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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Mohd Riduan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Mohd Esa, Mona Riza Binti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Preliminary Observations of Lightning Signature At 2400 MHz in Sweden Thunderstorm2012In: / [ed] BinSulaiman, HA; Jaafar, A, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2012, p. 88-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a preliminary observation of lightning signature at 2400 MHz. We believe this is the first time such observation was made in such frequency band. One positive ground discharge and one cloud discharge waveforms have been selected from a collection of waveforms recorded using fast and slow broadband antenna systems. In addition, waveforms recorded directly from 2400 MHz whip antenna associated with the selected ground and cloud discharges waveforms were observed. The measurements were carried out in Uppsala, Sweden in July 2012. We discovered a possible lightning signature at 2400 MHz with the existence of bursts of pulses happened to occur simultaneously with preliminary breakdown, negative return stroke and cloud pulses. These bursts of pulses possibly interfered in some ways with the transmitted bits leading to higher recorded error bits during the thunderstorm.

  • 2.
    Ahmad, Mohd Riduan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Mohd Esa, Mona Riza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Baharudin, Zikri Abadi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Latitude Dependence of Narrow Bipolar Pulse Emissions2015In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 128, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahmad, Mohd Riduan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Mohd Esa, Mona Riza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Baharudin, Zikri Abadi
    Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.
    Electric Field Signature of Narrow Bipolar Pulse Observed in Sweden2014In: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Arevalo, Liliana
    et al.
    Wu, Dong
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lobato, André
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Wooi, Chin-Leong
    The leader propagation velocity in long air gaps2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Baharudin, Zikri Abadi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Ahmad, Noor Azlinda
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Electric field changes generated by preliminary breakdown pulse for positive lightning ground flashes in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the new study of the electric field changes generated by the preliminary breakdown for positive cloud-to-ground flashes which concerning on the association of slow field changes in preliminary breakdown process. In this study, a 107 positive cloud-to-ground lightning flashes recorded from the total of 14 thunderstorms generated by the whole flash were examined. The electric fields were measured with nanosecond resolution by using the slow electric field, fast electric field and narrowband radiation field at 3 and 30 MHz signals simultaneously. Our result shows that there is a pre-starting time, i.e. the duration between the first preliminary breakdown pulse and slow field changes starting point, which is found to be after the first preliminary breakdown pulse. The pre-starting time has the arithmetic mean – 3.0 ms and geometric mean – 1.8 ms, ranging from 0.3 to 21.7 ms. This study is consistent with the latest finding for the slow field changes in negative ground flashes where the slow field changes never start before the preliminary breakdown process.

  • 6.
    Baharudin, Zikri Abadi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ahmad, Noor Azlinda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    On the characteristics of positive lightning ground flashes in Sweden2016In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 138, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the stroke characteristics of positive cloud-to-ground flashes in Sweden were obtained from the electric field records measured from 14 thunderstorms. The electric fields were measured with nanosecond resolution. Together with the fast and the slow electric field records, the narrowband radiation field at 3 and 30 MHz signals were also measured simultaneously. Out of a total of 107 flashes, 30 flashes had two strokes, 7 had three strokes and 3 flashes had four strokes. The arithmetic and geometric means of the interstroke intervals were found to be 116 and 70 ms, respectively. The arithmetic and geometric mean ratio between the peak electric field of the Subsequent Return Stroke (SRS) and the first Return Stroke (RS) were 0.48 and 0.36, respectively. Of the 40 positive multiple-stroke ground flashes, 5% have at least one SRS with field peak higher than the first RS. The percentage of SRS with field peaks greater than the first RS was 6%. In our best of our knowledge, this is the first time a large sample of positive return strokes in Sweden was analysed. It was found to be statistically more significant than the previous studies.

  • 7. Chandimal, Lasantha
    et al.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Nanayakkara, Sankha
    Sapumanage, Nilantha
    Fernando, Mahendra
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Impedance behaviour of earth enhancing compound under lightning transient conditions2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Cooray, Vernon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Gerald
    Basic electromagnetic theory - a summary2012In: Lightning Electromagnetics / [ed] Vernon Cooray, The Institution of Engineering and Technology , 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this chapter is to provide a summary of the basic concepts of electro- magnetic theory as a complement to the subject matter, most of which is related to electromagnetism, discussed in this book. The chapter covers only the concepts that are necessary to understand the electromagnetics of lightning flashes.

