Endre søk
Begrens søket
1 - 46 of 46
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1. Addor, Nans
    et al.
    Rössler, Ole
    Köplin, Nina
    Huss, Matthias
    Weingartner, Rolf
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Robust changes and sources of uncertainty in the projected hydrological regimes of Swiss catchments2014Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 50, nr 10, s. 7541-7562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Projections of discharge are key for future water resources management. These projections are subject to uncertainties, which are difficult to handle in the decision process on adaptation strategies. Uncertainties arise from different sources such as the emission scenarios, the climate models and their postprocessing, the hydrological models, and the natural variability. Here we present a detailed and quantitative uncertainty assessment, based on recent climate scenarios for Switzerland (CH2011 data set) and covering catchments representative for midlatitude alpine areas. This study relies on a particularly wide range of discharge projections resulting from the factorial combination of 3 emission scenarios, 10–20 regional climate models, 2 postprocessing methods, and 3 hydrological models of different complexity. This enabled us to decompose the uncertainty in the ensemble of projections using analyses of variance (ANOVA). We applied the same modeling setup to six catchments to assess the influence of catchment characteristics on the projected streamflow, and focused on changes in the annual discharge cycle. The uncertainties captured by our setup originate mainly from the climate models and natural climate variability, but the choice of emission scenario plays a large role by the end of the 21st century. The contribution of the hydrological models to the projection uncertainty varied strongly with catchment elevation. The discharge changes were compared to the estimated natural decadal variability, which revealed that a climate change signal emerges even under the lowest emission scenario (RCP2.6) by the end of the century. Limiting emissions to RCP2.6 levels would nevertheless reduce the largest regime changes by the end of the century by approximately a factor of two, in comparison to impacts projected for the high emission scenario SRES A2. We finally show that robust regime changes emerge despite the projection uncertainty. These changes are significant and are consistent across a wide range of scenarios and catchments. We propose their identification as a way to aid decision making under uncertainty.

  • 2. Addor, Nans
    et al.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Bias correction for hydrological impact studies: beyond the daily perspective2014Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 28, nr 17, s. 4823-4828Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Amvrosiadi, Nino
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Soil moisture storage estimation based on steady vertical fluxes under equilibrium2017Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 553, s. 798-804Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil moisture is an important variable for hillslope and catchment hydrology. There are various computational methods to estimate soil moisture and their complexity varies greatly: from one box with vertically constant volumetric soil water content to fully saturated-unsaturated coupled physically-based models. Different complexity levels are applicable depending on the simulation scale, computational time limitations, input data and knowledge about the parameters. The Vertical Equilibrium Model (VEM) is a simple approach to estimate the catchment-wide soil water storage at a daily time-scale on the basis of water table level observations, soil properties and an assumption of hydrological equilibrium without vertical fluxes above the water table. In this study VEM was extended by considering vertical fluxes, which allows conditions with evaporation and infiltration to be represented. The aim was to test the hypothesis that the simulated volumetric soil water content significantly depends on vertical fluxes. The water content difference between the no-flux, equilibrium approach and the new constant-flux approach greatly depended on the soil textural class, ranging between similar to 1% for silty clay and similar to 44% for sand at an evapotranspiration rate of 5 mm.d(-1). The two approaches gave a mean volumetric soil water content difference of 1 mm for two case studies (sandy loam and organic rich soils). The results showed that for many soil types the differences in estimated storage between the no-flux and the constant flux approaches were relatively small.

  • 4. Archfield, Stacey A.
    et al.
    Clark, Martyn
    Arheimer, Berit
    Hay, Lauren E.
    McMillan, Hilary
    Kiang, Julie E.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Hakala, Kirsti
    Bock, Andrew
    Wagener, Thorsten
    Farmer, William H.
    Andreassian, Vazken
    Attinger, Sabine
    Viglione, Alberto
    Knight, Rodney
    Markstrom, Steven
    Over, Thomas
    Accelerating advances in continental domain hydrologic modeling2015Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 51, nr 12, s. 10078-10091Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, hydrologic modeling of surface water resources has mainly focused on simulating the hydrologic cycle at local to regional catchment modeling domains. There now exists a level of maturity among the catchment, global water security, and land surface modeling communities such that these communities are converging toward continental domain hydrologic models. This commentary, written from a catchment hydrology community perspective, provides a review of progress in each community toward this achievement, identifies common challenges the communities face, and details immediate and specific areas in which these communities can mutually benefit one another from the convergence of their research perspectives. Those include: (1) creating new incentives and infrastructure to report and share model inputs, outputs, and parameters in data services and open access, machine-independent formats for model replication or reanalysis; (2) ensuring that hydrologic models have: sufficient complexity to represent the dominant physical processes and adequate representation of anthropogenic impacts on the terrestrial water cycle, a process-based approach to model parameter estimation, and appropriate parameterizations to represent large-scale fluxes and scaling behavior; (3) maintaining a balance between model complexity and data availability as well as uncertainties; and (4) quantifying and communicating significant advancements toward these modeling goals.

  • 5. Archfield, Stacey A.
    et al.
    Clark, Martyn
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Hay, Lauren E.
    McMillan, Hilary
    Kiang, Julie E.
    Seibert, Jan
    Hakala, Kirsti
    Bock, Andrew
    Wagener, Thorsten
    Farmer, William H.
    Andreassian, Vazken
    Attinger, Sabine
    Viglione, Alberto
    Knight, Rodney
    Markstrom, Steven
    Over, Thomas
    Accelerating advances in continental domain hydrologic modeling2015Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 51, nr 12, s. 10078-10091Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, hydrologic modeling of surface water resources has mainly focused on simulating the hydrologic cycle at local to regional catchment modeling domains. There now exists a level of maturity among the catchment, global water security, and land surface modeling communities such that these communities are converging toward continental domain hydrologic models. This commentary, written from a catchment hydrology community perspective, provides a review of progress in each community toward this achievement, identifies common challenges the communities face, and details immediate and specific areas in which these communities can mutually benefit one another from the convergence of their research perspectives. Those include: (1) creating new incentives and infrastructure to report and share model inputs, outputs, and parameters in data services and open access, machine-independent formats for model replication or reanalysis; (2) ensuring that hydrologic models have: sufficient complexity to represent the dominant physical processes and adequate representation of anthropogenic impacts on the terrestrial water cycle, a process-based approach to model parameter estimation, and appropriate parameterizations to represent large-scale fluxes and scaling behavior; (3) maintaining a balance between model complexity and data availability as well as uncertainties; and (4) quantifying and communicating significant advancements toward these modeling goals.

  • 6.
    Brunner, Manuela I.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland;Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, IGE,Grenoble INP, Grenoble, France.
    Furrer, Reinhard
    Univ Zurich, Dept Math, Zurich, Switzerland;Univ Zurich, Dept Computat Sci, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Sikorska, Anna E.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland;Warsaw Univ Life Sci, SGGW, Dept Hydraul Engn, Warsaw, Poland.
    Viviroli, Daniel
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland;Belop Gmbh, Sarnen, Switzerland.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Favre, Anne-Catherine
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, IGE,Grenoble INP, Grenoble, France.
    Synthetic design hydrographs for ungauged catchments: a comparison of regionalization methods2018Inngår i: Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment (Print), ISSN 1436-3240, E-ISSN 1436-3259, Vol. 32, nr 7, s. 1993-2023Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Design flood estimates for a given return period are required in both gauged and ungauged catchments for hydraulic design and risk assessments. Contrary to classical design estimates, synthetic design hydrographs provide not only information on the peak magnitude of events but also on the corresponding hydrograph volumes together with the hydrograph shapes. In this study, we tested different regionalization approaches to transfer parameters of synthetic design hydrographs from gauged to ungauged catchments. These approaches include classical regionalization methods such as linear regression techniques, spatial methods, and methods based on the formation of homogeneous regions. In addition to these classical approaches, we tested nonlinear regression models not commonly used in hydrological regionalization studies, such as random forest, bagging, and boosting. We found that parameters related to the magnitude of the design event can be regionalized well using both linear and nonlinear regression techniques using catchment area, length of the main channel, maximum precipitation intensity, and relief energy as explanatory variables. The hydrograph shape, however, was found to be more difficult to regionalize due to its high variability within a catchment. Such variability might be better represented by looking at flood-type specific synthetic design hydrographs.

