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  • 1.
    Chen, Jun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Li, Lili
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Milesi, Pascal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Forestry Res Inst Sweden Skogforsk, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berlin, Mats
    Forestry Res Inst Sweden Skogforsk, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bo
    Forestry Res Inst Sweden Skogforsk, Ekebo, Sweden.
    Aleksic, Jelena
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Mol Genet & Genet Engn, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Vendramin, Giovanni G.
    CNR, Natl Res Council IBBR, Div Florence, Inst Biosci & BioResources, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Genomic data provide new insights on the demographic history and the extent of recent material transfers in Norway spruce2019In: Evolutionary Applications, ISSN 1752-4571, E-ISSN 1752-4571, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 1539-1551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primeval forests are today exceedingly rare in Europe, and transfer of forest reproductive material for afforestation and improvement has been very common, especially over the last two centuries. This can be a serious impediment when inferring past population movements in response to past climate changes such as the last glacial maximum (LGM), some 18,000 years ago. In the present study, we genotyped 1,672 individuals from three Picea species (P. abies, P. obovata, and P. omorika) at 400K SNPs using exome capture to infer the past demographic history of Norway spruce (P. abies) and estimate the amount of recent introduction used to establish the Norway spruce breeding program in southern Sweden. Most of these trees belong to P. abies and originate from the base populations of the Swedish breeding program. Others originate from populations across the natural ranges of the three species. Of the 1,499 individuals stemming from the breeding program, a large proportion corresponds to recent introductions from mainland Europe. The split of P. omorika occurred 23 million years ago (mya), while the divergence between P. obovata and P. abies began 17.6 mya. Demographic inferences retrieved the same main clusters within P. abies than previous studies, that is, a vast northern domain ranging from Norway to central Russia, where the species is progressively replaced by Siberian spruce (P. obovata) and two smaller domains, an Alpine domain and a Carpathian one, but also revealed further subdivision and gene flow among clusters. The three main domains divergence was ancient (15 mya), and all three went through a bottleneck corresponding to the LGM. Approximately 17% of P. abies Nordic domain migrated from P. obovata ~103K years ago, when both species had much larger effective population sizes. Our analysis of genomewide polymorphism data thus revealed the complex demographic history of Picea genus in Western Europe and highlighted the importance of material transfer in Swedish breeding program.

  • 2.
    Li, Lili
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Chen, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Clinal variation in growth cessation and FTL2 expression in Siberian spruce2019In: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, Vol. 15, no 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest trees exhibit strong patterns of local adaptation in phenological traits along latitudinal gradients. Previous studies in spruce have shown that variation at genes from the photoperiodic pathway and the circadian clock are associated to these clines but it has been difficult to find solid evidence of selection for some of these genes. Here, we used growth cessation, gene expression, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data at two major candidate loci, FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER1-Like2 (FTL2) and GIGANTEA (GI), as well as at background loci from a latitudinal gradient in Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) populations along the Ob River to test for clinal variation in growth cessation and at the two candidate genes. As in previous studies, there was a strong latitudinal cline in growth cessation that was accompanied by a significant cline in the expression of FTL2. Expression of FTL2 was significantly associated with allele frequencies at some of the GI’s SNPs. However, the cline in allele frequency at candidate genes was not as steep as in a Norway spruce cline and in a parallel Siberian spruce cline studied previously and nonsignificant when a correction for population structure was applied. A McDonald-Kreitman test did not detect decisive evidence of selection on GI (p value = 0.07) and could not be applied to FTL2 because of limited polymorphism. Nonetheless, polymorphisms contributed more to the increased neutrality index of PoGI than to that of control loci. Finally, comparing the results of two previously published studies to our new dataset led to the identification of strong candidate SNPs for local adaptation in FTL2 promoter and GI.

  • 3.
    Milesi, Pascal
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Berlin, Mats
    The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Chen, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Orsucci, Marion
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Li, Lili
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bo
    The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Ekebo, Sweden.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Assessing the potential for assisted gene flow using past introduction of Norway spruce in southern Sweden: Local adaptation and genetic basis of quantitative traits in trees2019In: Evolutionary Applications, ISSN 1752-4571, E-ISSN 1752-4571, Vol. 12, no 10, p. 1946-1959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a dominant conifer species of major economic importance in northern Europe. Extensive breeding programs were established to improve phenotypic traits of economic interest. In southern Sweden, seeds used to create progeny tests were collected on about 3,000 trees of outstanding phenotype (‘plus’ trees) across the region. In a companion paper, we showed that some were of local origin but many were recent introductions from the rest of the natural range. The mixed origin of the trees together with partial sequencing of the exome of >1,500 of these trees and phenotypic data retrieved from the Swedish breeding program offered a unique opportunity to dissect the genetic basis of local adaptation of three quantitative traits (height, diameter and bud-burst) and assess the potential of assisted gene flow. Through a combination of multivariate analyses and genome-wide association studies, we showed that there was a very strong effect of geographical origin on growth (height and diameter) and phenology (bud-burst) with trees from southern origins outperforming local provenances. Association studies revealed that growth traits were highly polygenic and bud-burst somewhat less. Hence, our results suggest that assisted gene flow and genomic selection approaches could help to alleviate the effect of climate change on P. abies breeding programs in Sweden.

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