  • 9.
    Diaz, Oscar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Vayanganie, S P A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Experimental study of leader tortuosity and velocity in long rod-plane air discharges2016In: IEEE transactions on dielectrics and electrical insulation, ISSN 1070-9878, E-ISSN 1558-4135, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 806-812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long air gap electrical discharges are of particular interest among scientists and engineers working on high voltage techniques and lightning research. In the present work we report experimental results obtained while testing a long rod-plane air gap with positive switching-like voltage impulses to study the velocity and tortuous progression of the leader discharge. Voltage and current waveforms were recorded. Two still digital cameras were used to track the leader tortuous path. By using a fast digital camera, the leader temporal evolution was recorded and its propagation velocity was estimated. Three angles were used to describe the leader tortuous progression.

  • 10.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Measurements of X-Ray Emission from Laboratory Sparks and Upward Initiated Lightning2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1925 Nobel laureate R. C. Wilson predicted that high electric fields of thunderstorms could accelerate electrons to relativistic energies which are capable of generating high energetic radiation. The first detection of X-rays from lightning was made in 2001 and from long sparks in 2005. Still there are gaps in our knowledge concerning the production of X-rays from lightning and long sparks, and the motivation of this thesis was to rectify this situation by performing new experiments to gather data in this subject.

    The first problem that we addressed in this thesis was to understand how the electrode geometry influences the generation of X-rays. The results showed that the electrode geometry affects the X-ray generation and this dependency could be explained using a model developed previously by scientists at Uppsala University. The other missing information was the distribution of energy. Using a series of attenuators, we observed how the X-ray photons were attenuated as a function of barrier thickness and using a simple model we obtained the average and the maximum energy of X-rays. 

    All the studies conducted previously was based on the lightning impulses, but in switching impulses, the voltage waveform rises very slowly compared to lightning impulses, and according to some scientists the rate of rise is an important parameter in X-ray development. Our study showed that the switching impulses were as efficient as lightning impulses in generating X-rays even though the rate of rise of voltage in switching impulses was hundreds of times slower.

    All the observations on X-ray generation from lightning by other scientists were based on either natural downward lightning flashes or triggered lightning in Florida. The first experiments to study the X-ray generation from upward lightning flashes systematically was conducted within this thesis work at Gaisberg Tower in Austria. The results showed that the X-ray emissions from these flashes were much weaker than the ones produced by either natural downward or triggered lightning. An attempt was made to explain this observation by invoking the possible differences in the charge distribution of leaders associated with the triggered lightning flashes in Florida and upward initiated lightning flashes at Gaisberg tower.

  • 11.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Diendorfer, Gerhard
    OVE Service GmbH, Kahlenberger Straße 2A, 1190 Vienna, Austria.
    Pichler, Hannes
    OVE Service GmbH, Kahlenberger Straße 2A, 1190 Vienna, Austria.
    Dwyer, Joseph
    Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Morse Hall 309, 8 College Road, Durham, NH 03824, USA.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    X-ray observations at Gaisberg Tower2018In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the occurrence of X-rays at ground level due to cloud-to-ground flashes of upward initiated lightning from Gaisberg Tower in Austria which is located at a 1300 m altitude.  This is the first time that the X-rays from upward lightning from a tower top located in high altitude is observed. Measurement was carried out using scintillation detectors installed close to the tower top in two phases from 2011 to 2015. X-rays were recorded in three subsequent strokes of three flashes out of the total of 108 flashes recorded in the system during both phases. In contrast to the observations from downward natural or triggered lightning, X-rays were observed only within 10 µs before the subsequent return stroke. This shows that X-rays were emitted when the dart leader is in the vicinity of the tower top and hence during the most intense phase of the dart leader. Both the detected energy and the fluence of X-rays are far lower compared to X-rays from downward natural or rocket-triggered lightning. In addition to above 108 flashes, an interesting observation of X-rays produced by a nearby downward flash is also presented. The shorter dart-leader channels length in Gaisberg is suggested as a possible cause of this apparently weaker X-ray production.