  • 7.
    Brunner, Manuela I.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland;Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, Grenoble INP,IGE, Grenoble, France.
    Viviroli, Daniel
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland;Belop Gmbh, Sarnen, Switzerland.
    Furrer, Reinhard
    Univ Zurich, Dept Math, Zurich, Switzerland;Univ Zurich, Dept Computat Sci, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Favre, Anne-Catherine
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, Grenoble INP,IGE, Grenoble, France.
    Identification of Flood Reactivity Regions via the Functional Clustering of Hydrographs2018Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 54, nr 3, s. 1852-1867Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood hydrograph shapes contain valuable information on the flood-generation mechanisms of a catchment. To make good use of this information, we express flood hydrograph shapes as continuous functions using a functional data approach. We propose a clustering approach based on functional data for flood hydrograph shapes to identify a set of representative hydrograph shapes on a catchment scale and use these catchment-specific sets of representative hydrographs to establish regions of catchments with similar flood reactivity on a regional scale. We applied this approach to flood samples of 163 medium-size Swiss catchments. The results indicate that three representative hydrograph shapes sufficiently describe the hydrograph shape variability within a catchment and therefore can be used as a proxy for the flood behavior of a catchment. These catchment-specific sets of three hydrographs were used to group the catchments into three reactivity regions of similar flood behavior. These regions were not only characterized by similar hydrograph shapes and reactivity but also by event magnitudes and triggering event conditions. We envision these regions to be useful in regionalization studies, regional flood frequency analyses, and to allow for the construction of synthetic design hydrographs in ungauged catchments. The clustering approach based on functional data which establish these regions is very flexible and has the potential to be extended to other geographical regions or toward the use in climate impact studies.

  • 8.
    Brunner, Manuela I.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble INP, Grenoble, France..
    Viviroli, Daniel
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.;Belop GmbH, Sarnen, Switzerland..
    Sikorska, Anna E.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.;Warsaw Univ Life Sci, Dept Hydraul Engn, Warsaw, Poland..
    Vannier, Olivier
    Compagnie Natl Rhone, Lyon, France..
    Favre, Anne-Catherine
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble INP, Grenoble, France..
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Flood type specific construction of synthetic design hydrographs2017Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 1390-1406Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate estimates of flood peaks, corresponding volumes, and hydrographs are required to design safe and cost-effective hydraulic structures. In this paper, we propose a statistical approach for the estimation of the design variables peak and volume by constructing synthetic design hydrographs for different flood types such as flash-floods, short-rain floods, long-rain floods, and rain-on-snow floods. Our approach relies on the fitting of probability density functions to observed flood hydrographs of a certain flood type and accounts for the dependence between peak discharge and flood volume. It makes use of the statistical information contained in the data and retains the process information of the flood type. The method was tested based on data from 39 mesoscale catchments in Switzerland and provides catchment specific and flood type specific synthetic design hydrographs for all of these catchments. We demonstrate that flood type specific synthetic design hydrographs are meaningful in flood-risk management when combined with knowledge on the seasonality and the frequency of different flood types.

  • 9.
    Brunner, Manuela Irene
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Grenoble Alpes, IGE, Grenoble INP, Grenoble, France..
    Sikorska, Anna E.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.;Warsaw Univ Life Sci SGGW, Dept Hydraul Engn, Warsaw, Poland..
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bivariate analysis of floods in climate impact assessments2018Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, s. 1392-1403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate impact studies regarding floods usually focus on peak discharges and a bivariate assessment of peak discharges and hydrograph volumes is not commonly included. A joint consideration of peak discharges and hydrograph volumes, however, is crucial when assessing flood risks for current and future climate conditions. Here, we present a methodology to develop synthetic design hydrographs for future climate conditions that jointly consider peak discharges and hydrograph volumes. First, change factors are derived based on a regional climate model and are applied to observed precipitation and temperature time series. Second, the modified time series are fed into a calibrated hydrological model to simulate runoff time series for future conditions. Third, these time series are used to construct synthetic design hydrographs. The bivariate flood frequency analysis used in the construction of synthetic design hydrographs takes into account the dependence between peak discharges and hydrograph volumes, and represents the shape of the hydrograph. The latter is modeled using a probability density function while the dependence between the design variables peak discharge and hydrograph volume is modeled using a copula. We applied this approach to a set of eight mountainous catchments in Switzerland to construct catchment-specific and season-specific design hydrographs for a control and three scenario climates. Our work demonstrates that projected climate changes have an impact not only on peak discharges but also on hydrograph volumes and on hydrograph shapes both at an annual and at a seasonal scale. These changes are not necessarily proportional which implies that climate impact assessments on future floods should consider more flood characteristics than just flood peaks.

  • 10. Dahlke, Helen E.
    et al.
    Behrens, Thorsten
    Seibert, Jan
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI, Samhälle och säkerhet.
    Test of statistical means for the extrapolation of soil depth point information using overlays of spatial environmental data and bootstrapping techniques2009Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 23, nr 21, s. 3017-3029Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological modelling depends highly on the accuracy and uncertainty of model input parameters such as soil properties. Since most of these data are field Surveyed, geostatistical techniques Such as kriging, classification and regression trees or more sophisticated soil-landscape models need to be applied to interpolate point information to the area. Most of the existing interpolation techniques require a random or regular distribution of points Within the study area but are not adequate to satisfactorily interpolate soil catena or transect data. The soil landscape model presented in this study is predicting soil information from transect or catena point data using a statistical mean (arithmetic, geometric and harmonic mean) to calculate the soil information based on class means of merged spatial explanatory variables. A data set of 226 soil depth measurements covering a range of 0-6.5 m was used to test the model. The point data were sampled along four transects in the Stubbetorp catchment, SE-Sweden. We overlaid a geomorphology map (8 classes) with digital elevation model-derived topographic index maps (2-9 classes) to estimate the range of error the model produces with changing sample size and input maps. The accuracy of the soil depth predictions was estimated with the root mean square error (RMSE) based oil a testing and training data set. RMSE ranged generally between 0.73 and 0.83 m +/- 0.013 m depending on the amount of classes the merged layers had, but were smallest for a map combination with a low number of classes predicted with the harmonic mean (RMSE = 0.46 m). The results show that the prediction accuracy of this method depends oil the number of point values in the sample, the value range of the measured attribute and the initial correlations between point values and explanatory variables, but suggests that the model approach is in general scale invariant. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 11. Finger, David
    et al.
    Vis, Marc
    Huss, Matthias
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    The value of multiple data set calibration versus model complexity for improving the performance of hydrological models in mountain catchments2015Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 51, nr 4, s. 1939-1958Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of snow, glacier, and rainfall runoff contribution to discharge in mountain streams is of major importance for an adequate water resource management. Such contributions can be estimated via hydrological models, provided that the modeling adequately accounts for snow and glacier melt, as well as rainfall runoff. We present a multiple data set calibration approach to estimate runoff composition using hydrological models with three levels of complexity. For this purpose, the code of the conceptual runoff model HBV-light was enhanced to allow calibration and validation of simulations against glacier mass balances, satellite-derived snow cover area and measured discharge. Three levels of complexity of the model were applied to glacierized catchments in Switzerland, ranging from 39 to 103 km(2). The results indicate that all three observational data sets are reproduced adequately by the model, allowing an accurate estimation of the runoff composition in the three mountain streams. However, calibration against only runoff leads to unrealistic snow and glacier melt rates. Based on these results, we recommend using all three observational data sets in order to constrain model parameters and compute snow, glacier, and rain contributions. Finally, based on the comparison of model performance of different complexities, we postulate that the availability and use of different data sets to calibrate hydrological models might be more important than model complexity to achieve realistic estimations of runoff composition.

