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  • 1.
    Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Uppsala University.
    Halvarsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Virgós, Emilio
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
    Sign surveys for red fox (Vulpes vulpes) censuses: evaluating different sources of variation in scat detectabilityIn: Mammal Research, ISSN 2199-2401, E-ISSN 2199-241XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildlife monitoring is essential for assessing the size of species of conservation or management concern. Wildlife monitoring could be undertaken by selected volunteers when limited resources are available. Here, we study the sources of variation in the detectability of red fox scats and to improve the monitoring of the species by means of volunteers who were briefly trained. We selected nine transects to experimentally evaluate the differences in red fox scat detectability between observers, microsite, and scat abundance. Scats were deposited in five microsites, where we simulate low, medium, and high fox scat abundance. We tested the proposed effects by using GLMM analysis incorporating observer effect as a random factor. Our results indicated effects on scat detectability of observer identity and microsite type. We did not observe the effects of scat abundance on detectability of scats. Detectability was lower for scats located in the middle of the transect and on the rocks. We conclude that large-scale red foxes surveys might be conducted using volunteers, but due to the moderate differences detected among observers should be minimized using a training period.

  • 2.
    Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lattenkamp, Ella Z.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Dept Neurogenet Vocal Commun, Box 310, NL-6500 Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Luquet, Emilien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Claude Bernard Lyon I, CNRS, UMR 5023, LEHNA, 3-6 Rue Raphael Dubois,Batiments Darwin C & Forel, F-69622 Villeurbanne 43, France..
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Drift, selection, or migration?: Processes affecting genetic differentiation and variation along a latitudinal gradient in an amphibian2017In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, article id 189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Past events like fluctuations in population size and post-glacial colonization processes may influence the relative importance of genetic drift, migration and selection when determining the present day patterns of genetic variation. We disentangle how drift, selection and migration shape neutral and adaptive genetic variation in 12 moor frog populations along a 1700 km latitudinal gradient. We studied genetic differentiation and variation at a MHC exon II locus and a set of 18 microsatellites. Results: Using outlier analyses, we identified the MHC II exon 2 (corresponding to the beta-2 domain) locus and one microsatellite locus (RCO8640) to be subject to diversifying selection, while five microsatellite loci showed signals of stabilizing selection among populations. STRUCTURE and DAPC analyses on the neutral microsatellites assigned populations to a northern and a southern cluster, reflecting two different post-glacial colonization routes found in previous studies. Genetic variation overall was lower in the northern cluster. The signature of selection on MHC exon II was weaker in the northern cluster, possibly as a consequence of smaller and more fragmented populations. Conclusion: Our results show that historical demographic processes combined with selection and drift have led to a complex pattern of differentiation along the gradient where some loci are more divergent among populations than predicted from drift expectations due to diversifying selection, while other loci are more uniform among populations due to stabilizing selection. Importantly, both overall and MHC genetic variation are lower at northern latitudes. Due to lower evolutionary potential, the low genetic variation in northern populations may increase the risk of extinction when confronted with emerging pathogens and climate change.

  • 3.
    Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Uppsala University.
    Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Signatures of historical selection on MHC reveal different selection patterns in the moor frog (Rana arvalis)2018In: Immunogenetics, ISSN 0093-7711, E-ISSN 1432-1211, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 477-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MHC genes are key components in disease resistance and an excellent system for studying selection acting on genetic variation in natural populations. Current patterns of variation in MHC genes are likely to be influenced by past and ongoing selection as well as demographic fluctuations in population size such as those imposed by post-glacial recolonization processes. Here, we investigated signatures of historical selection and demography on an MHC class II gene in 12 moor frog populations along a 1700-km latitudinal gradient. Sequences were obtained from 207 individuals and consecutively assigned into two different clusters (northern and southern clusters, respectively) in concordance with a previously described dual post-glacial colonization route. Selection analyses comparing the relative rates of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) suggested evidence of different selection patterns in the northern and the southern clusters, with divergent selection prevailing in the south but uniform positive selection predominating in the north. Also, models of codon evolution revealed considerable differences in the strength of selection: The southern cluster appeared to be under strong selection while the northern cluster showed moderate signs of selection. Our results indicate that the MHC alleles in the north diverged from southern MHC alleles as a result of differential selection patterns.