  • 12.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Dwyer, Joseph
    Energy Distribution of X-rays Produced by Meter-long Negative Discharges in Air2017In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy deposited from X-rays generated by 1 m long laboratory sparks in air created by 950 kV negative lightning impulses on scintillated detectors was measured. Assuming the X-ray energy detected in such sparks results from the accumulation of multiple photons at the detector having a certain energy distribution, an experiment was designed in such a way to characterize their distribution parameters. The detector was screened by a copper shield, and eight series of fifteen impulses were applied by stepwise increasing the copper shield thickness. The average deposited energy was calculated in each series and compared with the results from a model consisting of the attenuation of photons along their path and probable photon distributions. The results show that the energy distribution of X-ray bursts can be approximated by a bremsstrahlung spectrum of photons, having a maximum energy of 200 keV to 250 keV and a mean photon energy around 52 keV to 55 keV.

  • 13.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lobato, André
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Time Domain Analysis of the Lightning Interaction with Wave Energy Converters2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    X-rays from long laboratory sparks: Influence of the anode geometry2014In: International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity ICAE 2014, Norman, OK, U.S.A., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Dwyer, Joseph
    Univ New Hampshire, Inst Study Earth Oceans & Space, Morse Hall,8 Coll Rd, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    X-rays from negative laboratory sparks in air: Influence of the anode geometry2017In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 154, p. 190-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this experimental work, the influence of the grounded anode geometry is studied on the X-ray production from the laboratory sparks in air at atmospheric pressure when a negative impulse voltage is applied to a high voltage rod which served as a cathode. The result shows that the smaller the diameter of the anode, the higher the energy of X-ray bursts. This observation can be explained by the mechanism that the encounter of negative and positive streamer fronts just before the final breakdown is the event that accelerates electrons to X-ray generating energies, but may not be the only mechanism that generates X-rays.

  • 16.
    Ismail, M. M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Sharma, S. R.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Johari, D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    HF and VHF electric field radiation produced by preliminary breakdown process pertinent to Swedish thunderstorms2015In: 2015 Asia-Pacific International Conference on Lightning (APL), Nagoya, Japan, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ismail, Mohd Muzafar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Univ Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Fac Elect & Comp Engn, Telecommun Engn, Durian Tunggal 76100, Malacca, Malaysia..
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fernando, Mahendra
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo 03, Sri Lanka..
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Johari, Dalina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Univ Teknol Malaysia, Ctr Power Elect Engn Studies, Fac Elect Engn, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia..
    On the possible origin of chaotic pulse trains in lightning flashes2017In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, electromagnetic field radiation bursts known as chaotic pulse trains (CPTs) and regular pulse trains (RPTs) generated by lightning flashes were analyzed. Through a numerical analysis it was found that a typical CPT could be generated by superimposing several RPTs onto each other. It is suggested that the chaotic pulse trains are created by a superposition of several regular pulse trains. Since regular pulse trains are probably created by dart or dart-stepped leaders or K-changes inside the cloud, chaotic pulse trains are caused by the superposition of electric fields caused by more than one of these leaders or K-changes propagating simultaneously. The hypothesis is supported by the fact that one can find regular pulse trains either in the beginning, middle or later stages of chaotic pulse trains.

  • 18.
    Ismail, Mohd Muzafar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Sharma, Shriram
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Johari, Dalina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Electric field signatures in wideband, 3 MHz and 30 MHz of negative ground flashes pertinent to Swedish thunderstorms2015In: Atmosphere, ISSN EISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 1904-1925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the electric field signatures of negative ground flashes pertinent to the Swedish thunderstorms were recorded simultaneously during the summer of 2014 using wide (up to 100 MHz) and narrow (at 3 MHz and 30 MHz as central frequencies) bandwidth antenna systems. The electric field signatures were recorded for a time duration of 250 ms. In the analysis, the whole flash was considered and a total of 98 flashes were chosen where electric field signatures of all wideband, 3 MHz and 30 MHz signals were present. It is observed that preliminary breakdown pulses are stronger radiators at 3 and 30 MHz compared to the return strokes. A comparison of our results with those of the previous studies obtained from different geographical regions clearly shows that the strength of preliminary breakdown pulses is higher in the temperate region (Sweden for instance) and is a function of latitude.