  • 12.
    Fischer, Benjamin M. C.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Stahli, Manfred
    Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Swiss Fed Inst Forest, Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Pre-event water contributions to runoff events of different magnitude in pre-alpine headwaters2017Inngår i: HYDROLOGY RESEARCH, ISSN 1998-9563, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 28-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation and catchment characteristics of mountainous headwaters can vary largely within short distances. It remains unclear how these two factors determine the contribution of event water and pre-event water to stormflow. We investigated this in five neighboring headwaters with high annual precipitation amounts (> 2,000 mm y(-1)) in a steep pre-alpine region in Switzerland. Rainfall and streamwater of 13 different rainstorms were sampled (P: 5 mm intervals, Q: 12 to 51 samples per events) to perform a two-component isotope hydrograph separation. Pre-event water contributions based on delta O-18 or delta H-2 computation were similar. The pre-event water contributions of headwaters depended largely on rainfall (amount and intensity) and varied more between events than between catchments, despite clear differences in land cover between the catchments. Furthermore, antecedent wetness was not found to control pre-event water contribution. With increasing rainfall amount, the proportion of rainfall in runoff increased and changed from pre-event to event water dominated. The variable rainfall amount and small active storage (organic soil horizon, 20-50 cm) resulted in a threshold in the upper soil horizon with subsequently more variable pre-event water contribution. Our results show the necessity of sampling in different headwaters and events to better understand controlling factors in runoff generation.

  • 13.
    Fischer, Benjamin M. C.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    van Meerveld, H. J. (Ilja)
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Spatial variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall in a small headwater catchment and its effect on hydrograph separation2017Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 547, s. 755-769Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Isotope hydrograph separation (IHS) is a valuable tool to study runoff generation processes. To perform an IHS, samples of baseflow (pre-event water) and streamflow are taken at the catchment outlet. For rainfall (event water) either a bulk sample is collected or it is sampled sequentially during the event. For small headwater catchment studies, event water samples are usually taken at only one sampling location in or near the catchment because the spatial variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall is assumed to be small. However, few studies have tested this assumption. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall and its effects on IHS results using detailed measurements from a small pre-alpine headwater catchment in Switzerland. Rainfall was sampled sequentially at eight locations across the 4.3 km(2) Zwackentobel catchment and stream water was collected in three subcatchments (0.15, 0.23, and 0.70 km(2)) during ten events. The spatial variability in rainfall amount, average and maximum rainfall intensity and the isotopic composition of rainfall was different for each event. There was no significant relation between the isotopic composition of rainfall and total rainfall amount, rainfall intensity or elevation. For eight of the ten studied events the temporal variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall was larger than the spatial variability in the rainfall isotopic composition. The isotope hydrograph separation results, using only one rain sampler, varied considerably depending on which rain sampler was used to represent the isotopic composition of event water. The calculated minimum pre-event water contributions differed up to 60%. The differences were particularly large for events with a large spatial variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall and a small difference between the event and pre-event water isotopic composition. Our results demonstrate that even in small catchments the spatial variability in the rainfall isotopic composition can be significant and has to be considered for IHS studies. Using data from only one rain sampler can result in significant errors in the estimated pre-event water contributions to streamflow.

  • 14.
    Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala.
    Gardenas, Annemieke I.
    Bewket, Woldeamlak
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Ilstedt, Ulrik
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    The long-term hydrology of East Africa's water tower: statistical change detection in the watersheds of the Abbay Basin2014Inngår i: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 321-331Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty-five years (1960-2004) of hydrological data from 12 watersheds in the Abbay Basin, Ethiopia, were tested for possible trends over the entire time series and differences in medians (step-wise changes) between three sub-periods. The classification of the sub-periods was based on the major political changes in 1975 and 1991. Variables investigated were rainfall (P), total flow (Q(t)), high flow (Q(h)), low flow (Q(1)), low flow index (LFI) and run-off coefficient (C). Data were checked for outliers, errors and homogeneity. Trend was tested after serial and cross-correlation tests. The data for each variable were serially uncorrelated from 1 to 10 lag years. There were five globally significant trends out of 50 test cases and 36 significant step-wise changes out of 180 tests. The majority of the significant changes were watershed specific. Run-off coefficient was the single variable showing a consistently increasing trend and stood for ca. 25 % of the total significant trends and step-wise changes. Half of these changes occurred after 1991. We concluded that despite the land use policy changes in 1975 and 1991, as well as the long-term soil degradation, the hydrological regime was quite stable over the 45-year period, with the exception of an increase in the run-off coefficient in the latter part of the run-off record in some watersheds.

  • 15. Geris, J.
    et al.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Vis, M.
    Soulsby, C.
    Conceptual modelling to assess hydrological impacts and evaluate environmental flow scenarios in montane river systems regulated for hydropower2014Inngår i: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve understanding of natural and managed flow regimes in data-sparse regulated river systems in montane areas, the commonly used Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) conceptual run-off model was adapted to incorporate water regulation components. The extended model was then applied to the heavily regulated river Lyon (391 km2) in Scotland to reconstruct the natural flow regime and to assess the impacts of regulation at increasing spatial scales. Multi-criteria model evaluation demonstrated that the model performed well in capturing the dominant catchment processes and regulation effects, especially at the timescales at which operation rules apply. The main change as a result of regulation in the river Lyon is a decrease in inter-annual and intra-annual variability of all elements of the flow regime, in terms of magnitude, frequency, and duration. Although these impacts are most pronounced directly downstream of the impoundments, the regulation effects propagate throughout the river system. The modelling approach is flexible and widely applicable and only limited amounts of data are required. Moreover, results are easily communicated to stakeholders. It has the potential to contribute to the development of flow regimes that may be more beneficial to the ecological status of rivers. In the case of the river Lyon, it is likely that this involves a more variable release regime. The approach developed here provides a tool for assessing impacts on flow regimes and informing environmental flows in other data-sparse regions with heavily regulated montane river systems. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 16.
    Girons Lopez, Marc
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Irchel Winterthurerstr 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems2017Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 522-534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  • 17.
    Girons Lopez, Marc
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper. Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Irchel Winterthurerstr 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Influence of Hydro-Meteorological Data Spatial Aggregation on Streamflow Modelling2016Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 541, s. 1212-1220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data availability is important for virtually any purpose in hydrology. While some parts of the world continue to be under-monitored, other areas are experiencing an increased availability of high-resolution data. The use of the highest available resolution has always been preferred and many efforts have been made to maximize the information content of data and thus improve its predictive power and reduce the costs of maintenance of hydrometric sensor networks. In the light of ever-increasing data resolution, however, it is important to assess the added value of using the highest resolution available. In this study we present an assessment of the relative importance of hydro-meteorological data resolution for hydrological modelling. We used a case study with high-resolution data availability to investigate the influence of using models calibrated with different levels of spatially aggregated meteorological input data to estimate streamflow for different periods and at different locations. We found site specific variations, but model parameterizations calibrated using sub-catchment specific meteorological input data tended to produce better streamflow estimates, with model efficiency values being up to 0.35 efficiency units higher than those calibrated with catchment averaged meteorological data. We also found that basin characteristics other than catchment area have little effect on the performance of model parameterizations applied in different locations than the calibration site. Finally, we found that using an increased number of discharge data locations has a larger impact on model calibration efficiency than using spatially specific meteorological data. The results of this study contribute to improve the knowledge on assessing data needs for water management in terms of adequate data type and level of spatial aggregation.