  • 4.
    Höglund, Jacob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Jarnemo, Anders
    Thulin, Carl-Gustaf
    Genetic variation and structure in Scandinavian red deer (Cervus elaphus): influence of ancestry, past hunting, and restoration management2013In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 19th century, the red deer (Cervus elaphus) population in Sweden experienced a rapid decline in numbers and distribution. A small population was, however, remnant in the southernmost province (Skane) of the country, presumably corresponding to the nominate form of red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphusLinnaeus, 1758). After management, reintroductions, and supplementary release during the 20th century the Swedish C.elaphus population recovered. The recovery was partially uncontrolled, and included introductions of C.elaphus of continental origin. In northern central Sweden (Jamtland) the current C.elaphus population may stem from natural colonization from Norway and/or from specimens of Swedish origin that have escaped from enclosures. To evaluate the status of the current, partially separated populations, we investigated variation at microsatellite markers in 157 C.elaphus specimens from ten locations in Sweden and Norway. Analyses suggest that the highest-likelihood phylogenetic structure among the individuals sampled is described four distinct genetic clusters: (1) animals from the province of Vastergotland in south-western Sweden; (2) deer from the southernmost province of Skane; (3) deer from the provinces Jamtland, Blekinge, and Vastmanland; and (4) Norwegian deer. Cervus elaphus from a captive herd at the Skane Zoo cluster with deer from Skane or deer from Vastergotland, depending on the method of analysis. A number of populations in Sweden may genetically match the nominate form of red deer (C.e.elaphus). The recently established C.elaphus population in Jamtland seems to stem mainly from escapees from enclosures, with a mixed ancestry from the wild remnant population in Skane and continental deer, whereas the influx from Norway is minor, if any. Our results show the need for a detailed assessment of genetic differentiation, and emphasize the value of local management plans when planning and managing introductions.

  • 5.
    Lind, Martin I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Chen, Hwei-yen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rapamycin additively extends lifespan in short- and long-lived lines of the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei2017In: Experimental Gerontology, ISSN 0531-5565, E-ISSN 1873-6815, Vol. 90, p. 79-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite tremendous progress in finding genes that, when manipulated, affects lifespan, little is known about the genetics underlying natural variation in lifespan. While segregating genetic variants for lifespan has been notoriously difficult to find in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a complementary approach is to manipulate key genetic pathways in lines that differ in lifespan. If these candidate pathways are down regulated in long-lived lines, these lines can be predicted to respond less to pharmaceutical down-regulation of these pathways than short-lived lines. Experimental studies have identified the nutrient-sensing pathway TOR as a key regulator of lifespan in model organisms, and this pathway can effectively be down regulated using the drug rapamycin, which extends lifespan in all tested species. We expose short-and long-lived lines of the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei to rapamycin, and investigate if long-lived lines, which are hypothesized to already have down-regulated TOR signaling, respond less to rapamycin. We found no interaction between line and rapamycin treatment, since rapamycin extended lifespan independent of the intrinsic lifespan of the lines. This shows that rapamycin is equally effective on long and short-lived lines, and suggests that the evolution of long life may involve more factors that down-regulation of TOR.

  • 6.
    Mulder, Kevin P.
    et al.
    Smithsonian Conservat Biol Inst, Ctr Conservat Genom, Natl Zool Pk.;CIBIO InBIO, Res Ctr Biodivers & Genet Resources..
    Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Harris, D. James
    CIBIO InBIO, Res Ctr Biodivers & Genet Resources..
    Crottini, Angelica
    CIBIO InBIO, Res Ctr Biodivers & Genet Resources..
    Grant, Evan H. Campbell
    US Geol Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Res Ctr, SO Conte Anadromous Fish Res Lab..
    Fleischer, Robert C.
    Smithsonian Conservat Biol Inst, Ctr Conservat Genom, Natl Zool Pk..
    Savage, Anna E.
    Smithsonian Conservat Biol Inst, Ctr Conservat Genom, Natl Zool Pk.;Univ Cent Florida, Dept Biol..
    Evolutionary dynamics of an expressed MHC class IIβ beta locus in the Ranidae (Anura) uncovered by genome walking and high-throughput amplicon sequencing2017In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 76, p. 177-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a genomic region encoding immune loci that are important and frequently used markers in studies of adaptive genetic variation and "disease resistance. Given the primary role of infectious diseases in contributing to global amphibian declines, we characterized the hypervariable exon 2 and flanking introns of the MHC Class II beta chain for 17 species of frogs in the Ranidae, a speciose and cosmopolitan family facing widespread pathogen infections and declines. We find high levels of genetic variation concentrated in the Peptide Binding Region (PBR) of the exon. Ten codons are under positive selection, nine of which are located in the mammal-defined PBR. We hypothesize that the tenth codon (residue 21) is an amphibian-specific PBR site that may be important in disease resistance. Trans-species and trans-generic polymorphisms are evident from exon-based genealogies, and co-phylogenetic analyses between intron, exon and mitochondrial based reconstructions reveal incongruent topologies, likely due to different locus histories. We developed two sets of barcoded adapters that reliably amplify a single and likely functional locus in all screened species using both 454 and Illumina based sequencing methods. These primers provide a resource for multiplexing and directly sequencing hundreds of samples in a single sequencing run, avoiding the labour and chimeric sequences associated with cloning, and enabling MHC population genetic analyses. Although the primers are currently limited to the 17 species we tested, these sequences and protocols provide a useful genetic resource and can serve as a starting point for future disease, adaptation and conservation studies across a range of anuran taxa.