  • 19.
    Ismail, Muzafar M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. FKEKK Univ Tekn Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal, Malaysia.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fernando, M.
    Univ Colombo, Dept Phys, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka.
    Johari, Dalina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. FKE Univ Teknol Mara, Shah Alam, Malaysia.
    On the possible origin of chaotic pulse trains in lightning flashes2015In: 2015 International Symposium on Lightning Protection (XIII SIPDA), Balneário Camboriú, Brazil, 28th Sept. – 2nd Oct. 2015., 2015, p. 409-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    it is suggested that the chaotic pulse trains observed in lightning flashes are created as a result of the superposition of several regular pulse bursts produced by dart leader type discharge processes in the cloud. The similarity between the individual pulses in both chaotic and regular pulse bursts strengthen this suggestion.

  • 20.
    Johari, Dalina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Univ Teknol MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ismail, Mohd Muzafar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Univ Tekn Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal, Malaysia.
    Some characteristics of leader pulses in positive cloud-to-ground flashes2015In: 2015 International Symposium On Lightning Protection (Xiii SIPDA), 2015, p. 283-287Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to negative ground flashes, not much is known about the characteristics of leaders in positive ground flashes. This paper presents some characteristics of the electric field pulses observed during leader propagation in positive ground flashes. We analyzed in detail the electric field changes produced by 50 positive ground flashes during 2014 summer thunderstorms in Uppsala, Sweden. Pronounced leader pulses were observed in 22% of the cases. They were observed to occur 1.4 ms or less before the first return stroke. Interpulse duration ranged from 13.3-50.3 mu s with a mean value of 24.7 mu s. The largest relative amplitude ranged from 2.7-17.8 % of the return stroke peak. No dependence of the pulses occurrence were observed with distance. However, the relative amplitude were found to decrease with distance. The presence of these pulses suggests that the leaders propagate in a stepped manner. One case of positive ground flashes preceded by negative polarity pulses just before the return stroke is also reported.

  • 21.
    Johari, Dalina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Centre for Electrical Power Engineering Studies, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ismail, Mohd Muzafar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Faculty of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Telecommunication Engineering Department, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Malacca, Malaysia.
    Characteristics of leader pulses in positive ground flashes in Sweden2017In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 153, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the characteristics of the electric field pulses observed during leader propagation in positive ground flashes. We analysed in detail the electric field changes occurring just before the first return stroke in 51 positive ground flashes during 2014 summer thunderstorms in Uppsala, Sweden. Pronounced leader pulses (having the same polarity as the return stroke) were observed in 22% of the cases. They were observed to occur within 1.4 ms before the first return stroke. Interpulse duration ranged from 13.3 to 50.3 μs with a mean value of 24.7 μs. The peak amplitude of the leader pulses relative to the return stroke peak ranged from 2.7 to 17.8%. The presence of these pulses shows that the leaders propagate in a stepped manner. Based on the leader pulses’ time of initiation and average speed of the leader, the distance travelled by the leader was also estimated. One case of positive ground flash preceded by opposite polarity leader pulses just before the return stroke is also reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such a case in positive ground flashes is reported. We suggest that these opposite polarity leader pulses are due to the negatively-charged leader branch of a bi-directional leader inside the cloud that propagates towards observation point.

  • 22.
    Johari, Dalina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Univ Teknol Mara, Fac Elect Engn, Ctr Elect Power Engn Studies, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ismail, Mohd Muzafar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Univ Tekn Malaysia Melaka, Fac Elect & Comp Engn, Telecommun Engn Dept, Durian Tunggal 76100, Malacca, Malaysia.
    Features of the First and Subsequent Return Strokes in Positive Ground Flashes based on Electric Field Measurements2017In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 150, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the characteristics of the electric fields produced by the first and the subsequent return strokes observed in positive ground flashes in Sweden. Fifty one positive ground flashes containing 60 return strokes recorded during 2014 summer thunderstorms were analyzed. In our analysis, only 12% of the cases were multiple-stroke while 88% were single-stroke. On average, the number of strokes per flash was 1.20 and the highest number of strokes per flash recorded was four. The geometric mean (GM) value of the interstroke interval was 60 ms while the distance between the first and the subsequent strokes ranged between 4.9 and 46.4km. We found that the average duration of the subsequent strokes parameters were smaller than that of the first strokes. For the first strokes, the GM values of the slow front duration, the fast transition 10-to-90% risetime, the zero crossing time, the zero-to-peak risetime and the 10-to-90% risetime were 8.7 mu s, 1.4 mu s, 29 mu s, 11 mu s and 5.7 mu s, respectively while for the subsequent strokes, the values were 4.0 mu s 0.91 mu s, 11 mu s 5.8 mu s and 3.2 mu s, respectively. Possible reasons for the shorter duration of the subsequent return strokes parameters were discussed.