  • 18. Halldin, S
    et al.
    Bergstrom, H
    Gustafsson, D
    Dahlgren, L
    SMHI.
    Hjelm, P
    Lundin, L C
    Mellander, P E
    Nord, T
    Jansson, P E
    Seibert, J
    Stahli, M
    Kishne, A S
    Smedman, A S
    Continuous long-term measurements of soil-plant-atmosphere variables at an agricultural site1999Inngår i: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 98-9, s. 75-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a major challenge in modem science to decrease the uncertainty in predictions of global climate change. One of the largest uncertainties in present-day global climate models resides with the understanding of processes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) system. Continuous, long-term data are needed to correctly quantify balances of water, energy and CO2 in this system and to correctly model them. It is the objective of this paper to demonstrate how a combined system of existing sensor, computer, and network technologies could be set up to provide continuous and reliable long-term SVAT-process data from an agricultural site under almost all weather conditions. A long-term climate-monitoring system within the framework of NOPEX was set up in 1993-1994 at the Marsta Meteorological Observatory (MMO). It is situated in a flat agricultural area where annual crops are cultivated on a heavy clay soil. It has successfully monitored relevant states and fluxes in the system, such as atmospheric fluxes of momentum, heat, water vapour and CO2, atmospheric profiles of wind speed, direction, and temperature, short- and long-wave radiation, soil temperature, soil-water contents, groundwater levels, and rainfall and snow depth. System uptime has been more than 90% for most of its components during the first 5 years of operation. Results from the first 5 years of operation has proven MMO to be an ideal site for intercomparison and intercalibration of radiometers and fast turbulence sensors, and for evaluation of other sensors, e.g., rain gauges. The long time series of radiation data have been valuable to establish numerical limits for a set of quality-control flags. MMO has served as a boundary-layer research station and results from NOPEX campaigns show how the dimensionless wind gradient depends not only on the traditional stability parameter z/L but also on the height of the convective boundary layer. Measurements at the observatory grounds and a neighbouring field show a considerable variability in surface properties, which must be accounted for when assessing budgets of heat and other scalars. Questions concerning long-term calibration plans, maintenance of sensors and data-collection system, and continuous development of the computer network to keep it up to date are, however, only partly of interest as a research project in itself. It is thus difficult to get it funded from usual research-funding agencies. The full value of data generated by the: MMO system can best be appreciated after a decade or more of continuous operation. Main uses of the data would be to evaluate how SVAT models handle the natural variability of climate conditions, quantification of water, carbon and energy budgets during various weather conditions, and development of new parameterisation schemes in global and regional climate models. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Jenicek, Michal
    et al.
    Charles Univ Prague, Dept Phys Geog & Geoecol, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Staudinger, Maria
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Modeling of Future Changes in Seasonal Snowpack and Impacts on Summer Low Flows in Alpine Catchments2018Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 538-556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is expected that an increasing proportion of the precipitation will fall as rain in alpine catchments in the future. Consequently, snow storage is expected to decrease, which, together with changes in snowmelt rates and timing, might cause reductions in spring and summer low flows. The objectives of this study were (1) to simulate the effect of changing snow storage on low flows during the warm seasons and (2) to relate drought sensitivity to the simulated snow storage changes at different elevations. The Swiss Climate Change Scenarios 2011 data set was used to derive future changes in air temperature and precipitation. A typical bucket-type catchment model, HBV-light, was applied to 14 mountain catchments in Switzerland to simulate streamflow and snow in the reference period and three future periods. The largest relative decrease in annual maximum SWE was simulated for elevations below 2,200 m a.s.l. (60-75% for the period 2070-2099) and the snowmelt season shifted by up to 4 weeks earlier. The relative decrease in spring and summer minimum runoff that was caused by the relative decrease in maximum SWE (i.e., elasticity), reached 40-90% in most of catchments for the reference period and decreased for the future periods. This decreasing elasticity indicated that the effect of snow on summer low flows is reduced in the future. The fraction of snowmelt runoff in summer decreased by more than 50% at the highest elevations and almost disappeared at the lowest elevations. This might have large implications on water availability during the summer.

  • 20.
    Karlsen, Reinert Huseby
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Grabs, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Ottosson-Löfvenius, Mikaell
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Department of Geography, University of Zürich.
    The role of catchment physiography, storage and evapotranspiration on variability in streamflow recessionsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Karlsen, Reinert Huseby
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Grabs, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Buffam, Ishi
    Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Geography, University of Cincinnati.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Department of Geography, University of Zürich.
    Landscape controls on spatiotemporal discharge variability in a boreal catchment2016Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 52, nr 8, s. 6541-6556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the understanding of how stream flow dynamics are influenced by landscape characteristics, such as soils, vegetation and terrain, is a central endeavor of catchment hydrology. Here we investigate how spatial variability in stream flow is related to landscape characteristics using specific discharge time series from 14 partly nested subcatchments in the Krycklan basin (0.12 - 68 km(2)). Multivariate principal component analyses combined with univariate analyses showed that while variability in landscape characteristics and specific discharge were strongly related, the spatial patterns varied with season and wetness conditions. During spring snowmelt and at the annual scale, specific discharge was positively related to the sum of wetland and lake area. During summer, when flows are lowest, specific discharge was negatively related to catchment tree volume, but positively related to deeper sediment deposits and catchment area. The results indicate how more densely forested areas on till soils become relatively drier during summer months, while wet areas and deeper sediment soils maintain a higher summer base flow. Annual and seasonal differences in specific discharge can therefore be explained to a large extent by expected variability in evapotranspiration fluxes and snow accumulation. These analyses provide an organizing principle for how specific discharge varies spatially across the boreal landscape, and how this variation is manifested for different wetness conditions, seasons and time scales.

  • 22.
    Karlsen, Reinert
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Grabs, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Blomkvist, Peder
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Kevin, Bishop
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    The assumption of uniform specific discharge: unsafe at Any time?2016Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 0, nr 21, s. 3978-3988Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearby catchments in the same landscape are often assumed to have similar specific discharge (runoff per unit catchment area). Five years of streamflow from 14 nested catchments in a 68km(2) landscape was used to test this assumption, with the hypothesis that the spatial variability in specific discharge is smaller than the uncertainties in the measurement. The median spatial variability of specific discharge, defined as subcatchment deviation from the catchment outlet, was 33% at the daily scale. This declined to 24% at a monthly scale and 19% at an annual scale. These specific discharge differences are on the same order of magnitude as predicted for major land-use conversions or a century of climate change. Spatial variability remained when considering uncertainties in specific discharge, and systematic seasonal patterns in specific discharge variation further provide confidence that these differences are more than just errors in the analysis of catchment area, rainfall variability or gauging. Assuming similar specific discharge in nearby catchments can thus lead to spurious conclusions about the effects of disturbance on hydrological and biogeochemical processes.

  • 23. Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Nathanson, Marcus
    Spans, Andre
    Grabs, Thomas
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Temnerud, Johan
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Bishop, Kevin H.
    Seibert, Jan
    Specific discharge variability in a boreal landscape2012Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 48, artikkel-id W08506Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific discharge variations within a mesoscale catchment were studied on the basis of three synoptic sampling campaigns. These were conducted during stable flow conditions within the Krycklan catchment study area in northern Sweden. During each campaign, about 80 individual locations were measured for discharge draining from catchment areas ranging between 0.12 and 67 km(2). These discharge samplings allowed for the comparison between years within a given season (September 2005 versus September 2008) and between seasons within a given year (May 2008 versus September 2008) of specific discharge across this boreal landscape. There was considerable variability in specific discharge across this landscape. The ratio of the interquartile range (IQR) defined as the difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles of the specific discharges to the median of the specific discharges ranged from 37% to 43%. Factor analysis was used to explore potential relations between landscape characteristics and the specific discharge observed for 55 of the individual locations that were measured in all three synoptic sampling campaigns. Percentage wet area (i.e., wetlands, mires, and lakes) and elevation were found to be directly related to the specific discharge during the drier September 2008 sampling while potential annual evaporation was found to be inversely related. There was less of a relationship determined during the wetter post spring flood May 2008 sampling and the late summer rewetted September 2005 sampling. These results indicate the ability of forests to "dry out" parts of the catchment over the summer months while wetlands "keep wet" other parts. To demonstrate the biogeochemical implications of such spatiotemporal variations in specific discharge, we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports with available data for the May 2008 and September 2008 samplings using both the spatially variable observed specific discharges and the spatially constant catchment average values. The average absolute difference in DOC export for the various subcatchments between using a variable and using a constant specific discharge was 28% for the May 2008 sampling and 20% for the September 2008 sampling.

