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  • 1.
    Carlbom, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Diabetes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to further advance the field of diabetes research there is a great need for establishing validated non-invasive quantitative techniques to study the pancreas and other tissues of importance for blood glucose regulation. The general aim of this thesis was to explore magnetic resonance techniques and positron emission tomography as such tools.

    In paper I pancreatic perfusion under basal conditions and in response to glucose in nondiabetic and type 1 diabetic individuals was studied with [15O]H2O PET/CT. Individuals with type 1 diabetes were found to have reduced basal pancreatic perfusion and a severely impaired pancreatic and splanchnic perfusion response to intravenous glucose stimulation.

    In paper II four groups of subjects at different stages of type 2 diabetes development and a control group of individuals without diabetes were examined with PET/CT and MRI. The [11C]5-HTP uptake in pancreas was hypothesized to correlate with remaining functional capacity of the β-cells. The progressive loss of β-cell function indicated by metabolic testing was not mirrored by a decrease in [11C]5-HTP tracer accumulation in the pancreas. This provides evidence of retained islet mass despite decreased β-cell function, indicating that β-cell dysfunction or dedifferentiation, and not necessarily endocrine cell loss, constitutes a major cause of β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes.

    In paper III the feasibility of using ex-vivo MR spectroscopy for assessment of viability of human pancreas grafts prior to transplantation was studied. It was found that 31P-MRS may provide quantitative parameters for evaluating graft viability ex vivo, and is a promising tool for objective non-invasive assessment of the quality of human pancreas grafts.

    In paper IV the Imiomics method for automatic image analysis was validated in whole-body [18F]-FDG PET/MR images in subjects with varying degree of insulin resistance. Imiomics was found to provide association screening and timesaving analysis of whole-body data and detected differences in glucose uptake and tissue composition between subjects on voxel-level. However, it did not show complete correlation with traditional volume of interest based tissue analysis in a small cohort.

  • 2.
    Carlbom, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Caballero-Corbalán, José
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Granberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted MRI compared with 5-HTP PET/CT in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 43-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: We wanted to explore if whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted (DW) and liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging could be valuable in lesion detection of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). [11C]-5-Hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography/computed tomography (5-HTP PET/CT) was used for comparison.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with NET were investigated with whole-body MRI, including DW imaging (DWI) and contrast-enhanced imaging of the liver, and whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. Seven additional patients underwent upper abdomen MRI including DWI, liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging, and 5-HTP PET/CT.

    RESULTS: There was a patient-based concordance of 61% and a lesion-based concordance of 53% between the modalities. MRI showed good concordance with PET in detecting bone metastases but was less sensitive in detecting metastases in mediastinal lymph nodes. MRI detected more liver metastases than 5-HTP PET/CT.

    CONCLUSION: Whole-body MRI with DWI did not detect all NET lesions found with whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT. Our findings indicate that MRI of the liver including liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging and DWI could be a useful complement to whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT.

  • 3.
    Carlbom, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Espes, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Lubberink, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Eriksson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Pancreatic perfusion and subsequent response to glucose in healthy individuals and patients with type 1 diabetes2016In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 59, no 9, p. 1968-1972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate pancreatic perfusion and its response to a glucose load in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with non-diabetic ('healthy') individuals.

    METHODS: Eight individuals with longstanding type 1 diabetes and ten sex-, age- and BMI-matched healthy controls underwent dynamic positron emission tomography scanning with (15)O-labelled water before and after intravenous administration of glucose. Perfusion in the pancreas was measured. Portal and arterial hepatic perfusion were recorded as references.

    RESULTS: Under fasting conditions, total pancreatic perfusion was on average 23% lower in the individuals with diabetes compared with healthy individuals. Glucose increased total pancreatic and portal hepatic blood perfusion in healthy individuals by 48% and 38%, respectively. In individuals with diabetes there was no significant increase in either total pancreatic or portal hepatic perfusion.

    CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Individuals with type 1 diabetes have reduced basal pancreatic perfusion and a severely impaired pancreatic and splanchnic perfusion response to intravenous glucose stimulation.

  • 4.
    Carlbom, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Espes, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Lubberink, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Martinell, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Eriksson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    [(11)C]5-Hydroxy-Tryptophan PET for Assessment of Islet Mass During Progression of Type 2 Diabetes2017In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 1286-1292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [(11)C]5-hydroxy-tryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP) PET of the pancreas has been shown to be a surrogate imaging biomarker of pancreatic islet mass. The change in islet mass in different stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as measured by non-invasive imaging is currently unknown. Here, we describe a cross-sectional study where subjects at different stages of T2D development with expected stratification of pancreatic islet mass were examined in relation to non-diabetic individuals. The primary outcome was the [(11)C]5-HTP uptake and retention in pancreas, as a surrogate marker for the endogenous islet mass.We found that metabolic testing indicated a progressive loss of beta cell function, but that this was not mirrored by a decrease in [(11)C]5-HTP tracer accumulation in the pancreas. This provides evidence of retained islet mass despite decreased beta cell function. The results herein indicates that beta cell dedifferentiation, and not necessarily endocrine cell loss, constitute a major cause of beta cell failure in T2D.

  • 5.
    Carlbom, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Weis, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Pre-transplantation ³¹P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy for quality assessment of human pancreatic grafts: A feasibility study2017In: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ISSN 0730-725X, E-ISSN 1873-5894, Vol. 39, p. 98-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of using (31)P-MRS for objective non-invasive quality assessment of human pancreas grafts prior to transplantation or islet isolation.

    Materials and methods: Pancreata from 5 human donors, 3 males and 2 females, aged 49-78years, with body mass index (BMI) 22-31kg/m(2), were included. Pancreata were perfused with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution during procurement and stored in hypothermic condition (4°C) for 21-44h. During the period of hypothermic storage repeated spectra were obtained for each graft by (31)P-MRS (1.5Tesla) to measure the cold ischemia time (CIT) dependent changes of the phosphorous metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), phosphomonoesters (PME), phosphodiesters (PDE) and inorganic phosphate (Pi), in the grafts. Graft temperature was measured immediately before and after MR-examination. Reference spectrum for non-viable tissue was obtained after graft exposure to room temperature.

    Results: PME/Pi, PDE/Pi and ATP/Pi spectral intensities ratios decreased with increasing CIT, reflecting the decreased viability of the grafts. PME/Pi ratio was the most discriminatory variable at prolonged CIT. (31)P-MRS could be performed without significantly increasing graft temperature.

