular, architectural or radical) and the responding industrial context. General instruments – economic and administrative – encourage development and diffusion of incremental and modular innovation, whereas technology-specific instruments are needed to support the development and diffusion of architectural and radical low-carbon innovations. However, in order to have an effect, instruments have to be connected to a responding industrial context, i.e. networks of firms with requisite resources and capabilities to deploy. Key challenges for policy makers when choosing instruments include issues of selection, stringency, scale and stability.

  • 11.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Technological Internationalisation in the Electro-Technical Industry: A Cross-Company Comparison of Patenting Patterns 1986-20002003In: What Do We Know About Innovation,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 12.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Technological Internationalisation in the Electro-Technical Industry: A Cross-company comparison of patenting patterns 1986-2000.2005In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 1285-1306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of R&D internationalisation of two multinationals in the electro-technical industry (GE and ABB), by means of a patent data analysis. The overwhelming majority of both companies R&D activities are concentrated in Western Europé and North America. The locational overlap between the two firms' activities is small. These results are consistent with findings from earlier studies that (1) there is little evidence to suggest that the 'production' of technology is globalised in a general sense and (2)that tapping knowledge from an industry's global lead location plays a very limited role in foreign R&D investments.

  • 13.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The impact of environmental policy instruments on innovation: A review of energy and automotive industry studies2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 106, p. 112-123Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various types of policy instruments have been implemented to reduce local and global emissions, but the impact on innovation of different instruments has received less attention. This paper reviews empirical studies of the innovation impact of four main types of policy instruments in two high-emitting sectors. The conclusions are threefold. (1) Policy plays a key role for the development and diffusion of environmental innovation in the studied sectors. (2) Different types of instruments promote different types of innovations: general economic instruments has primarily encouraged incremental innovation, general regulatory instruments has enforced improvements based on modular innovation, and technology-specific instruments appears to have been needed to support the development and deployment of radically new technologies. (3) All types of policy instruments face challenges in design and implementation: understanding the selection impact of the chosen instruments, implementing increasing stringency levels, committing to an appropriate scale, and safeguarding policy stability.

  • 14.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Jacobsson, S
    Håller Sverige på att missa klimatutmaningens innovationspotential?2008In: Ur startblocken. Svensk innovationskraft II, Stockholm: Forum for innovation Management , 2008, 1, p. 159-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ur startblocken – Svensk innovationskraft II. I den här boken ger Forum for Innovation Management, FIM, en samlad bild av Sveriges förutsättningar som innovationsland nu och i framtiden. Bokens teman speglar fims seminarier och salongsdebatter under 2004–2007 och baseras på intervjuer och texter av tongivande personer i Innovationssverige, bland andra Ayad Al Saffar, Efva Attling, Leif Johansson, Lars G Josefsson, Margareta Norell Bergendal, Maud Olofsson, Alf Rehn, Lena Treschow Torell, Per Unckel och Thomas Östros. Boken avslutas med ett manifest riktat till Sveriges beslutsfattare i innovationsfrågor

  • 15.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Creative Accumulation: Integrating New and Established Technologies in Periods of Discontinuous Change2011In: Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical challenges facing international technology-based firms / [ed] Berggren, C., Bergek, A., Bengtsson, L., Hobday, M., Söderlund, J., Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2011, p. 246-273Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology-based firms continue to compete primarily on innovation, and are continuously required to present new solutions to an exacting market. As technological complexity and specialization intensifies, firms increasingly need to integrate and co-ordinate knowledge by means of project groups, diversified organizations, inter-organizational partnerships, and strategic alliances. Innovation processes have progressively become interdisciplinary, collaborative, inter-organizational, and international, and a firm's ability to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, organizations, and geographical locations has a major influence on its viability and success.This book demonstrates how knowledge integration is crucial in facilitating innovation within modern firms. It provides original, detailed empirical studies of prerequisites, mechanisms, and outcomes of knowledge integration processes on several organizational levels, from key individuals, projects, and internal organizations, to collaboration between firms. It stresses the need to understand knowledge integration as a multi-level phenomenon, which requires a broad repertoire of organizational and technical means. It further clarifies the need for strong internal capabilities for exploiting external knowledge, reveals how costs of knowledge integration affect outcomes and strategic decisions, and discusses the managerial implications of fostering knowledge integration, providing practical guidance and support for managers of knowledge integration in