  • 24.
    Nino, Amvrosiadi
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Hydrology and Climate Unit, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Grabs, Thomas J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Water storage dynamics in a till hillslope: the foundation for modeling flows and turnover times2017Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 4-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on hydrology, biogeochemistry, or mineral weathering often rely on assumptions about flow paths, water storage dynamics, and transit times. Testing these assumptions requires detailed hydrometric data that are usually unavailable at the catchment scale. Hillslope studies provide an alternative for obtaining a better understanding, but even on such well‐defined and delimited scales, it is rare to have a comprehensive set of hydrometric observations from the water divide down to the stream that can constrain efforts to quantify water storage, movement, and turnover time. Here, we quantified water storage with daily resolution in a hillslope during the course of almost an entire year using hydrological measurements at the study site and an extended version of the vertical equilibrium model. We used an exponential function to simulate the relationship between hillslope discharge and water table; this was used to derive transmissivity profiles along the hillslope and map mean pore water velocities in the saturated zone. Based on the transmissivity profiles, the soil layer transmitting 99% of lateral flow to the stream had a depth that ranged from 8.9 m at the water divide to under 1 m closer to the stream. During the study period, the total storage of this layer varied from 1189 to 1485 mm, resulting in a turnover time of 2172 days. From the pore water velocities, we mapped the time it would take a water particle situated at any point of the saturated zone anywhere along the hillslope to exit as runoff. Our calculations point to the strengths as well as limitations of simple hydrometric data for inferring hydrological properties and water travel times in the subsurface.

  • 25. Orth, Rene
    et al.
    Staudinger, Maria
    Seneviratne, Sonia I.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Zappa, Massimiliano
    Does model performance improve with complexity?: A case study with three hydrological models2015Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 523, s. 147-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades considerable progress has been made in climate model development. Following the massive increase in computational power, models became more sophisticated. At the same time also simple conceptual models have advanced. In this study we validate and compare three hydrological models of different complexity to investigate whether their performance varies accordingly. For this purpose we use runoff and also soil moisture measurements, which allow a truly independent validation, from several sites across Switzerland. The models are calibrated in similar ways with the same runoff data. Our results show that the more complex models HBV and PREVAH outperform the simple water balance model (SWBM) in case of runoff but not for soil moisture. Furthermore the most sophisticated PREVAH model shows an added value compared to the HBV model only in case of soil moisture. Focusing on extreme events we find generally improved performance of the SWBM during drought conditions and degraded agreement with observations during wet extremes. For the more complex models we find the opposite behavior, probably because they were primarily developed for prediction of runoff extremes. As expected given their complexity, HBV and PREVAH have more problems with over-fitting. All models show a tendency towards better performance in lower altitudes as opposed to (pre-) alpine sites. The results vary considerably across the investigated sites. In contrast, the different metrics we consider to estimate the agreement between models and observations lead to similar conclusions, indicating that the performance of the considered models is similar at different time scales as well as for anomalies and long-term means. We conclude that added complexity does not necessarily lead to improved performance of hydrological models, and that performance can vary greatly depending on the considered hydrological variable (e.g. runoff vs. soil moisture) or hydrological conditions (floods vs. droughts). (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 26.
    Pool, Sandra
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Vis, Marc J. P.
    Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Knight, Rodney R.
    US Geol Survey, Nashville, USA.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Streamflow characteristics from modeled runoff time series importance of calibration criteria selection2017Inngår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 21, nr 11, s. 5443-5457Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecologically relevant streamflow characteristics (SFCs) of ungauged catchments are often estimated from simulated runoff of hydrologic models that were originally calibrated on gauged catchments. However, SFC estimates of the gauged donor catchments and subsequently the ungauged catchments can be substantially uncertain when models are calibrated using traditional approaches based on optimization of statistical performance metrics (e.g., Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency). An improved calibration strategy for gauged catchments is therefore crucial to help reduce the uncertainties of estimated SFCs for ungauged catchments. The aim of this study was to improve SFC estimates from modeled runoff time series in gauged catchments by explicitly including one or several SFCs in the calibration process. Different types of objective functions were defined consisting of the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency, single SFCs, or combinations thereof. We calibrated a bucket-type runoff model (HBV-Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenavdelning-model) for 25 catchments in the Tennessee River basin and evaluated the proposed calibration approach on 13 ecologically relevant SFCs representing major flow regime components and different flow conditions. While the model generally tended to underestimate the tested SFCs related to mean and high-flow conditions, SFCs related to low flow were generally overestimated. The highest estimation accuracies were achieved by a SFC-specific model calibration. Estimates of SFCs not included in the calibration process were of similar quality when comparing a multi-SFC calibration approach to a traditional model efficiency calibration. For practical applications, this implies that SFCs should preferably be estimated from targeted runoff model calibration, and modeled estimates need to be carefully interpreted.

  • 27.
    Pool, Sandra
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Viviroli, Daniel
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Prediction of hydrographs and flow-duration curves in almost ungauged catchments: Which runoff measurements are most informative for model calibration?2017Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 554, s. 613-622Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Applications of runoff models usually rely on long and continuous runoff time series for model calibration. However, many catchments around the world are ungauged and estimating runoff for these catchments is challenging. One approach is to perform a few runoff measurements in a previously fully ungauged catchment and to constrain a runoff model by these measurements. In this study we investigated the value of such individual runoff measurements when taken at strategic points in time for applying a bucket-type runoff model (HBV) in ungauged catchments. Based on the assumption that a limited number of runoff measurements can be taken, we sought the optimal sampling strategy (i.e. when to measure the streamflow) to obtain the most informative data for constraining the runoff model. We used twenty gauged catchments across the eastern US, made the assumption that these catchments were ungauged, and applied different runoff sampling strategies. All tested strategies consisted of twelve runoff measurements within one year and ranged from simply using monthly flow maxima to a more complex selection of observation times. In each case the twelve runoff measurements were used to select 100 best parameter sets using a Monte Carlo calibration approach. Runoff simulations using these 'informed' parameter sets were then evaluated for an independent validation period in terms of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of the hydrograph and the mean absolute relative error of the flow-duration curve. Model performance measures were normalized by relating them to an upper and a lower benchmark representing a well-informed and an uninformed model calibration. The hydrographs were best simulated with strategies including high runoff magnitudes as opposed to the flow-duration curves that were generally better estimated with strategies that captured low and mean flows. The choice of a sampling strategy covering the full range of runoff magnitudes enabled hydrograph and flow-duration curve simulations close to a well-informed model calibration. The differences among such strategies covering the full range of runoff magnitudes were small indicating that the exact choice of a strategy might be less crucial. Our study corroborates the information value of a small number of strategically selected runoff measurements for simulating runoff with a bucket-type runoff model in almost ungauged catchments.

  • 28.
    Reynolds, Eduardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. CNDS, Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Panama, Inst Geociencias, Panama City, Panama..
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. CNDS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Xu, Chong-Yu
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Oslo, Dept Geosci, Oslo, Norway.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Kauffeldt, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Sub-daily runoff predictions using parameters calibrated on the basis of data with a daily temporal resolution2017Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 550, s. 399-411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentration times in small and medium-sized basins (similar to 10-1000 km(2)) are commonly less than 24 h. Flood-forecasting models are thus required to provide simulations at high temporal resolutions (1 h-6 h), although time-series of input and runoff data with sufficient lengths are often only available at the daily temporal resolution, especially in developing countries. This has led to study the relationships of estimated parameter values at the temporal resolutions where they are needed from the temporal resolutions where they are available. This study presents a methodology to treat empirically model parameter dependencies on the temporal resolution of data in two small basins using a bucket-type hydrological model, HBV-light, and the generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation approach for selecting its parameters. To avoid artefacts due to the numerical resolution or numerical method of the differential equations within the model, the model was consistently run using modelling time steps of one-hour regardless of the temporal resolution of the rainfall-runoff data. The distribution of the parameters calibrated at several temporal resolutions in the two basins did not show model parameter dependencies on the temporal resolution of data and the direct transferability of calibrated parameter sets (e.g., daily) for runoff simulations at other temporal resolutions for which they were not calibrated (e.g., 3 h or 6 h) resulted in a moderate (if any) decrease in model performance, in terms of Nash-Sutcliffe and volume-error efficiencies. The results of this study indicate that if sub-daily forcing data can be secured, flood forecasting in basins with sub-daily concentration times may be possible with model-parameter values calibrated from long time series of daily data. Further studies using more models and basins are required to test the generality of these results.