    Conclusions: (31)P-MRS may provide quantitative parameters for evaluating graft viability ex vivo, and is a promising tool for objective non-invasive assessment of the quality of human pancreas grafts prior to transplantation or islet isolation.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Espes, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sedigh, Amir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Transplantation Surgery.
    Rotem, Avi
    Zimermann, Baruch
    Grinberg, Helena
    Goldman, Tali
    Barkai, Uriel
    Avni, Yuval
    Westermark, Gunilla T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlbom, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Antaros Medical AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Olerud, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Transplantation of macroencapsulated human islets within the bioartificial pancreas βAir to patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus2018In: American Journal of Transplantation, ISSN 1600-6135, E-ISSN 1600-6143, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 1735-1744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroencapsulation devices provide the dual possibility to immunoprotect transplanted cells while also being retrievable; the latter bearing importance for safety in future trials with stem-cell derived cells. However, macroencapsulation entails a problem with oxygen supply to the encapsulated cells. The βAir device solves this with an incorporated refillable oxygen tank. This phase 1 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of implanting the βAir device containing allogeneic human pancreatic islets to patients with type 1 diabetes. Four patients were transplanted with 1-2 βAir devices, each containing 155000-180000 IEQ (i.e. 1800-4600 IEQ per kg body weight), and monitored for 3-6 months, followed by the recovery of devices. Implantation of the βAir device was safe and successfully prevented immunization and rejection of the transplanted tissue. However, although beta cells survived in the device, only minute levels of circulating C-peptide were observed with no impact on metabolic control. Fibrotic tissue with immune cells was formed in capsule surroundings. Recovered devices displayed a blunted glucose-stimulated insulin response, and amyloid formation in the endocrine tissue. We conclude that the βAir device is safe and can support survival of allogeneic islets for several months, although the function of the transplanted cells was limited.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Selvaraju, Ramkumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Eich, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Willny, Mariam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Brismar, Torkel B.
    Karolinska Inst, CLINTEC, Div Med Imaging & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbom, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Tufvesson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Transplantation Surgery.
    Lundgren, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Inst, CLINTEC, Div Transplantat Surg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Positron Emission Tomography to assess the outcome of intraportal islet transplantation2016In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 2482-2489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There currently exists no imaging methodology to monitor viable islet mass following clinical intraportal islet transplantation. We investigated the potential of the endocrine positron emission tomography (PET) marker [(11)C]5-hydroxy-tryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP) for this purpose. In a preclinical proof of concept study, the ex vivo and in vivo [(11)C]5-HTP signal was compared to the number of islets transplanted in rats. In a clinical study, human subjects with an intraportal islet graft (n=8) performed two [(11)C]5-HTP PET and MRI examinations 8 months apart. The tracer concentration in the liver as a whole, or in defined hotspots was correlated to measurements of islet graft function. In rat, hepatic uptake of [(11)C]5-HTP correlated with number of transplanted islets. In human subjects, uptake in hepatic hotspots showed a correlation with metabolic assessments of islet function. Change in hotspot SUV predicted loss of graft function in one subject whereas hotspot SUV was unchanged in subjects with stable graft function. The endocrine marker [(11)C]5-HTP thus show correlation between hepatic uptake and transplanted islet function, and show promise as a tool for non-invasive detection of viable islets. The evaluation procedure described herein can be used as benchmark for novel agents targeting intraportally transplanted islets.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform.
    Sjöberg, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Lubberink, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Biglarnia, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Transplantation Surgery.
    Tufveson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Transplantation Surgery.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Functional Imaging of the Pancreatic Graft by Positron Emission Tomography2013In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 96, no 6, p. S94-S94Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Espes, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Manell, Elin
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rydén, Anneli
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carlbom, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Weis, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Jensen-Waern, Marianne
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Eriksson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Pancreatic perfusion and its response to glucose as measured by simultaneous PET/MRI2019In: Acta Diabetologica, ISSN 0940-5429, E-ISSN 1432-5233, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 1113-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: Perfusion of the pancreas and the islets of Langerhans is sensitive to physiological stimuli and is dysregulated in metabolic disease. Pancreatic perfusion can be assessed by both positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the methods have not been directly compared or benchmarked against the gold-standard microsphere technique.

    METHODS: Pigs (n = 4) were examined by [15O]H2O PET and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI technique simultaneously using a hybrid PET/MRI scanner. The pancreatic perfusion was measured both at basal conditions and after intravenous (IV) administration of up to 0.5 g/kg glucose.

    RESULTS: Pancreatic perfusion increased by 35%, 157%, and 29% after IV 0.5 g/kg glucose compared to during basal conditions, as assessed by [15O]H2O PET, IVIM MRI, and microspheres, respectively. There was a correlation between pancreatic perfusion as assessed by [15O]H2O PET and IVIM MRI (r = 0.81, R2 = 0.65, p < 0.01). The absolute quantification of pancreatic perfusion (ml/min/g) by [15O]H2O PET was within a 15% error of margin of the microsphere technique.

    CONCLUSION: Pancreatic perfusion by [15O]H2O PET was in agreement with the microsphere technique assessment. The IVIM MRI method has the potential to replace [15O]H2O PET if the pancreatic perfusion is sufficiently large, but not when absolute quantitation is required.

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