  • 16.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hobday, Michael
    CENTRIM (Centre for Research in Innovation Management), University of Brighton.
    Technological discontinuities and the challenge for incumbent firms: Destruction, disruption or creative accumulation?2013In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 42, no 6-7, p. 1210-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creative destruction of existing industries as a consequence of discontinuous technological change is a central theme in the literature on industrial innovation and technological development. Established competence-based and market-based explanations of this phenomenon argue that incumbents are seriously challenged only by ‘competence-destroying’ or ‘disruptive’ innovations, which make their existing knowledge base or business models obsolete and leave them vulnerable to attacks from new entrants. This paper challenges these arguments. With detailed empirical analyses of the automotive and gas turbine industries, we demonstrate that these explanations overestimate the ability of new entrants to destroy and disrupt established industries and underestimate the capacity of incumbents to perceive the potential of new technologies and integrate them with existing capabilities. Moreover, we show how intense competition in the wake of technological discontinuities, driven entirely by incumbents, may instead result in late industry shakeouts. We develop and extend the notion of ‘creative accumulation’ as a way of conceptualizing the innovating capacity of the incumbents that appear to master such turbulence. Specifically, we argue that creative accumulation requires firms to handle a triple challenge of simultaneously (a) fine-tuning and evolving existing technologies at a rapid pace, (b) acquiring and developing new technologies and resources and (c) integrating novel and existing knowledge into superior products and solutions.

  • 17.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Do Innovation Strategies Matter?2004In: International J.A. Schumpeter Society,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Do Innovation Strategies Matter?2004In: International J.A. Schumpeter Society,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Do technology strategies matter? A comparison of two electrical engineering corporations, 1988-19982009In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 445-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reap competitive advantage from innovation, a firms technology activities should square with its technology strategy - but how do technology strategies relate to activities and financial performance in relevant business areas? This paper investigates this question by means of a comparison between two leading firms in the electrical engineering industry: ABB and General Electric. We show that substantial performance differences between these companies in the power generation field are related to differences in their espoused technology strategies (as indicated by statements in annual reports) and technology activities (as indicated by patenting) and the degree of alignment between these.

  • 20.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Watson, Jim
    Emerging Technological Paths in a Mature Market: A Study of Patenting and Performance of Three Leading Firms in the Power Generation Equipment Industry, 1986-20022005In: European Group on Organization Studies EGOS Colloquium,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Watson, Jim
    Emerging Technological Paths in a Mature Market: A Study of Patenting and Performance of Three Leading Firms in the Power Generation Equipment Industry, 1986-20022005In: European Group on Organization Studies EGOS Colloquium,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Bruzelius, Maria
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Patents with Inventors from Different Countries: Exploring some Methodological Issues Through a Case Study2005In: DRUID Summer Conference,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Universiteit Utrecht.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Markard, Jochen
    ETH.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Truffer, Bernhard
    Universiteit Utrecht & EAWAG.
    Technological innovation systems in contexts: Conceptualizing contextual structures and interaction dynamics2015In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 16, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This paper addresses interactions between technological innovation systems (TIS) and wider “context structures”. While TIS studies have always considered various kinds of contextual influences, we suggest that the TIS framework can be further strengthened by a more elaborated conceptualization of TIS context structures and TIS–context interactions. For that purpose, we identify and discuss four especially important types of context structures: technological, sectorial, geographical and political. For each of these, we provide examples of different ways in which context structures can interact with a focal TIS and how our understanding of TIS dynamics is enhanced by considering them explicitly. Lessons for analysts are given and a research agenda is outlined.

  • 24.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sweden.
    Markard, Jochen
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Truffer, Bernhard
    Eawag, Switzerland.
    TIS dynamics in technological, sectoral, political and geographical context: lessons for analysts2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its departure in the criticism raised against the technological innovation system (TIS) literature in relation to the research field of socio-technical (sustainability) transitions for neglecting interactions between individual technologies and wider societal “contexts”. We first show that TIS studies have always considered various kinds of contextual systems, while also acknowledging that the TIS framework can be further strengthened by a more explicit conceptualization of TIS contexts and TIS-context interaction. We then propose a conceptual framework, which builds on the idea that TIS contexts could be seen as institutionally coherent structures that reside outside of the focal TIS. Four especially important types of context structures are identified and discussed: technological, sectoral, political and geographical. For each of these, we provide example of different ways in which each type of context can interact with a focal TIS and identify new questions that can be answered if analysts take the respective context more explicitly into account in TIS analyses. From the point of view of future research, this paper is a first step towards developing a framework for analyzing the interrelation between TIS dynamics and sectoral change and building a new TIS-based model of socio-technical transitions.