  • 29.
    Reynolds, J. Eduardo
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Ctr Nat Hazards & Disaster Sci CNDS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Ctr Nat Hazards & Disaster Sci CNDS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden;Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Xu, Chong-Yu
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Oslo, Dept Geosci, Oslo, Norway.
    Definitions of climatological and discharge days: do they matter in hydrological modelling?2018Inngår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 63, nr 5, s. 836-844Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of hydrological models is affected by uncertainty related to observed climatological and discharge data. Although the latter has been widely investigated, the effects on hydrological models from different starting times of the day have received little interest. In this study, observational data from one tropical basin were used to investigate the effects on a typical bucket-type hydrological model, the HBV, when the definitions of the climatological and discharge days are changed. An optimization procedure based on a genetic algorithm was used to assess the effects on model performance. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies varied considerably between day definitions, with the largest dependence on the climatological-day definition. The variation was likely caused by how storm water was assigned to one or two daily rainfall values depending on the definition of the climatological day. Hydrological models are unlikely to predict high flows accurately if rainfall intensities are reduced because of the day definition.

  • 30. Rinderer, M.
    et al.
    van Meerveld, H. J.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Topographic controls on shallow groundwater levels in a steep, prealpine catchment: When are the TWI assumptions valid?2014Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 50, nr 7, s. 6067-6080Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Topographic indices like the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) have been used to predict spatial patterns of average groundwater levels and to model the dynamics of the saturated zone during events (e. g., TOPMODEL). However, the assumptions underlying the use of the TWI in hydrological models, of which the most important is that groundwater level variation can be approximated by a series of steady state situations, are rarely tested. It is also not clear how well findings from existing hillslope studies on sites with transmissive soil can be transferred to entire catchments with less permeable soils. This study, therefore, evaluated the suitability of selected topographic indices to describe spatial groundwater level variations based on time series from 51 groundwater wells in a 20 ha catchment with low-permeability soils in Switzerland. Results showed that median groundwater levels were correlated to slope, curvature, and TWI, but the strength of correlation depended on whether the indices characterized the local topography or the topography of the upslope contributing area. The correlation between TWI and groundwater levels was not constant over time but decreased at the beginning of rainfall events, indicating large spatial differences in groundwater responses, and increased after peak flow, when groundwater levels could be considered to be spatially in a steady state. Our findings indicate that topographic indices are useful to predict median groundwater levels in catchments with low-permeability soils and that the TWI assumptions are best met when groundwater levels change slowly.

  • 31.
    Rivera, Samuel
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA.
    Girons Lopez, Marc
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper. Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Irchel Winterthurerstr 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Minsker, Barbara
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA.
    Probabilistic Flood Mapping Using Volunteered Geographical InformationManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Seibert, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    van Meerveld, H. J. (Ilja)
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Hydrological change modeling: Challenges and opportunities2016Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 30, nr 26, s. 4966-4971Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Sikorska, A. E.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zürich.; Warsaw Univ Life Sci SGGW, Dept Hydraul Engn, Warsaw.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Value of different precipitation data for flood prediction in an alpine catchment: A Bayesian approach2018Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 556, s. 961-971Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding induced by heavy precipitation is one of the most severe natural hazards in alpine catchments. To accurately predict such events, accurate and representative precipitation data are required. Estimating catchment precipitation is, however, difficult due to its high spatial, and, in the mountains, elevation-dependent variability. These inaccuracies, together with runoff model limitations, translate into uncertainty in runoff estimates. Thus, in this study, we investigate the value of three precipitation datasets, commonly used in hydrological studies, i.e., station network precipitation (SNP), interpolated grid precipitation (IGP) and radar-based precipitation (RBP), for flood predictions in an alpine catchment. To quantify their effects on runoff simulations, we perform a Bayesian uncertainty analysis with an improved description of model systematic errors. By using periods of different lengths for model calibration, we explore the information content of these three datasets for runoff predictions. Our results from an alpine catchment showed that using SNP resulted in the largest predictive uncertainty and the lowest model performance evaluated by the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency. This performance improved from 0.674 to 0.774 with IGP, and to 0.829 with RBP. The latter two datasets were also much more informative than SNP, as half as many calibration data points were required to obtain a good model performance. Thus, our results show that the various types of precipitation data differ in their value for flood predictions in an alpine catchment and indicate RBP as the most useful dataset.

  • 34.
    Sikorska, A. E.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zürich.; Warsaw Univ Life Sci SGGW, Dept Hydraul Engn, Warsaw.
    Viviroli, D.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zürich.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zürich.
    Effective precipitation duration for runoff peaks based on catchment modelling2018Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 556, s. 510-522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite precipitation intensities may greatly vary during one flood event, detailed information about these intensities may not be required to accurately simulate floods with a hydrological model which rather reacts to cumulative precipitation sums. This raises two questions: to which extent is it important to preserve sub-daily precipitation intensities and how long does it effectively rain from the hydrological point of view? Both questions might seem straightforward to answer with a direct analysis of past precipitation events but require some arbitrary choices regarding the length of a precipitation event. To avoid these arbitrary decisions, here we present an alternative approach to characterize the effective length of precipitation event which is based on runoff simulations with respect to large floods. More precisely, we quantify the fraction of a day over which the daily precipitation has to be distributed to faithfully reproduce the large annual and seasonal floods which were generated by the hourly precipitation rate time series. New precipitation time series were generated by first aggregating the hourly observed data into daily totals and then evenly distributing them over sub-daily periods (n hours). These simulated time series were used as input to a hydrological bucket-type model and the resulting runoff flood peaks were compared to those obtained when using the original precipitation time series. We define then the effective daily precipitation duration as the number of hours n, for which the largest peaks are simulated best. For nine mesoscale Swiss catchments this effective daily precipitation duration was about half a day, which indicates that detailed information on precipitation intensities is not necessarily required to accurately estimate peaks of the largest annual and seasonal floods. These findings support the use of simple disaggregation approaches to make usage of past daily precipitation observations or daily precipitation simulations (e.g. from climate models) for hydrological modeling at an hourly time step.

  • 35.
    Sikorska, Anna E.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.;Warsaw Univ Life Sci SGGW, Dept Hydraul Engn, Warsaw, Poland..
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Appropriate temporal resolution of precipitation data for discharge modelling in pre-alpine catchments2018Inngår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation time series with high temporal resolution are desired for hydrological modelling and flood studies. Yet the choice of an appropriate resolution is not straightforward because the use of too high a temporal resolution increases the data requirements, computational costs and, presumably, associated uncertainty, while performance improvement may be indiscernible. In this study, the effect of averaging hourly precipitation on model performance and associated uncertainty is investigated using two data sources: station network precipitation (SNP) and radar-based precipitation (RBP). From these datasets, time series of different temporal resolutions were generated, and runoff was simulated for 13 pre-alpine catchments with a bucket-type model. Our results revealed that different temporal resolutions were required for an acceptable model performance depending on the catchment size and data source. These were 1-12h for small (16-59km(2)), 3-21h for medium (60-200km(2)), and 24h for large (200-939km(2)) catchments.