  • 7.
    Munoz-Fuentes, Violeta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Lozano-Jaramillo, M.
    Mccracken, K. G.
    Stepwise colonization of the Andes by Ruddy Ducks and the evolution of novel beta-globin variants2013In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 1231-1249Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Andean uplift played a key role in Neotropical bird diversification, yet past dispersal and genetic adaptation to high-altitude environments remain little understood. Here we use multilocus population genetics to study population history and historical demographic processes in the ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), a stiff-tailed diving duck comprising three subspecies distributed from Canada to Tierra del Fuego and inhabiting wetlands from sea level to 4500m in the Andes. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA, four autosomal introns and three haemoglobin genes (A, D, A) and used isolation-with-migration (IM) models to study gene flow between North America and South America, and between the tropical and southern Andes. Our analyses indicated that ruddy ducks dispersed first from North America to the tropical Andes, then from the tropical Andes to the southern Andes. While no nonsynonymous substitutions were found in either globin gene, three amino acid substitutions were observed in the A globin. Based on phylogenetic reconstruction and power analysis, the first A substitution, found in all Andean individuals, was acquired when ruddy ducks dispersed from low altitude in North America to high altitude in the tropical Andes, whereas the two additional substitutions occurred more recently, when ruddy ducks dispersed from high altitude in the tropical Andes to low altitude in the southern Andes. This stepwise colonization pattern accompanied by polarized A globin amino acid replacements suggest that ruddy ducks first acclimatized or adapted to the Andean highlands and then again to the lowlands. In addition, ruddy ducks colonized the Andean highlands via a less common route as compared to other waterbird species that colonized the Andes northwards from the southern cone of South America.

  • 8.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Söderquist, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada;Evolutionary Ecology Unit, Biology Department, Lund University, SE223-62 Lund, Sweden.
    Cortázar-Chinarro, María
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Lundgren, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Antagonistic natural and sexual selection on wing shape in a scrambling damselfly2016In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 1582-1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wings are a key trait underlying the evolutionary success of birds, bats, and insects. For over a century, researchers have studiedthe form and function of wings to understand the determinants of flight performance. However, to understand the evolutionof flight, we must comprehend not only how morphology affects performance, but also how morphology and performanceaffect fitness. Natural and sexual selection can either reinforce or oppose each other, but their role in flight evolution remainspoorly understood. Here, we show that wing shape is under antagonistic selection with regard to sexual and natural selectionin a scrambling damselfly. In a field setting, natural selection (survival) favored individuals with long and slender forewings andshort and broad hindwings. In contrast, sexual selection (mating success) favored individuals with short and broad forewings andnarrow-based hindwings. Both types of selection favored individuals of intermediate size. These results suggest that individualsface a trade-off between flight energetics and maneuverability and demonstrate how natural and sexual selection can operate insimilar directions for some wing traits, that is, wing size, but antagonistically for others, that is, wing shape. Furthermore, theyhighlight the need to study flight evolution within the context of species’ mating systems and mating behaviors.

  • 9.
    Zwoinska, Martyna K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ramsden, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Selection on learning performance results in the correlated evolution of sexual dimorphism in life history2016In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 342-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of learning can be constrained by trade-offs. As male and female life histories often diverge, the relationship between learning and fitness may differ between the sexes. However, because sexes share much of their genome, intersexual genetic correlations can prevent males and females from reaching their sex-specific optima resulting in intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC). To investigate if IaSC constraints sex-specific evolution of learning, we selected Caenorhabditis remanei nematode females for increased or decreased olfactory learning performance and measured learning, life span (in mated and virgin worms), reproduction, and locomotory activity in both sexes. Males from downward-selected female lines had higher locomotory activity and longer virgin life span but sired fewer progeny than males from upward-selected female lines. In contrast, we found no effect of selection on female reproduction and downward-selected females showed higher locomotory activity but lived shorter as virgins than upward-selected females. Strikingly, selection on learning performance led to the reversal of sexual dimorphism in virgin life span. We thus show sex-specific trade-offs between learning, reproduction, and life span. Our results support the hypothesis that selection on learning performance can shape the evolution of sexually dimorphic life histories via sex-specific genetic correlations.

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