  • 23.
    Johari, Dalina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Univ Teknol Mara, Fac Elect Engn, Ctr Power Elect Engn Studies, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ismail, Muzafar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Univ Tekn Malaysia Melaka, Fac Elect & Comp Engn, Telecommun Engn Dept, Durian Tunggal 76100, Malacca, Malaysia.
    Characteristics of preliminary breakdown pulses in positive ground flashes during summer thunderstorms in Sweden2016In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the characteristics of the preliminary breakdown pulses (PBP) in 51 positive ground flashes recorded during 2014 summer thunderstorms in Sweden. Electric field measurements were conducted remotely using a broadband antenna system (up to 100 MHz) for a recording length of 1 s with 200 ms trigger time. In the analysis, PBP trains were observed in 86% of the cases. Based on the number of trains preceding the first return stroke, the PBP were classified into single and multiple train PBP. Characteristics of the first PBP train were determined and based on the initial polarity of the pulses, three types of PBP were identified. Characteristics of the subsequent PBP trains in the multiple train PBP were also analyzed and they were compared with the first PBP train. Based on the conceptual charge cloud configuration, we found that the inverted dipole is consistent with our observation. We also found that PBP in positive ground flashes during summer thunderstorms in Sweden are weak since the average ratios of the PBP peak to the first return stroke peak lie only between 0.21 and 0.26. Possible reasons for no detection of PBP and the different types of PBP observed were also discussed.

  • 24.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Dwyer, Joseph
    Rakov, Vladimir
    Rassoul, Hamid
    Observations of X-rays from Laboratory Sparks in Air at Atmospheric Pressure under Negative Switching Impulse Voltages2019In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present observations of X-rays from laboratory sparks created in the air at atmospheric pressure by applying an impulse voltage with long (250 µs) rise-time. X-ray production in 35 and 46 cm gaps for three different electrode configurations was studied. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the production of X-rays in gaps subjected to switching impulses. The low rate of rise of the voltage in switching impulses does not significantly reduce the production of X-rays. Additionally, the timing of the X-ray occurrence suggests the possibility that the mechanism of X-ray production by sparks is related to the collision of streamers of opposite polarity.

  • 25. Saba, Marcelo
    et al.
    Naccarato, Kleber
    de Paiva, Amanda R
    Schumann, Carina
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Diendorfer, Gerhard
    Piantini, Alexandre
    de Oliveira e Silva, José Claudio
    Ferro, Marco A S
    Custodio, Diogo Machado
    The study of lightning strikes to common buildings in Brazil2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of what is known about the electric current of downward flashes and striking distance of lightning protection systems come from information gathered on tall towers. There are no observational data of lightning attachment to common structures or buildings (under 60 m) that are present in almost every city. In order to study lightning strikes to common buildings, several instruments were installed in and around two identical buildings located in São Paulo city, Brazil. This paper describes the setup of electric field sensors, current transformers, X-ray sensors, high-speed video and standard video cameras. Some of the data already obtained in its first two months of operation are also shown.

  • 26. Sapumanage, Nilantha
    et al.
    Nanayakkara, Sankha
    Abeygunawardena, Sidath
    Chandimal, Lasantha
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fernando, Mahendra
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Study on responses of SPDs against the transient voltages generated by CG flashes2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27. Vayanganie, S.P.A.
    et al.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Diaz, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fernando, M.
    On the occurrence of ‘bead lightning’ phenomena in long laboratory sparks2016In: Physics Letters A, ISSN 0375-9601, E-ISSN 1873-2429, Vol. 380, no 7-8, p. 816-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of bead lightning, where the lightning channel appears to break up into luminous fragments, is still an object of speculation. Here we report similar observations in laboratory discharges. Analysis of time resolved photographs shows that the discharge channel exhibits a 'bead pattern' in the decaying stage of the discharge and the occurrence of loops in the channel sections where the bead pattern is observed. This result presents the first evidence that the rapid cooling of non-uniform channel sections could lead to the formation of beads. It is suggested that periodically occurring non-uniform channel sections could explain the bead pattern of lightning discharges.

1 - 27 of 27
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