  • 36.
    Sikorska, Anna E.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.;Warsaw Univ Life Sci SGGW, Dept Hydraul Engn, Warsaw, Poland..
    Viviroli, Daniel
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland.;Belop Gmbh, Engineers & Experts Nat Hazards, Sarnen, Switzerland..
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Flood-type classification in mountainous catchments using crisp and fuzzy decision trees2015Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 51, nr 10, s. 7959-7976Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Floods are governed by largely varying processes and thus exhibit various behaviors. Classification of flood events into flood types and the determination of their respective frequency is therefore important for a better understanding and prediction of floods. This study presents a flood classification for identifying flood patterns at a catchment scale by means of a fuzzy decision tree. Hence, events are represented as a spectrum of six main possible flood types that are attributed with their degree of acceptance. Considered types are flash, short rainfall, long rainfall, snow-melt, rainfall on snow and, in high alpine catchments, glacier-melt floods. The fuzzy decision tree also makes it possible to acknowledge the uncertainty present in the identification of flood processes and thus allows for more reliable flood class estimates than using a crisp decision tree, which identifies one flood type per event. Based on the data set in nine Swiss mountainous catchments, it was demonstrated that this approach is less sensitive to uncertainties in the classification attributes than the classical crisp approach. These results show that the fuzzy approach bears additional potential for analyses of flood patterns at a catchment scale and thereby it provides more realistic representation of flood processes.

  • 37. Staudinger, Maria
    et al.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Predictability of low flow - An assessment with simulation experiments2014Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 519, nr Part B, s. 1383-1393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Since the extreme summer of 2003 the importance of early drought warning has become increasingly recognized even in water-rich countries such as Switzerland. Spring 2011 illustrated drought conditions in Switzerland again, which are expected to become more frequent in the future. Two fundamental questions related to drought early warning are: (1) How long before a hydrological drought occurs can it be predicted? (2) How long are initial conditions important for streamflow simulations? To address these questions, we assessed the relative importance of the current hydrological state and weather during the prediction period. Ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) and reverse ESP ( ESP rev ) experiments were performed with the conceptual catchment model, HBV, for 21 Swiss catchments. The relative importance of the initial hydrological state and weather during the prediction period was evaluated by comparing the simulations of both experiments to a common reference simulation. To further distinguish between effects of weather and catchment properties, a catchment relaxation time was calculated using temporally constant average meteorological input. The relative importance of the initial conditions varied with the start of the simulation. The maximum detectable influences of initial conditions ranged from 50 days to at least a year. Drier initial conditions of soil moisture and groundwater as well as more initial snow resulted in longer influences of initial conditions. The catchment relaxation varied seasonally for higher elevation catchments, but remained constant for lower catchments, which indicates the importance of snow for streamflow predictability. Longer persistence seemed to also stem from larger groundwater storages in mountainous catchments, which may motivate a reconsideration of the sensitivity of these catchments to low flows in a changing climate.

  • 38.
    Staudinger, Maria
    et al.
    University of Zurich.
    Stahl, Kerstin
    University of Freiburg.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    A drought index accounting for snow2014Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 50, nr 10, s. 7861-7872Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is the most widely used index to characterize droughts that are related to precipitation deficiencies. However, the SPI does not always deliver the relevant information for hydrological drought management particularly in snow-influenced catchments. If precipitation is temporarily stored as snow, then there is a significant difference between meteorological and hydrological drought because the delayed release of melt water to the stream. We introduce an extension to the SPI, the Standardized Snow Melt and Rain Index (SMRI), that accounts for rain and snow melt deficits, which effectively influence streamflow. The SMRI can be derived without snow data, using temperature and precipitation to model snow. The value of the new index is illustrated for seven Swiss catchments with different degrees of snow influence. In particular for catchments with a larger component of snowmelt in runoff generation, the SMRI was found to be a worthwhile complementary index to the SPI to characterize streamflow droughts.

  • 39.
    Staudinger, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Stoelzle, Michael
    Univ Freiburg, Fac Environm & Nat Resources, Freiburg, Germany..
    Seeger, Stefan
    Univ Freiburg, Fac Environm & Nat Resources, Freiburg, Germany..
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Weiler, Markus
    Univ Freiburg, Fac Environm & Nat Resources, Freiburg, Germany..
    Stahl, Kerstin
    Univ Freiburg, Fac Environm & Nat Resources, Freiburg, Germany..
    Catchment water storage variation with elevation2017Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 31, nr 11, s. 2000-2015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important functions of catchments is the storage of water. Catchment storage buffers meteorological extremes and interannual streamflow variability, controls the partitioning between evaporation and runoff, and influences transit times of water. Hydrogeological data to estimate storage are usually scarce and seldom available for a larger set of catchments. This study focused on storage in prealpine and alpine catchments, using a set of 21 Swiss catchments comprising different elevation ranges. Catchment storage comparisons depend on storage definitions. This study defines different types of storage including definitions of dynamic and mobile catchment storage. We then estimated dynamic storage using four methods, water balance analysis, streamflow recession analysis, calibration of a bucket-type hydrological model Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenbalansavdelning model (HBV), and calibration of a transfer function hydrograph separation model using stable isotope observations. The HBV model allowed quantifying the contributions of snow, soil and groundwater storages compared to the dynamic catchment storage. With the transfer function hydrograph separation model both dynamic and mobile storage was estimated. Dynamic storage of one catchment estimated by the four methods differed up to one order of magnitude. Nevertheless, the storage estimates ranked similarly among the 21 catchments. The largest dynamic and mobile storage estimates were found in high-elevation catchments. Besides snow, groundwater contributed considerably to this larger storage. Generally, we found that with increasing elevation the relative contribution to the dynamic catchment storage increased for snow, decreased for soil, but remained similar for groundwater storage.

  • 40.
    Teutschbein, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Is bias correction of regional climate model (RCM) simulations possible for non-stationary conditions?2013Inngår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 17, nr 12, s. 5061-5077Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In hydrological climate-change impact studies, regional climate models (RCMs) are commonly used to transfer large-scale global climate model (GCM) data to smaller scales and to provide more detailed regional information. Due to systematic and random model errors, however, RCM simulations often show considerable deviations from observations. This has led to the development of a number of correction approaches that rely on the assumption that RCM errors do not change over time. It is in principle not possible to test whether this underlying assumption of error stationarity is actually fulfilled for future climate conditions. In this study, however, we demonstrate that it is possible to evaluate how well correction methods perform for conditions different from those used for calibration with the relatively simple differential split-sample test.

  • 41. Teutschbein, Claudia
    et al.
    Wetterhall, Fredrik
    SMHI, Forskningsavdelningen, Hydrologi.
    Seibert, Jan
    Evaluation of different downscaling techniques for hydrological climate-change impact studies at the catchment scale2011Inngår i: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 37, nr 9-10, s. 2087-2105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrological modeling for climate-change impact assessment implies using meteorological variables simulated by global climate models (GCMs). Due to mismatching scales, coarse-resolution GCM output cannot be used directly for hydrological impact studies but rather needs to be downscaled. In this study, we investigated the variability of seasonal streamflow and flood-peak projections caused by the use of three statistical approaches to downscale precipitation from two GCMs for a meso-scale catchment in southeastern Sweden: (1) an analog method (AM), (2) a multi-objective fuzzy-rule-based classification (MOFRBC) and (3) the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). The obtained higher-resolution precipitation values were then used to simulate daily streamflow for a control period (1961-1990) and for two future emission scenarios (2071-2100) with the precipitation-streamflow model HBV. The choice of downscaled precipitation time series had a major impact on the streamflow simulations, which was directly related to the ability of the downscaling approaches to reproduce observed precipitation. Although SDSM was considered to be most suitable for downscaling precipitation in the studied river basin, we highlighted the importance of an ensemble approach. The climate and streamflow change signals indicated that the current flow regime with a snowmelt-driven spring flood in April will likely change to a flow regime that is rather dominated by large winter streamflows. Spring flood events are expected to decrease considerably and occur earlier, whereas autumn flood peaks are projected to increase slightly. The simulations demonstrated that projections of future streamflow regimes are highly variable and can even partly point towards different directions.

