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  • 1.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Ji, Yu-Xia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Montero, Jose
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Kubart, Tomáš
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium dioxide exhibits a reversible phase transition from semiconducting state (monoclinic structure) to a metallic state (tetragonal structure) at ~68 oC. This so-called metal-insulator transition (MIT) entails thermochromic behavior manifested by large changes in optical properties, such as high infrared transmittance modulation in thin films, thereby making VO2-based films a suitable candidate for optical switching applications such as self-tunable infrared filters. Thermochromic VO2 thin films have been widely investigated for optical applications, but high growth temperatures (> 400 oC) required for synthesizing crystalline VO2 thin films, high MIT temperature (68 oC) as well as low visible transmittance (typically ~50%) limit their applicability for example for energy efficient smart windows.

     

    Synthesis of metal-oxide thin films using highly ionized vapor fluxes has been shown to facilitate low-temperature film growth as well as control over phase formation and resulting film properties. In the present work, we synthesize VO2 thin films by use of highly ionized vapor fluxes that are generated by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). In order to establish a correlation between the plasma and film properties, we investigate the discharge characteristics by analyzing the discharge current-voltage characteristics under varied process parameters such as peak-power, pulse-width and gas phase composition and grow VO2 thin films under suitable process conditions. We investigate the effect of growth temperature (room temperature to 500 oC), energy of the deposition flux (controlled by substrate bias potential) and type of substrate (Si, glass, ITO-coated glass) on crystallinity, phase formation and on optical properties (visible transmittance and infrared modulation) of the resulting thin films. For reference, the discharge characteristics and properties of films deposited by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering are also studied.         

  • 2.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Ji, Yu-Xia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Montero, Jose
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Low-temperature synthesis of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering2016Inngår i: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 149, s. 137-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermochromic (TC) vanadium dioxide thin films provide means for controlling solar energy throughput and can be used for energy-saving applications such as smart windows. One of the factors limiting the deployment of VO2 films in TC devices is the growth temperature tau(s). At present, temperatures in excess of 450 degrees C are required, which clearly can be an impediment especially for temperature-sensitive substrates. Here we address the issue of high tau(s) by synthesizing VO2 thin films from highly ionized fluxes of depositing species generated in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. The use of ions facilitates low-temperature film growth because the energy of the depositing species can be readily manipulated by substrate bias. For comparison, films were also synthesized by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering. Structural and optical characterization of VO2 thin films on ITO-coated glass substrates confirms previous results that HiPIMS allows tau(s) to be reduced from 500 to 300 degrees C. Importantly, we demonstrated that HiPIMS permits the composition and TC response of the films to be tuned by altering the energy of the deposition flux via substrate bias. An optimum ion energy of 100 eV was identified, which points at a potential for further reduction of tau(s) thereby opening new possibilities for industrially-relevant applications of VO2-based TC thin films. Weak TC activity was observed even at tau(s) approximate to 200 degrees C in HiPIMS-produced films.

  • 3.
    Baba, Elbruz Murat
    et al.
    Inst Energy Technol, Dept Solar Energy, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway;Istanbul Tech Univ, Nano Sci & Nano Engn Dept, TR-34469 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för materialvetenskap, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Strugovshchikov, Evgenii
    Univ Tartu, Inst Phys, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Zayim, Esra Ozkan
    Istanbul Tech Univ, Nano Sci & Nano Engn Dept, TR-34469 Istanbul, Turkey;Istanbul Tech Univ, Fac Sci & Letters, Dept Phys, TR-34469 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Karazhanov, Smagul
    Inst Energy Technol, Dept Solar Energy, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    Light-induced breathing in photochromic yttrium oxyhydrides2020Inngår i: PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 4, nr 2, artikkel-id 025201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When exposed to air, metallic yttrium dihydride YH2 films turn into insulating and transparent yttrium oxyhydride (YHO). The incorporation of oxygen causes the lattice expansion of YH2 and the emergence of photochromic properties, i.e., YHO darkens reversibly when illuminated with light of adequate energy and intensity. However, the adequate bleaching of the photodarkened samples once the illumination has stopped is much faster in air than in inert atmosphere. According to this experimental evidence, the photochromic mechanism has to be related to an oxygen diffusion and exchange process. Since this process is accompanied by a lattice expansion/contraction, it can be said that YHO "breathes" when subjected to illumination/darkness cycling. Another interesting side effect of the breathing is the unexpected enhancement of the hydrophobicity of the YHO samples under illumination. A theoretical model able to explain the breathing in YHO is presented, together with the discussion of other alternative explanations.

  • 4.
    Cindemir, Umut
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Sputter deposited thermochromic VO2 thin films for acetaldehyde and formaldehyde sensing.2014Inngår i: 5th International Symposium on Transparent Conductive Materials, 12-17 October 2014, Chania, Crete, Greece, 2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Ji, Y.- X.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Montero, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Thermochromic Fenestration Based on VO2: Finally a Technology of Practical Interest?2015Inngår i: Society of Vacuum Coaters 59th Ann. Techn. Conf. Proc., Albuquerque, NM, USA: Society of Vacuum Coaters , 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Ji, Yu-Xia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Thermochromic vanadium-dioxide-based thin films and nanoparticles: Survey of some buildings-related advances2016Inngår i: Journal of Physics: Conference Series: INERA Conference: Vapor Phase Technologies for Metal Oxide and Carbon Nanostructures, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2016, Vol. 764, artikkel-id 012002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s architecture uses large glazings (windows and glass facades) to obtain good indoors–outdoors contact and day-lighting. However glazings offer challenges and often lead to excessive solar energy inflow and thereby a need for energy-demanding space cooling. This paper summarizes recent work on thermochromic (TC) materials intended for energy-efficient buildings and outlines how vanadium-dioxide-based thin films and nanoparticle composites can be used in TC glazings which admit more solar energy below a comfort temperature than above this temperature, so that the cooling need is diminished, while the transmittance of visible light remains high. We also report on some very recent work on TC light scattering.