  • 25.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Jacobsson, S.
    Department of Energy and Environment, IMIT, RIDE, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, B.
    Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, 11119 Bellflower Road, Cleveland, OH 44106-7235, United States.
    Lindmark, S.
    IMIT, RIDE, Department of Innovation Engineering and Management, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rickne, A.
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: A scheme of analysis2008In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 407-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various researchers and policy analysts have made empirical studies of innovation systems in order to understand their current structure and trace their dynamics. However, policy makers often experience difficulties in extracting practical guidelines from studies of this kind. In this paper, we operationalize our previous work on a functional approach to analyzing innovation system dynamics into a practical scheme of analysis for policy makers. The scheme is based on previous literature and our own experience in developing and applying functional thinking. It can be used by policy makers not only to identify the key policy issues but also to set policy goals. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers.
    Are tradable green certificates a cost-efficient policy driving technical change or a rent-generating machine? Lessons from Sweden 2003-20082010In: ENERGY POLICY, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 1255-1271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European policy debate, tradable green certificates (TGC) have been suggested to be a superior regulatory framework for promoting the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies. The purpose of this paper is to assess the performance of the Swedish TGC system, contributing to the European debate on the suitability of different types of frameworks. The expectations of the TGC system were that it would: (a) be effective in terms of increasing the supply of "green" electricity; (b) do this in a cost effective manner (from both a social and a consumer perspective): (c) generate an equitable distribution of costs and benefits and (d) drive technical change. So far, it has performed adequately in terms of effectiveness and social cost effectiveness. However, consumer costs have been substantially higher than expected, very large rents are generated and, at best, it contributes marginally to technical change. Thus. a TGC framework should be selected if the overriding concern is to minimize short term social costs of reaching a certain goal with a high degree of predictability. However, it cannot be expected to also drive technical change, keep consumer costs down and be equitable. Such trade-offs need to be revealed and not obscured by analysts.

  • 27.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    The emergence of a growth industry: a comparative analysis of the German, Dutch and Swedish wind turbine industries2003In: Change, Transformation and Development / [ed] Stan Metcalfe, Uwe Cantner, Heidelberg: Physica/Springer , 2003, 1, p. 197-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains a collection of papers all concerned with the exploration of economic and social dynamics in relation to the innovation process and its outcomes. This theme is firmly rooted in the Schumpeterian tradition in which an economic perspective is mutually embedded in a wider awareness of the role of other disciplines. Indeed since Schumpeter's time, the degree of specialisation within the social sciences has risen many fold, new sub disciplines continue to emerge, highly specialised theoretical tools and empirical methods continue to be developed, and new fields for the study of management and business overlap with the more traditional social sciences. There is, consequently, a need for connecting principles to offset the dangers of intellectual fragmentation. Evolutionary economics and evolutionary analysis more generally, certainly provide some of these connecting principles. The various contributions to this volume reflect upon this research programme in a number of ways.

  • 28.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Universiteit Utrecht.
    Functions in innovation systems: A framework for analysing energy system dynamics and identifying goals for system-building activities by entrepreneurs and policy-makers2006In: Innovation in energy systems: Learning from economic, institutional and management approaches,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers university of technology .
    Hekkert, Marko
    Utrecht University .
    Functions in innovation systems: A framework for analysing energy system dynamics and identifying goals for system-building activities by entrepreneurs and policy makers2008In: Innovation for a Low Carbon Economy: Economic, Institutional and Management Approaches, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2008, 1, p. 79-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book shows that although innovations in energy systems represent a core contribution to achieving national and international energy policy goals, theoretical approaches to understanding innovation differ radically between separate disciplinary perspectives. The need for greater mutual learning between these approaches is met within this study as international academics from economic, institutional and management backgrounds share and analyse their respective approaches, knowledge and insights.

  • 30.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Universiteit Utrecht.
    Smith, Keith
    Imperial College Business School.
    Functionality of innovation systems as a rationale and guide in innovation policy2010In: The Theory and Practice of Innovation Policy.: An International Research Handbook / [ed] Ruud E Smits, Stefan Kuhlmann, Philip Shapira, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This comprehensive Handbook explores the interactions between the practice, policy, and theory of innovation. The goal is twofold: to increase insight into this dynamic process, searching for options to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of both policy and innovative practice, and to identify conceptual or empirical lacunae and questions that can guide future research. The Handbook is a joint project from 24 prominent scholars in the field, and although each chapter reveals the insights of its respective authors, two overarching theoretical perspectives provide unique coherence and consistency throughout. This original reference work will not only provide valuable insights for scholars and students on innovation studies, but also to policymakers and practitioners.

  • 31.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers university of technology .
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers university of technology .
    'Legitimation' and 'development of positive externalities': Two key processes in the formation phase of technological innovation systems2008In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 575-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to the climate change challenge requires a massive development and diffusion of carbon neutral technologies and, thus, emergence and growth of new socio-technical systems. This paper contributes to an improved understanding of the formative phase of new technological innovation systems (TIS) by outlining a framework for analysing TIS dynamics in terms of structural growth and key innovation-related processes ("functions") and by discussing two of these functions at some depth: "legitimation" and "development of positive externalities". Empirical examples are provided from case studies on renewable energy technologies. We highlight the problematic role of technology assessment studies in shaping legitimacy and the importance of early market formation for the emergence of "packs of entrepreneurs" that may contribute to legitimation, and discuss how exploitation of overlaps between different TISs may create positive externalities, opening up for a powerful "bottom-up" process of system growth. Associated policy and management challenges are identified.

  • 32.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Which are the key processes and policy challenges in the formation and growth of a technology-specific innovation system?2006In: Understanding processes in sustainable innovation journeys,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Sandén, Björn A.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    'Legitimation' and 'development of positive externalities': two key processes in the formation phase of technological innovation systems2011In: The Dynamics of Sustainable Innovation Journeys / [ed] Frank W. Geels, Marko P. Hekkert och Staffan Jacobsson, Abingdon: Routledge, 2011, p. 55-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to the climate change challenge requires a massive development and diffusion of carbon neutral technologies and, thus, emergence and growth of new socio-technical systems. This paper contributes to an improved understanding of the formative phase of new technological innovation systems (TIS) by outlining a framework for analysing TIS dynamics in terms of structural growth and key innovation-related prodcesses ("functions") and by discussing two of these functions at some depth: "legitimation" and "development of positive externalities". Empirical examples are provided from case studies on renewable energy technologies. We highlight the problematic role of technology assessment studies in shaping legtimacy and the importance of early market formation for the emergence of "packs of entrepreneurs" that may contribute to legitimation, and discuss how exploitation of overlaps between different TISs may create positive externalities, opening up for a powerful "bottom-up" process of system growth. Associated poilcy and management challenges are identified.

  • 34.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Maria, Bruzelius
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Are patents with multiple inventors from different countries a good indicator of international R&D collaboration? The case of ABB2010In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 39, p. 1321-1334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the critical case of ABB, this paper questions the relevance of using patents with multiple inventors from different countries (“cross-country patents”) as an indicator of international R&D collaboration. The study shows that less than half of ABB’s cross-country patents are the result of international R&D collaboration as described by one of the more inclusive definitions found in previous literature. Only a third of the patents are the result of joint R&D activities between different MNC subsidiaries or firms. We also discuss the implications of our study for the assignment of patents to countries based on inventor addresses.

  • 35.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Entrepreneurial investors in renewable electricity production: motives and investment processes2012In: Entrepreneurial investors in renewable electricity production: motives and investment processes, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transformation of energy systems towards a low-carbon economy requires large investments in renewable electricity production capacity, in terms of new power plants as well as conversion from fossil fuels to renewable fuels such as biomass. In order for those investments to increase, a larger number of actors have to see renewable electricity production as an opportunity worth pursuing. Understanding the motives and decision processes involved in opportunity recognition and exploitation in this field is, thus, key to predicting and encouraging further investments.

    Recent studies have shown that investments in renewable electricity production are made by a diverse (in terms of knowledge and experience) set of actors (Bergek et al., 2012). Many of these have little or no previous experience of electricity production, which implies that recognizing and pursuing the opportunity of renewable electricity production implied a radical break with their existing routines for the purpose of creating new (for them) combinations of resources (cf. Schumpeter, 1934b). In this conference paper, we study these actors from an entrepreneurship perspective in order to understand why they came to recognize the same basic opportunity (to invest in renewable electricity production) in spite of their apparent lack of knowledge and previous experience, and how they were able to acquire the resources needed to exploit the opportunity.

    Traditionally, economic value has been seen as the main entrepreneurial motive: entrepreneurs exploit opportunities in order to generate profit (cf. Baumol, 1990; Casson, 1982; Gilad and Levine, 1986; Kirzner, 1973; Schumpeter, 1934b; Shane and Venkataraman, 2000b; Silver and Auster, 1969). Recently, the idea has been put forward that exploitation of opportunities may be driven by sustainability values or concerns, such as a wish to induce social or environmental change (e.g. Hockerts and Wüstenhagen, 2010; Schaltegger and Wagner, 2007; Zahra et al., 2009). Based on the results of 22 interviews conducted with entrepreneurs of different sizes, backgrounds and main activities, we show that economic motives were predominant. However, in spite of the fact that all entrepreneurs saw a potential economic value in the opportunity, only few of them developed the opportunity using a profit-maximization strategy. For a majority of entrepreneurs, even a small profit was acceptable or seen as a bonus. Motives such as environment and social improvements were not decisive for pursuing the opportunity. Most of the entrepreneurs were driven by personal or internal motives, i.e. fulfilling personal or internal needs, rather than by market-needs, i.e. market-driven opportunities or market-gaps.

    Authors have emphasized the importance of some determinants of opportunity recognition, e.g.  prior knowledge (cf. Baron, 2006), networks (cf. Ucbasaran et al., 2001) and interests (cf. Ardichvili et al., 2003; Guth and Ginsberg, 1990). Our study of the entrepreneurial process shows that entrepreneurs are indeed influenced by their personal network but that other factors such as access to an initial resource, e.g. land, can also affect their recognition process. Moreover, we found that some triggers were decisive for their opportunity exploitation decisions: the decision to start a company, the recognition of a market-need, an interest in the technology, a problem or the access to a natural resource. This led us to the identification of different types of entrepreneurs: investment-driven entrepreneurs, diffusion-driven entrepreneurs, technology-driven entrepreneurs, solution-driven entrepreneurs and efficiency-driven entrepreneurs. 

    Finally, previous literature especially emphasizes the importance of identifying resource needs, managing existing resources and acquiring new resources in order to exploit opportunities (Alvarez and Busenitz, 2001; Brush et al., 2001; Katz and Gartner, 1988; Ucbasaran et al., 2001). Entrepreneurs typically do not control all the resources they need to exploit an opportunity and they, therefore, have to acquire them from external sources (Shook et al., 2003; Ucbasaran et al., 2001). This can be a challenging process, since emerging ventures lack reputation and track record (Brush et al., 2001). In our study, in the process of opportunity development, each type of entrepreneur had access to one or several initial resources but had to acquire additional key resources. We found that the resource acquisition of those additional resources is less challenging when intermediary actors and existing personal networks are in place and when entrepreneurs control instrumental resources that can be used to obtain other resources.

  • 36.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nya investerare i förnybar elproduktion:motiv, investeringskriterier ochpolicykonsekvenser (NyEl): Slutrapport2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project New investors in renewable electricity production: motives, investment criteria and policyimplications has studied non-traditional investors in renewable electricity production with thepurpose to generate a scientific basis for the design and implementation of policy instrumentsdirected at these investors and to further develop existing decision-support models. The studyshows (a) that a majority of the investments in renewable electricity production in Sweden hasbeen done by non-traditional investors, (b) that these non-traditional investors do notconstitute a homogenous group but rather consists of many different types of actors withdifferent motives, resources, knowledge bases and networks who use different strategies toimplement their investments and who differ in their responses to economic policy instrumentsand (c) that differences with regard to strategies and responses are related to investmentmotives rather than to organizational form or main activity.

  • 37.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundberg, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Who invests in renewable electricity production?: Empirical evidence and suggestions for further research2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 56, p. 568-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming energy systems to fulfill the needs of a low-carbon economy requires large investments in renewable electricity production (RES-E). Recent literature underlines the need to take a closer look at the composition of the RES-E investor group in order to understand the motives and investment processes of different types of investors. However, existing energy policies generally consider RES-E investments made on a regional or national level, and target investors who evaluate their RES-E investments according to least-cost high-profit criteria. We present empirical evidence to show that RES-E investments are made by a heterogeneous group of investors, that a variety of investors exist and that their formation varies among the different types of renewable sources. This has direct implications for our understanding of the investment process in RES-E and for the study of motives and driving forces of RES-E investors. We introduce a multi-dimensional framework for analyzing differences between categories of investors, which not only considers to the standard economic dimension which is predominant in the contemporary energy literature, but also considers the entrepreneurship, innovation-adoption and institutional dimensions. The framework emphasizes the influence of four main investor-related factors on the investment process which should be studied in future research: motives, background, resources and personal characteristics.

  • 38.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Incubator best practice: A framework2008In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 20-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incubators have become a ubiquitous phenomenon in many parts of the world and are viewed as a tool for promoting the development of technology-based growth firms. Considering the large faith and the considerable amounts of money invested in incubators, the identification of best practice incubator models is of importance. Previous incubator assessment literature has tended to emphasise the measurement of incubator outcomes. In this paper, we argue that best practice identification requires a holistic approach, where the goals of the incubators are taken into account and the performance of different incubators are put in relation to their incubator models. In this context, the aim of this paper is to develop a framework that can serve as a basis for identifying best practice incubator models and for more rigorous evaluations of incubator performance. The framework suggested includes three distinguishing model components: selection, business support and mediation. We distinguish between idea-focused selection and entrepreneur-focused selection as well as between “picking-the-winners” and “survival-of-the-fittest” selection. Business support is seen as a continuum from “laissez-faire” to “strong intervention”. Mediation strategies vary in terms of the type of innovation system in focus: technological, regional or cluster. The framework is applied to 16 Swedish incubators.

  • 39.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integrating the supply and demand sides of public support to new technology-based firms2015In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 514-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses public support and argues that supply does not match demand in terms of the support needs of different types of new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The demand side of public support to NTBFs is analysed by developing a typology of NTBFs, based on venture origin and degree of innovativeness. Each types characteristics, challenges and support needs are identified. The supply side is analysed in terms of the goals, instruments and level of aggregation of the two main policy areas that provide support for NTBFs: small and medium-sized enterprise policy and science, technology and innovation policy. Finally, the demand and supply sides are compared and three main shortcomings of existing public support to NTBFs are identified. This paper makes a twofold contribution: first, the typology gives guidelines for policy-makers with respect to the support needs of the NTBFs. Second, it identifies shortcomings in existing public support and recommends improvements.

  • 40.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating the supply and demand sides of public support to NTBFs: a typology with implications for policy makers2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy makers consider the start-up and growth of new technology-based firms (NTBFs) to be one of the primary solutions to increase economic growth, as they contribute both to the development of new technologies and products and to job creation. In consequence, public support to NTBFs has been a prioritized issue. Such support has traditionally been justified by referring to market failures in terms of, e.g., underinvestment in R&D (Nelson, 1959; Pavitt, 1991) and “financial gaps” faced by early-stage ventures (Bygrave and Timmons, 1992). However, the argument of this paper is that supply of support does not match demand in terms of the support needs of different types of NTBFs. In order to remedy this shortcoming, this paper combines entrepreneurship and innovation research to develop a typology of NTBFs that is used to compare and integrate the demand and supply sides of public support to NTBFs.

     The first part of the paper focuses the demand side of public support to NTBFs. We first discuss general characteristics of NTBFs, with a particular focus on aspects of vulnerability and liability of newness (Stinchcombe, 1965): NTBFs are new, which implies immaturity (Penrose, 1959), lack of credibility (Birly and Norburn, 1985; Zimmerman and Zeitz, 2002) and limited resources (North et al., 2001), as well as technology-focused, which tends to imply lack of managerial skills and dependency on one main product (cf. Westhead and Storey, 1997; Mason and Harrison, 2001). We then argue that differences between NTBFs influence both the conditions for them overcoming their initial vulnerability and the types of problems they encounter in the early development phase. Thus, different types of firms will have different support needs and different potential to achieve certain types of outcomes within a specific time frame. Based on this discussion, a typology of NTBFs is developed, which takes into account the origin of the venture (academic spin-offs vs. corporate spin-offs vs. independent companies) (cf. Meyer, 2005; Wallin and Lindholm-Dahlstrand, 2006) and the degree of innovativeness of the venture’s main product (non-innovative vs. sustaining innovation vs. disruptive innovation) (cf. Rosenbloom and Christensen, 1994). The resulting nine types of NTBFs are illustrated by empirical examples and the support needs of each type are identified. The typology, thus, provides guidelines for policy makers with respect to the support needs of different types of NTBFs.

    The second part of the paper focuses the supply side, i.e. the two main policy areas that provide support for NTBFs: small-and-medium-sized-enterprise (SME) policy and science-technology-innovation (STI) policy. A comparative analysis between these two areas reveals interesting differences with regards to both goals and instruments used. Both aim at economic growth and to some extent social welfare, but whereas SME policy focuses on job creation (cf. Rothwell, 1984), STI policy focuses on national competitiveness through the development and diffusion of new products and processes (cf. Lundvall and Borrás, 2005), which does not necessarily go hand-in-hand with job creation. Moreover, whereas an explicitly aim of SME policy is to improve attitudes and conditions for founding new firms (Storey, 2003), STI policy focuses on technology, products and processes and shows little interest in whether innovation happens in new or established firms (cf. Lundvall and Borrás, 2005). With regards to the policy instruments used, both policy areas include financing, networking initiatives, regulation, education and training, but with quite different foci in terms of the level of aggregation of support initiatives (individual ventures vs. innovation system) as well as target types of NTBFs: The focus of SME policy is to support individual ventures, whereas STI policy aims at building or strengthening innovation systems, i.e. to remove system weaknesses (Jacobsson and Johnson, 2000; Klein Woolthuis et al., 2005) by improving the infrastructure for primarily research-based firms, often in specific technology fields.

    The third part of the paper compares the demand side and the supply side and identifies the main shortcomings of existing public support to NTBFs as a basis for recommendations on how to improve the support portfolio. First, there is a bias in the public support portfolio towards some types of NTBFs, most notably academic spin-offs, whereas for example corporate spin-offs and independent inventors are overlooked – irrespective of their support needs. In order to overcome this bias, policy makers need to align the supply of support to NTBFs with the support needs of the targeted firms. Second, market aspects are under-emphasised in comparison to technology and product aspects, both in individual-level support and system-level support. Thus, both the firm-level support and the system level support would benefit from measures developing marketing and sales capabilities of individual ventures or stimulating entrepreneurial experimentation and market formation on the system level. Third, there is a missing link in the support instrument portfolio: NTBFs frequently lack the information, competences and networks needed to identify and connect to relevant innovation systems, but the current support portfolio includes few measures to assist them with this. The support portfolio should therefore be complemented by mediation (Bergek and Norrman, 2008) between individual firms and relevant innovation systems, i.e. support measures helping NTBFs to access and utilise resources on the system level.

    To sum up, we recommend policy makers from SME and STI policy to (1) take into account that NTBFs have different support needs and to align their support to the needs of the targeted firms, (2) increase the market focus of the supplied support and (3) complement the current support portfolio with instruments directed at mediation between individual firms and relevant innovation systems. Implementing these recommendations would, however, require increased co-ordination between SME and STI policy, which is our forth and final recommendation to policy makers.

  • 41.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Policy to Promote NTBFs: A Tentative Framework2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sorting Out the Apples, Pears and Fruit Salads in Incubator Performance Assessment2005In: The Annual High Technology Small Firm Conference,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Onufrey, Ksenia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Is one path enough? Multiple paths and path interaction as an extension of path dependency theory2014In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1261-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explain the development of multi-technology companies and industries where several alternative technologies co-exist and interact over long periods, this article suggests an extension of path dependency theory by providing a conceptualization of the path notion that incorporates the theoretical possibility of multiple paths and path interaction. The conceptualization is applied to a patent study of three leading companies in the lighting industry: General Electric, Osram/Siemens, and Philips. The study shows technology development patterns that are characterized by strong persistence, both within each path and across the whole technology field. These results demonstrate that multiple technological paths can co-exist in companies and industries, characterized by simultaneous long-term presence of several technologies. In such cases, path interaction takes place both between co-existing paths and when new, radically different paths are created. Although further studies are needed to identify the underlying self-reinforcing mechanisms, there is a clear indication that technological path dependency is not restricted to unitary progression patterns, as implied by previous conceptualizations.

  • 44.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Onufrey, Ksenia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Path dependency in industries with multiple technological trajectories2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature on path dependency in processes of innovation and technical change, two partly conflicting perspectives are presented. Within the first perspective, it is argued that the cumulative nature of technical change creates persistence in innovative activities: accumulated competencies and learning within a specific field generate new research questions and opportunities for innovation and create entry barriers, which works in favour of incumbent firms and limits the role of new innovators in an industry (Malerba et al., 1997). In contrast, the other perspective emphasises that path dependency gradually decreases the number of available future options (Aminzade, 1992; Araujo and Harrison, 2002) and eventually leads to lock-in to inefficient, inferior or unsustainable technology paths (Cowan and Gunby, 1996; David, 1985; Unruh, 2000).

    Within both these perspectives, paths tend to be conceptualised as single technological trajectories. However, in some industries multiple trajectories are pursued in parallel and new trajectories are added over time. This raises the questions of whether such industries still can be path dependent and, in that case, where path dependency occurs: within or across trajectories and at the company or industry level. To what extent does the incumbents’ development of newly added trajectories build on their existing knowledge base? The purpose of this paper is to answer these questions by analysing technological activities of three leading firms in the lighting industry.

    The paper is based on an analysis of lighting patents granted to General Electric (GE), Osram/Siemens and Philips and their key subsidiaries by the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) over a period of 35 years (1976-2011). Lighting-related patents were identified through a combination of class-based search and title- and abstract-based keyword search.

    Our analysis shows a common patenting pattern between the three companies: about 70% of all the patents in the dataset belong to seven most frequently used classes and about 50% - to the top three classes. Most of these classes can be described as traditional since companies used them during the whole period of analysis. While some of them are declining both in terms of patent shares and numbers (H01K – Incandescent lamps), others are stable or growing (H01J – Discharge lamps, F21 – Lighting, H05B – Electric lighting, C09K – Materials for applications). Such long-term stability of traditional classes and similarity of patenting patterns between the three companies indicate technological persistence both at the company and the industry levels.

    The most recent addition to the companies’ patent stock is the semiconductors class (H01L). It has been intensively developed since the late 1990s, when industry incumbents joined the LED technology which was pioneered by new entrants. However, about 30-40% of the LED-related patents of GE, Osram/Siemens and Philips still belong to traditional lighting classes. Companies have, thus, been able to use their previously accumulated expertise in the development of LED lighting, in spite of its discontinuous character. While technological persistence in terms of LED development can be observed at both industry and company levels, there are some differences among the three companies.

    An analysis of patent references shows that when a patent cites one of the company’s own lighting patents, in 60-70% of the cases both patents belong to the same first class, which is a clear sign of path dependency inside trajectories. However, pairwise usage of patent classes indicates not only persistence inside technological trajectories, but also a complex relation between them since patents frequently belong to several classes simultaneously. In particular, H01J (discharge lamps) is the most frequently used secondary class.

    The main conclusions of the paper are the following: first, we have found signs of path dependency in the lighting industry at the company level in a form of technological persistence. Although persistence inside technological trajectories is especially strong, there is also a complex interconnection between trajectories which indicates that previous association of paths with single trajectories is too simplified. Second, a similarity of companies’ patenting patterns in almost every aspect of the analysis provides a clear evidence of path dependency at the industry level. Third, the LED example shows, on the one hand, a break with previous activities, and on the other hand, the ability of incumbents to use their accumulated expertise when developing a new, even radically different, technology. Overall, it can be concluded that path dependency can exist in industries with multiple technological trajectories. However, whether this path dependency is productive and efficient or will lead to unsustainable lock-in remains to be seen.

  • 45.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Watson, J.
    SPRU, University of Sussex, The Freeman Centre, East Sussex BN1 9QE, United Kingdom.
    Technological capabilities and late shakeouts: Industrial dynamics in the advanced gas turbine industry, 1987-20022008In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 335-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on technological discontinuities and late shakeouts in mature industries. The empirical case is combined cycle gas turbine technology in the power generation industry, where two of four main incumbents (GE, ABB, Siemens, and Westinghouse) exited the industry after several years of competition. We show that the vast differences in firm performance are strongly related to variation in technological capabilities, such as sourcing and integration of knowledge from related industries and after-launch problem solving. The findings from this case may also be of general interest for studies of dynamics in other mature, complex industries.

  • 46.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Watson, Jim
    SPRU, University of Sussex, The Freeman Centre, East Sussex BN1 9QE, United Kingdom.
    Technological capabilities and late shakeouts: Industrial dynamics in the advanced gas turbine industry, 1987-20022008In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 335-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on technological discontinuities and late shakeouts in mature industries. The empirical case is combined cycle gas turbine technology in the power generation industry, where two of four main incumbents (GE, ABB, Siemens, and Westinghouse) exited the industry after several years of competition. We show that the vast differences in firm performance are strongly related to variation in technological capabilities, such as sourcing and integration of knowledge from related industries and after-launch problem solving. The findings from this case may also be of general interest for studies of dynamics in other mature, complex industries.

  • 47.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Palmberg, Christopher
    Product complexity and collaborative modes of knowledge sourcing: The case of combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT)2008In: Vision ERA-Net Conference,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 48.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Palmberg, Christopher
    Product complexity and collaborative modes of knowledge sourcing: The case of combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT)2008In: Vision ERA-Net Conference,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 49.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Motives to adopt renewable energy technologies: evidence from Sweden2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 106, p. 547-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of renewable energy technologies (RETs) has to speed up for countries to reach their, often ambitious, targets for renewable energy generation. This requires a large number of actors to adopt RETs. Policies will most likely be needed to induce adoption, but there is limited knowledge about what motivates RET adoption. The purpose of this paper is to complement and expand the available evidence regarding motives to adopt RETs through a survey to over 600 non-traditional RET adopters in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that although environmental concerns, technology interest, access to a base resource and prospects to make money are important motives in general, RET adopters is a heterogeneous group with regard to motives: there are many different motives to adopt RETs, adopters differ in how large importance they attach to the same motive and each adopter can have several different motives to adopt. There are also differences in motives between RETs (especially wind power vs. solar power) and between adopter categories (especially IPPs vs. individuals and diversified companies). This implies that a variety of policy instruments might be needed to induce further adoption of a variety of RETs by a variety of adopter categories.

  • 50.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Regulation for Environmental Innovation: ACross-Sector Analysis of General versus Technology-specific Policy Means2012Conference paper (Other academic)
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