  • 42.
    van Meerveld, H. J.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fischer, B. M. C.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Rinderer, M.
    Univ Freiburg, Chair Hydrol, Freiburg, Germany.
    Staehli, M.
    Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Runoff Generation in a Pre-Alpine Catchment: A Discussion Between a Tracer and a Shallow Groundwater Hydrologist2018Inngår i: CUADERNOS DE INVESTIGACION GEOGRAFICA, ISSN 0211-6820, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 429-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Runoff generation mechanisms vary between catchments and despite decades of research in many catchments, these mechanisms are still not fully understood. In this paper, runoff generation mechanisms in the steep pre-alpine catchments in the Alptal, Switzerland, are discussed. These fast responding catchments are characterized by low permeability soils on top of flysch bedrock. In combination with the high and frequent precipitation, this results in predominantly wet conditions. In many areas, the water table is close to the surface. We review the main results of recent (2009-2016) studies in these catchments that used isotope, stream chemistry and hydrometric data. These field studies focused on the spatial and temporal patterns in groundwater levels, spatial patterns in the isotopic composition and chemistry of streamflow during baseflow conditions, as well as the responses of streamflow and its isotopic composition during rainfall events. The combined results of these studies highlight the establishment of connectivity of areas with different topographic positions and areas with a different land use during rainfall events. They also show the importance of flow in higher conductivity near surface soil layers for runoff generation, as well as the frequent occurrence of surface runoff. Spatial differences in groundwater dynamics are related to topography. Streamflow responses are mainly affected by the rainfall characteristics; differences in streamflow and hydrochemistry between catchments with different portions of forest, meadows and wetlands, were relatively small. However, variations in the chemistry of baseflow along stream reaches within a catchment were considerable. Above all, these studies highlight the value of combining data on spatial patterns of groundwater levels and stream chemistry with long term data on streamflow to derive a more complete picture of the dominant runoff generation mechanisms.

  • 43.
    van Meerveld, H. J. Ilja
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Vis, Marc J. P.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Information content of stream level class data for hydrological model calibration2017Inngår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 21, nr 9, s. 4895-4905Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizen science can provide spatially distributed data over large areas, including hydrological data. Stream levels are easier to measure than streamflow and are likely also observed more easily by citizen scientists than streamflow. However, the challenge with crowd based stream level data is that observations are taken at irregular time intervals and with a limited vertical resolution. The latter is especially the case at sites where no staff gauge is available and relative stream levels are observed based on (in) visible features in the stream, such as rocks. In order to assess the potential value of crowd based stream level observations for model calibration, we pretended that stream level observations were available at a limited vertical resolution by transferring streamflow data to stream level classes. A bucket-type hydrological model was calibrated with these hypothetical stream level class data and subsequently evaluated on the observed streamflow records. Our results indicate that stream level data can result in good streamflow simulations, even with a reduced vertical resolution of the observations. Time series of only two stream level classes, e.g. above or below a rock in the stream, were already informative, especially when the class boundary was chosen towards the highest stream levels. There was some added value in using up to five stream level classes, but there was hardly any improvement in model performance when using more level classes. These results are encouraging for citizen science projects and provide a basis for designing observation systems that collect data that are as informative as possible for deriving model based streamflow time series for previously ungauged basins.

  • 44. Viviroli, Daniel
    et al.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Can a regionalized model parameterisation be improved with a limited number of runoff measurements?2015Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 529, s. 49-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of hydrological models to ungauged basins is both a highly relevant and challenging task. While research has brought forth various approaches for inferring or transferring tuneable model parameters from gauged and calibrated catchments, it has also been recently shown that a few short measurements can support predictions in an ungauged basin by constraining the acceptable range of the parameters. For the present study, we examined a combination of both parameter regionalisation and short-term runoff measurements. More precisely, we attempted to select complete parameter sets from a range of calibrated catchments using a few measurements. Then, we tested a number of ways to combine the hydrographs simulated with these parameter sets with those simulated using a well-established Nearest Neighbour scheme, in order to make use of both actually measured runoff data as well as hydrological similarity. The experimental basis for our study were 49 representative catchments in Switzerland which have been successfully calibrated and regionalised with the hydrological modelling system PREVAH. Results show that even a few short measurements during mean runoff conditions can lead to models that are more efficient than those achieved with hydrological similarity alone. The possible improvement depends largely on the regime type of the catchment examined. Also, the most suitable season to perform measurements varies: In catchments dominated by snow melt or ice melt or both, considerable improvements can be achieved with as few as two measurements during spring or summer, whereas rainfall-dominated catchments show only moderate improvements with no particular season being more suitable for the measurements. Our findings highlight the value of field measurements in mountain areas. The information gained in these regions from short measurements may act as a counterbalance to the sparse operational observation networks. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 45.
    Wang, L.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    van Meerveld, H. J.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Seibert, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära. Univ Zurich, Dept Geog, Zurich, Switzerland..
    When should stream water be sampled to be most informative for event-based, multi-criteria model calibration?2017Inngår i: Hydrology Research, ISSN 1998-9563, E-ISSN 2224-7955, Vol. 48, nr 6, s. 1566-1584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Isotope data from streamflow samples taken during rainfall or snowmelt events can be useful for model calibration, particularly to improve model consistency and to reduce parameter uncertainty. To reduce the costs associated with stream water sampling, it is important to choose sampling times with a high information content. We used the Birkenes model and synthetic rainfall, streamflow and isotope data to explore how many samples are needed to obtain a certain model fit and which sampling times are most informative for model calibration. Our results for nine model parameterizations and three events, representing different streamflow behaviours (e.g., fast and slow response, with and without overflow), show that the simulation performance of models calibrated with isotope data from two selected samples was comparable to simulations based on isotope data for all 100 time steps. Generally, samples taken on the falling limb were most informative for model calibration, although the exact timing of the most informative samples was dependent on the runoff response. Samples taken on the rising limb and at peakflow were less informative than expected. These model results highlight the value of a limited number of stream water samples and provide guidance for cost-effective event-based sampling strategies for model calibration.

  • 46.
    Westerberg, Ida K.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Gong, Lebing
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Beven, Keith J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Seibert, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Semedo, A.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Xu, Chong-Yu
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Halldin, Sven
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Luft-, vatten och landskapslära.
    Regional water balance modelling using flow-duration curves with observational uncertainties2014Inngår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 18, nr 8, s. 2993-3013Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust and reliable water-resource mapping in ungauged basins requires estimation of the uncertainties in the hydrologic model, the regionalisation method, and the observational data. In this study we investigated the use of regionalised flow-duration curves (FDCs) for constraining model predictive uncertainty, while accounting for all these uncertainty sources. A water balance model was applied to 36 basins in Central America using regionally and globally available precipitation, climate and discharge data that were screened for inconsistencies. A rating-curve analysis for 35 Honduran discharge stations was used to estimate discharge uncertainty for the region, and the consistency of the model forcing and evaluation data was analysed using two different screening methods. FDCs with uncertainty bounds were calculated for each basin, accounting for both discharge uncertainty and, in many cases, uncertainty stemming from the use of short time series, potentially not representative for the modelling period. These uncertain FDCs were then used to regionalise a FDC for each basin, treating it as ungauged in a cross-evaluation, and this regionalised FDC was used to constrain the uncertainty in the model predictions for the basin. There was a clear relationship between the performance of the local model calibration and the degree of data set consistency - with many basins with inconsistent data lacking behavioural simulations (i.e. simulations within predefined limits around the observed FDC) and the basins with the highest data set consistency also having the highest simulation reliability. For the basins where the regionalisation of the FDCs worked best, the uncertainty bounds for the regionalised simulations were only slightly wider than those for a local model calibration. The predicted uncertainty was greater for basins where the result of the FDC regionalisation was more uncertain, but the regionalised simulations still had a high reliability compared to the locally calibrated simulations and often encompassed them. The regionalised FDCs were found to be useful on their own as a basic signature constraint; however, additional regionalised signatures could further constrain the uncertainty in the predictions and may increase the robustness to severe data inconsistencies, which are difficult to detect for ungauged basins.

1 - 46 of 46
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf