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  • 1.
    Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Melaka Malaysia.
    Carlos, Pérez Penichet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Umeå University.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Blokhuis, Taco
    Maastricht University Medical Center+, Netherlands.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Data Packet Transmission through Fat Tissue for Wireless Intra-Body Networks2017In: IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 2469-7249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work explores high data rate microwave communication through fat tissue in order to address the wide bandwidth requirements of intra-body area networks. We have designed and carried out experiments on an IEEE 802.15.4 based WBAN prototype by measuring the performance of the fat tissue channel in terms of data packet reception with respect to tissue length and power transmission. This paper proposes and demonstrates a high data rate communication channel through fat tissue using phantom and ex-vivo environments. Here, we achieve a data packet reception of approximately 96 % in both environments. The results also show that the received signal strength drops by ~1 dBm per 10 mm in phantom and ~2 dBm per 10 mm in ex-vivo. The phantom and ex-vivo experimentations validated our approach for high data rate communication through fat tissue for intrabody network applications. The proposed method opens up new opportunities for further research in fat channel communication. This study will contribute to the successful development of high bandwidth wireless intra-body networks that support high data rate implanted, ingested, injected, or worn devices

  • 2.
    Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Intra-body microwave communication through adipose tissue2017In: Healthcare Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2053-3713, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Human fat tissue: A microwave communication channel2017In: Proc. 1st MTT-S International Microwave Bio Conference, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an approach for communication through human body tissue in the R-band frequency range. This study examines the ranges of microwave frequencies suitable for intra-body communication. The human body tissues are characterized with respect to their transmission properties using simulation modeling and phantom measurements. The variations in signal coupling with respect to different tissue thicknesses are studied. The simulation and phantom measurement results show that electromagnetic communication in the fat layer is viable with attenuation of approximately 2 dB per 20 mm. 

  • 4.
    Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Velander, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, The Netherland.
    Reliability of the fat tissue channel for intra-body microwave communication2017In: 2017 IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements & Applications (CAMA), IEEE, 2017, p. 310-313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the human fat tissue has been proposed as a microwave channel for intra-body sensor applications. In this work, we assess how disturbances can prevent reliable microwave propagation through the fat channel. Perturbants of different sizes are considered. The simulation and experimental results show that efficient communication through the fat channel is possible even in the presence of perturbants such as embedded muscle layers and blood vessels. We show that the communication channel is not affected by perturbants that are smaller than 15 mm cube.

  • 5.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    A Non-invasive Skin Burn Degree Analysis Using Microwaves2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    A Preliminary Study on Skin Burn Degree Analysis Based on Coupling Effect between Burn Area and Micro Strip Ring Resonator2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Application of UWB Radar Techniques for Imaging cranial vaults2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Augustine, Robin
    Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) is an edible starch, commercially available as powder, prepared from the roots of the plant family Marantaceae. Arrowroot is well known for its medicinal effects and use as chief ingredient in infant cookies. Arrowroot in film form is prepared and its microwave absorption characteristics, permittivity, loss factor, conductivity, skin depth, and heating coefficient are analyzed. The results are quite promising and can be concluded that arrowroot in film form is a potential candidate for several applications in medical field, when compared with well studied chitosan film2009In: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 51, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) is an edible starch, commercially available as powder, prepared from the roots of the plant family Marantaceae. Arrowroot is well known for its medicinal effects and use as chief ingredient in infant cookies. Arrowroot in film form is prepared and its microwave absorption characteristics, permittivity, loss factor, conductivity, skin depth, and heating coefficient are analyzed. The results are quite promising and can be concluded that arrowroot in film form is a potential candidate for several applications in medical field, when compared with well studied chitosan film

  • 9.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    BAN Antenna Design Using Ferrite Polymer Composite2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Augustine, Robin
    Biocompatibility study of beta tricalcium phosphate bioceramics and chitosan biopolymer and their use as phantoms for medical imaging applications2009In: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 51, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beta tricalcium phosphate (b-TCP) bioceramics and chitosan biopolymers are used as biomedical implants because of their better biocompatibility and good bioresorption characteristics. As they are biomaterials, they have good interactions with microwave frequencies. b-TCP and chitosan powder, films, pellets, and gel are prepared and studied at the S-band microwave frequencies. Dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, conductivity, and S-parameters are evaluated. Dielectric parameters of different forms of b-TCP and chitosan show resemblance with that of human tissues. Hence, these materials can also be considered as potential phantoms for specific absorption rate measurements as well as in microwave imaging applications. V

  • 11.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Biocompatibility study of biphasic-chitosan-soyameal composite Bioceramic Implants and their use as Phantoms for Medical Imaging. Applications2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12. Augustine, Robin
    Biocompatibility study of hydroxy apatite and chitosan composites for applications at microwave frequencies2010In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 197-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) bioceramic and chitosan (poly [(β-1-4) d-glucosamine]) biopolymer show good biocompatibility in vivo. They have biological origin and show excellent interactions with microwave. Microwave study of HAp made using different drying techniques and their composites with chitosan in the ISM band is presented. Pastes are made using HAp and chitosan with different ratios of mixing. The dielectric properties of this composites match with that of human fat, collagen tissues. Some of the compositions exhibit dielectric property close to that of natural bone. This makes them more biocompatible and better substitutes for natural bone. Thus composite bioceramics can be considered as phantom model constituents for imaging purposes. Their dielectric properties prove that they are biocompatible. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 50: 2931–2934, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.23806

  • 13. Augustine, Robin
    Biocompatibility study of hydroxyapatite-chitosan composite for medical applications at microwave frequencies2008In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 2931-2934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) bioceramic and chitosan (poly [(β-1-4) d-glucosamine]) biopolymer show good biocompatibility in vivo. They have biological origin and show excellent interactions with microwave. Microwave study of HAp made using different drying techniques and their composites with chitosan in the ISM band is presented. Pastes are made using HAp and chitosan with different ratios of mixing. The dielectric properties of this composites match with that of human fat, collagen tissues. Some of the compositions exhibit dielectric property close to that of natural bone. This makes them more biocompatible and better substitutes for natural bone. Thus composite bioceramics can be considered as phantom model constituents for imaging purposes.

  • 14. Augustine, Robin
    Chitosan Biopolymer for Microwave Tomography Applications2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15. Augustine, Robin
    Complex dielectric permittivity measurements of human skin and biological solution in2-67GHz range2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    COmplex Fracture Orthopedic RehabiliTation – COMFORT2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Dielectric Studies of Calcium Hydroxyapatite at Microwave Frequency2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Augustine, Robin
    Développement d’un modèle humain dans la bande millimétrique pour les applications2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Augustine, Robin
    Université Paris-Est.
    Electromagnetic modelling of human tissues and its application on the interaction between antenna and human body in the BAN context2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this age of wireless technology, Body Area networks (BAN) is revolutionising the concept of patient care and health monitoring. BAN provides people good assessment of their health status at any time, wherever they are physically. The increased interest in developing effective body (in, on & off) communication systems made phantoms which can mimic the electrical properties of an actual human body necessary. Wearable antennas which are the indispensable part of BAN got to be low pro file and above all influences that human body can make. There should also be a way to reduce the effect of antennas on human body namely specific absorption rate (SAR). In this work effort has been made to develop phantoms suitable for both On body and In body communications. The base materials which are selected for the study are of biological origin (bio ceramics and biopolymers) whose behaviour is closer to that of human tissues. As these phantoms are biocompatible they are essentially non toxic where the conventionally available phantoms are toxic in nature. Different kinds of low profile conformal wearable antennas working at 2.4GHz ISM band were developed and studied in the BAN perspective. Antennas suffer much in terms of matching and efficiency when they are in contact or in the premises of human body. This is a major hurdle in the way to setting up a good body communication network. This work encompasses various techniques adopted to limit the body interferences to an acceptable level. The techniques adopted (Such as Backing Ground Plane, High Impedance Surface & Polymeric Ferrite Sheets) proved to be effective in reducing the sway in antenna characteristics when they are mounted on body. Specific absorption rate is also brought to acceptable levels and thus avoiding the formation of hot spots due to microwave absorption. A safer and cost effective BAN can be set up using this work which will lead to a safer, mobile and healthy future.

  • 20. Augustine, Robin
    Enhanced EMI shielding efficiency using carbon, graphite, and polyaniline blends2010In: Microwaves and Optical technology letters, Vol. 52, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers have found significant applications in the past decade in industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) fields. The characteristic features of conducting polymers like reversible proton doping, variable conductivity, facile synthesis, and low cost make them potential candidates in various microelectronic applications. Conventional microwave absorbing materials such as carbon and graphite in the powder form were blended with polyaniline as base at different proportions and microwave properties such as transmission, reflection, and shielding efficiency (SE) were evaluated from S parameter measurements using HP 8714ET network analyzer. The newly developed polyaniline blend exhibits high-electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency when compared with previously developed materials and is a promising candidate for shielding applications.

  • 21.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Experimental procedure for determination of the dielectric properties of biological samples in the 2-50 GHz range2014In: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine, E-ISSN 2168-2372Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Augustine, Robin
    From human skin permittivity measurements up to 65 GHz to development of skinequivalentphantoms for body-centric applications2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23. Augustine, Robin
    Human skin permittivity models for the millimeter-wave range2011In: IET Electronics Letters, Vol. 47, p. 427-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex permittivity of the human skin has been measured in vivo in the 10 –60 GHz range using a recently developed coaxial slim probe. The results are compared with the literature data at millimetre waves, and a broad-band Cole-Cole model is proposed for several locations on the arm, namely at the palm, wrist, and forearm. This reported study provides relevant data required for studying interactions between emerging body-centric wireless millimetre-wave technologies and the human body

  • 24.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Interview2016In: IET Electronics Letters, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 568-Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Professor Robin Augustine from Ångstrom Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden talks us about the work behind his paper ‘A preliminary study on monitoring the progression of osteoporosis using UWB radar technique in distal femur model.

  • 25.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Microwave Absorption Measurements of Calcium Hydroxyapatite2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Microwave antenna for analysis of mineralization in cranial vaults2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Microwave head phantoms for post-craniotomy and BMP based implant2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Microwave studies on Beta Tricalcium Phosphate Bioceramics for medical application2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Monitoring weight bearing in an ambulant setting: the SensiStep2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30. Augustine, Robin
    Near-field dosimetry for the millimeter-wave exposure of human cells in vitro2012In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the expected mass deployment of millimeter-wave wireless technologies, thresholds of potential millimeter-wave-induced biological and health effects should be carefully assessed. The main purpose of this study is to propose, optimize, and characterize a near-field exposure configuration allowing illumination of cells in vitro at 60 GHz with power densities up to several tens of mW/cm(2) . Positioning of a tissue culture plate containing cells has been optimized in the near-field of a standard horn antenna operating at 60 GHz. The optimal position corresponds to the maximal mean-to-peak specific absorption rate (SAR) ratio over the cell monolayer, allowing the achievement of power densities up to 50 mW/cm(2) at least. Three complementary parameters have been determined and analyzed for the exposed cells, namely the power density, SAR, and temperature dynamics. The incident power density and SAR have been computed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The temperature dynamics at different locations inside the culture medium are measured and analyzed for various power densities. Local SAR, determined based on the initial rate of temperature rise, is in a good agreement with the computed SAR (maximal difference of 5%). For the optimized exposure setup configuration, 73% of cells are located within the ±3 dB region with respect to the average SAR. It is shown that under the considered exposure conditions, the maximal power density, local SAR, and temperature increments equal 57 mW/cm(2) , 1.4 kW/kg, and 6 °C, respectively, for the radiated power of 425 mW.

  • 31. Augustine, Robin
    Permittivity Spectra of Biological Solutions in the Millimeter-Wave Range at Room andHuman Body Temperatures2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Phantom models for human hip and thigh2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Polyaniline Based Materials for Efficient EMI Shielding2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. Augustine, Robin
    Polymeric ferrite sheets for SAR reduction of wearable antennas2010In: IET Electronics letters, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 197-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduction of specific absorption rate (SAR) has now become a buzz word because of the growing health concerns over microwave exposure. Ferrites are found to be effective in diminishing electromagnetic influence. In this reported work, flexible polymeric ferrite sheets are characterised on the basis of their shielding efficiencies. SAR measurements are carried out with a planar wearable antenna and polymeric ferrite shielding to confirm its competence.

  • 35.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    SAR reduction of wearable antennas using polymeric ferrite sheets2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    SRR Antenna for Biomedical Application2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Topology Optimization of Wideband Directive Antennas2015In: Progress in Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 2A1, no SC4, p. 636-639Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Transverse Electromagnetic cell for Biological cell exposure studies Sujith2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Wide Band Impedance matching For Transducers2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Augustine, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Dancila, Dragos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ott, Marjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Dielectric characterization of osteosarcoma cells in the 2-50 GHz range for microwave hyperthermia2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Augustine, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kurup, Dhanesh G.
    Amrita Vishva Vidyapeetham Univ, Dept Elect & Commun, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Raman, Sujith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Lee, Dujin
    Gwangju Inst Sci & Technol, Dept Med Syst Engn, Gwangju, South Korea.
    Kim, K. Kangwook
    Gwangju Inst Sci & Technol, Sch Informat & Mechatron, Gwangju, South Korea.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Bone Mineral Density Analysis using Ultra Wideband Microwave Measurements2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to analyze the bone mineral density (BMD) based on microwave reflectivity analysis is presented in this paper. The proposed method enables us to overcome the health risks associated with diagnostic techniques such as X-rays for repeated study of the rate of mineralization in the case of fractures or de-mineralization in the case of osteoporosis. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of Microwaves for continuous observation of skull healing process during post-cranial surgery period. The proposed technique can be a potential clinical model in future for extracting target characteristics such as bone deposition thickness and other cranial defects. Based on the conclusions of wideband measured data, we propose to design the Transceiver using ultra wideband (UWB) pulsed technology.

  • 42.
    Augustine, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kurup, Dhanesh G.
    Amrita Univ, Amrita Sch Engn, Dept Elect & Commun, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bangaluru, India..
    Redzwan, Syaiful
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Mathur, Parul
    Amrita Univ, Amrita Sch Engn, Dept Elect & Commun, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bangaluru, India..
    Raman, Sujith
    Bharathiar Univ, Dept Elect & Instrumentat, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Lee, Doojin
    GIST, Dept Med Syst Engn, Gwangju, South Korea..
    Kim, Kangwook
    GIST, Dept Med Syst Engn, Gwangju, South Korea..
    Microwave reflectivity analysis of bone mineral density using ultra wide band antenna2017In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 21-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an approach to analyze the bone mineral density (BMD) based on microwave reflectivity is presented The proposed method enables us to overcome the health risks associated with diagnostic techniques such as X-rays for repeated study of the rate of mineralization in the case of fractures or de-mineralization in the case of osteoporosis. The proposed method is used to demonstrate the application of microwaves for continuous observation of skull healing process during post-cranial surgery period. The proposed technique can be a potential clinical model in future for extracting target characteristics such as bone deposition thickness and other cranial defects. Based on the conclusions of wideband measured data and signal processing techniques, we propose to design the Transceiver using ultra-wideband (UWB) pulsed technology.

  • 43.
    Augustine, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Raman, Sujith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Dancila, Dragos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Relative permittivity measurements of EtOH and MtOH mixtures for calibration standards in 1-5 GHz range2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. Augustine, Robin
    et al.
    Raman, Sujith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Microwave Phantoms For Craniotomy Follow-Up Probe Development2014In: 2014 IEEE CONFERENCE ON ANTENNA MEASUREMENTS & APPLICATIONS (CAMA), 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel phantom for skull implant diagnostics is presented in this paper. Specially designed three layer phantom is designed for osseointegration analysis after craniotomy using 2.4 GHz microwave probe. The phantom represents skin, skull and brain, and defects are made in the skull with the dielectric profile variation of realistic implants. The extreme dielectric constant variation of implant and bone gives a high degree of discrimination in resonant frequency. The presented craniotomy phantom is very useful for designing antennas for monitoring skull healing.

  • 45.
    Augustine, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Raman, Sujith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Relative permittivity measurements of Et-OH and Mt-OH mixtures for calibration standards in 1-15 GHz range2014In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 358-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In open-ended coaxial dielectric characterisation techniques, intermediate liquid standards between air and water are necessary for precise dielectric measurements of biological samples. Calibration standards with dielectric permittivities much different from those of the measured samples will produce unreliable results. Different intermediate calibration standards are prepared and measurement results are presented. The aim is to obtain various permittivity values between 10 and 80 by diluting methanol and ethanol with distilled water. This technique can also be used for assessing the purity of alcohols.

  • 46.
    Augustine, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Complex dielectric permittivity measurements of human skin and biological solution in 2-67GHz range2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47. Augustine, Robin
    et al.
    Thierry, Alves
    Sarrebourse, T.
    Poussot, B.
    Mathew, K. T.
    Laheurte, J. -M.
    Polymeric ferrite sheats for SAR reduction of Wearable ANtennas2010In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 197-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduction of specific absorption rate (SAR) has now become a buzz word because of the growing health concerns over microwave exposure. Ferrites are found to be effective in diminishing electromagnetic influence. In this reported work, flexible polymeric ferrite sheets are characterised on the basis of their shielding efficiencies. SAR measurements are carried out with a planar wearable antenna and polymeric ferrite shielding to confirm its competence.

  • 48.
    Dancila, Dragos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Töpfer, Fritzi
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dudorov, Sergey
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hu, Xin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Emtestam, Lennart
    Karolinska Inst, Div Dermatol & Venereol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tenerz, Lars
    Optiga AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Oberhammer, Jachim
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Millimeter wave silicon micromachined waveguide probe as an aid for skin diagnosis - results of measurements on phantom material with varied water content2014In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 116-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    More than 2 million cases of skin cancer are diagnosed annually in the United States, which makes it the most common form of cancer in that country. Early detection of cancer usually results in less extensive treatment and better outcome for the patient. Millimeter wave silicon micromachined waveguide probe is foreseen as an aid for skin diagnosis, which is currently based on visual inspection followed by biopsy, in cases where the macroscopical picture raises suspicion of malignancy.

    Aims

    Demonstration of the discrimination potential of tissues of different water content using a novel micromachined silicon waveguide probe. Secondarily, the silicon probe miniaturization till an inspection area of 600 x 200 m2, representing a drastic reduction by 96.3% of the probing area, in comparison with a conventional WR-10 waveguide. The high planar resolution is required for histology and early-state skin-cancer detection.

    Material and methods

    To evaluate the probe three phantoms with different water contents, i.e. 50%, 75% and 95%, mimicking dielectric properties of human skin were characterized in the frequency range of 95-105GHz. The complex permittivity values of the skin are obtained from the variation in frequency and amplitude of the reflection coefficient (S11), measured with a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), by comparison with finite elements simulations of the measurement set-up, using the commercially available software, HFSS. The expected frequency variation is calculated with HFSS and is based on extrapolated complex permittivities, using one relaxation Debye model from permittivity measurements obtained using the Agilent probe.

    Results

    Millimeter wave reflection measurements were performed using the probe in the frequency range of 95-105GHz with three phantoms materials and air. Intermediate measurement results are in good agreement with HFSS simulations, based on the extrapolated complex permittivity. The resonance frequency lowers, from the idle situation when it is probing air, respectively by 0.7, 1.2 and 4.26GHz when a phantom material of 50%, 75% and 95% water content is measured.

    Discussion

    The results of the measurements in our laboratory set-up with three different phantoms indicate that the probe may be able to discriminate between normal and pathological skin tissue, improving the spatial resolution in histology and on skin measurements, due to the highly reduced area of probing.

    Conclusion

    The probe has the potential to discriminate between normal and pathological skin tissue. Further, improved information, compared to the optical histological inspection can be obtained, i.e. the complex permittivity characterization is obtained with a high resolution, due to the highly reduced measurement area of the probe tip.

  • 49.
    Dancila, Dragos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Malmqvist, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Reyaz, Shakila Bint
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Samuelsson, C.
    Kaynak, M.
    Rydberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Wide Band On-Chip Slot Antenna with Back-Side Etched Trench for W-band Sensing Applications2013In: 2013 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013, p. 1576-1579Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and characterization of a highly integrated, wideband on-chip radiometer, composed of a slot antenna, RF-MEMS Dicke Switch, LNA and a wideband power detector. The highly integrated single-chip RF front-end is dedicated for broadband sensing up to 110 GHz. Both antenna and radiometer are fabricated in a 0.25 mu m SiGe BiCMOS process. The antenna design takes benefit of the back-side etched trench, offered by the technology. This is used to reduce losses due to the presence of the low resistivity silicon substrate. Additionally, the trench is specially shaped, as to improve the wideband matching of the antenna. The on-chip slot antenna design covers a wide bandwidth (70-110 GHz) with 0 dBi gain and 64% efficiency, both simulated at 94 GHz. The measured bandwidth spans 85 to 105 GHz. The W-band SiGe detector circuit has close to 20 GHz of operational bandwidth (S-11 <=-10 dB at 75-92 GHz) and presents a responsivity of 3-5kV/W (NEP=10-16 pW/Hz(1/2)) at 83-94 GHz.

  • 50. Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Berggren, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Topology Optimization of Planar Antennas for Wideband Near-Field Coupling2015In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 4208-4213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach to design from scratch planar microwave antennas for the purpose of ultra-wideband (UWB) near-field sensing. Up to about 120 000 design variables associated with square grids on planar substrates are subject to design, and a numerical optimization algorithm decides, after around 200 iterations, for each edge in the grid whether it should consist of metal or a dielectric. The antenna layouts produced with this approach show UWB impedance matching properties and near-field coupling coefficients that are flat over a much wider frequency range than a standard UWB antenna. The properties of the optimized antennas are successfully cross-verified with a commercial software and, for one of the designs, also validated experimentally. We demonstrate that an antenna optimized in this way shows a high sensitivity when used for near-field detection of a phantom with dielectric properties representative of muscle tissue.

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