  • 7.
    Montero, Jose
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Ji, Yu-Xia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Li, Shu-Yi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Sputter deposition of thermochromic VO2 films on In2O3: Sn, SnO2, and glass: Structure and composition versus oxygen partial pressure2015Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 1-7, artikkel-id 031805Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermochromic thin films of VO2 were produced by reactive DC magnetron sputtering and were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and resistance measurements. Depositions took place onto substrates of glass with and without layers of electrically conducting ITO (i.e., In2O3: Sn) and nonconducting SnO2. The substrate conditions were of large importance; thus, VO2 could be prepared on ITO within a significantly wider process window of oxygen partial pressure than for the other substrates and could yield highly granular deposits. VO2 films on ITO typically showed some lattice compression. Our results are valuable for the preparation and implementation of thermochromic glazings, which are of importance for energy efficient buildings.

  • 8.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Sputter Deposited Thermochromic VO2 Thin Films on Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Coated Glass: Electrical, Structural and Optical Properties2014Inngår i: European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, Lille, France, 26-30 May: Symposium L: Chromogenic Materials and Devices, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Guillen, C
    Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Herrero, J
    Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Lithium intercalation in sputter deposited antimony-doped tin oxide thin films: Evidence from electrochemical and optical measurements2014Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 115, nr 15, s. 153702/1-/8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent conducting oxides are used as transparent electrical contacts in a variety of applications, including in electrochromic smart windows. In the present work, we performed a study of transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films by chronopotentiometry in a Li+-containing electrolyte. The open circuit potential vs. Li was used to investigate ATO band lineups, such as those of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, as well as the dependence of these lineups on the preparation conditions for ATO. Evidence was found for Li+ intercalation when a current pulse was set in a way so as to drive ions from the electrolyte into the ATO lattice. Galvanostatic intermittent titration was then applied to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient within the ATO lattice. The electrochemical density of states of the conducting oxide was studied by means of the transient voltage recorded during the chronopotentiometry experiments. These measurements were possible because, as Li+ intercalation took place, charge compensating electrons filled the lowest part of the conduction band in ATO. Furthermore, the charge insertion modified the optical properties of ATO according to the Drude model.

  • 10.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Guillen, C.
    CIEMAT.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Herrero, J.
    CIEMAT.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Preparation of Reactively Sputter Deposited Nanocrystalline Antimony-Based Tin Oxide Thin Films: Control of Preferential Orientation2014Inngår i: European Materials Research Society (E.MRS) Spring Meeting, Lille, France, 26-30 May: Symposium Y: Advanced Materials and Characterization Techniques for Solar Cella II, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Montero, José Amenedo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Photodegradation of Stearic Acid Adsorbed on Copper Oxide Heterojunction Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering2018Inngår i: ChemEngineering, Vol. 2, nr 3, artikkel-id 40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline copper oxide thin films were fabricated by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The structure and optical properties of the films were measured with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and spectrophotometry. Variations of oxygen partial pressure resulted in oxide composition ranging from Cu, Cu-Cu2O, Cu2O-CuO1−x, and CuO. Optical band transitions at 2.06 eV and 2.55 eV were found for Cu2O corresponding to the direct forbidden and direct allowed interband transitions. For CuO an indirect allowed interband transition was found at 1.28 eV. The photocatalytic activity was determined by quantifying the rate constant and quantum yield (destroyed molecules/photons absorbed) under stearic acid degradation. Photocatalytic activity was found to be highest in mixed-phase films with Cu-Cu2O films the highest. Results from post-annealed Cu-Cu2O and CuO films show similar results. We interpret our results as being due to efficient electron-hole charge separation in the heterojunction films. The obtained quantum yields were generally about ten times lower than for comparable dense TiO2 and WO3 binary oxides, which calls for further studies of the spectral dependence of the quantum yield and electron-hole pair life times for oxides with different purity levels.

  • 12.
    Montero, José
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Guillén, C
    Granqvist, Claes Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Herrero, J
    Niklasson, Gunnar A
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Preferential Orientation and Surface Oxidation Control in Reactively Sputter Deposited Nanocrystalline SnO2:Sb Films: Electrochemical and Optical Results2014Inngår i: ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ISSN 2162-8769, E-ISSN 2162-8777, Vol. 3, nr 11, s. N151-N153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Montero, José
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Ji, Yu-Xia
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, Claes G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Thermochromic light scattering from particulate VO2 layers2016Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, nr 8, artikkel-id 085302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Particulate layers of thermochromic (TC) VO2 were made by reactive DC magnetron sputtering of vanadium onto In2O3: Sn-coated glass. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Specular and diffuse optical transmittance and reflectance were recorded in the 300-2500-nm wavelength range and displayed pronounced TC effects. These properties could be reconciled with a semi-quantitative model based on Lorentz-Mie theory applied to the distribution of particle sizes and accounting for particle shapes by the Grenfell-Warren approach with equal-volume-to-area spheres.

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