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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Abubeker
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Utvärdering av gummiasfalt: provväg E22 Mönsterås : etapp 12019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory and filed investigations have been carried out to evaluate the performance of rubber modified asphalt test road on E22 Mönsterås.

    The laboratory investigations indicated that there are no significant differences in stiffness and shear modulus between the reference and rubber modified mixtures. The rubber modified mixture however showed slightly lower phase angle compared to the reference mixture which indicate that the rubber modified mixture is more elastic. The rubber modified mixtures also showed lower modulus at lower temperatures and slightly higher modulus at higher temperature which are desired properties for resistance against low temperature cracking and permanent deformation respectively. The fatigue tests indicated that the rubber modified asphalt mixture has slightly better fatigue cracking performance. But the difference is not significant.

    The road surface profile measurements indicated no significant differences between the reference and asphalt rubber sections. It is however early to draw conclusions after one year of traffic therefore additional follow-up of the test sections is needed to draw a conclusion.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Abubeker
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Full scale accelerated pavement tests to evaluate the performance of permeable and skeletal soil block pavement systems2016In: The Roles of Accelerated Pavement Testing in Pavement Sustainability: Engineering, Environment, and Economics, Springer International Publishing , 2016, p. 131-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing proportion of paved surface due to urbanization means that the conditions for urban trees and vegetation to survive have deteriorated. Factors such as air pollution, poor drainage, and the lack of usable soil for root growth contribute to the short life expectancy of urban trees. To meet this challenge, several permeable and "structural" or "skeletal soils" have been developed as alternatives to the typical compacted soil required to bear the weight of vehicular traffic in urban areas. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the resistance to permanent deformation of permeable and skeletal soil pavement structures based on full scale accelerated pavement tests (APT) using a heavy vehicle simulator (HVS). Interlocking paving stones of various types were used as permeable surface layer for the test structures. The results demonstrated that the permeable test structures exhibited higher permanent deformation than the corresponding impervious structures. The skeletal soil with bituminous base layer, however, produced performance comparable to the impervious reference test structures.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. KTH.
    Mechanistic-Empirical Modelling of Flexible Pavement Performance: Verifications Using APT Measurements2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic-Empirical  (M-E)  pavement  design  procedures  are  composed  of  a  reliable  response model to estimate the state of stress in the pavement and distress models in order to predict the different types of pavement distresses due to the prevailing traffic and environmental conditions. One of the main objectives of this study was to develop a response model based on multilayer elastic  theory   (MLET)  with  improved  computational  performance  by   optimizing  the   time consuming parts of the MLET processes. A comprehensive comparison of the developed program with  two  widely  used  programs  demonstrated  excellent  agreement  and  improved  computational performance.  Moreover,  the  program  was  extended  to  incorporate  the  viscoelastic  behaviour  of bituminous materials through elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. A procedure based on collocation of linear viscoelastic (LVE) solutions at selected key time durations was also proposed that improved the computational performance for LVE analysis of stationary and moving loads. A comparison  of  the  LVE  responses  with  measurements  from  accelerated  pavement  testing  (APT) revealed a good agreement. Furthermore the developed response model was employed to evaluate permanent deformation models  for  bound  and  unbound  granular  materials  (UGMs)  using  full  scale  APTs.  The  M-E Pavement  Design  Guide  (MEPDG)  model  for  UGMs  and  two  relatively  new  models  were evaluated  to  model  the  permanent  deformation  in  UGMs.  Moreover,  for  bound  materials,  the simplified  form  of  the  MEPDG  model  for  bituminous  bound  layers  was  also  evaluated.  The measured  and  predicted  permanent  deformations  were  in  general  in  good  agreement,  with  only small discrepancies between the models. Finally, as heavy traffic loading is one of the main factors affecting the performance of flexible pavement, three types of characterizations for heavy traffic axle load spectrum for M-E analysis and design of pavement structures were evaluated. The study recommended an improved approach that enhanced the accuracy and computational performance.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Biligiri, Krishna Prapoorna
    Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur .
    Hakim, Hassan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    An Algorithm to Estimate Rational Values of Phase Angles and Moduli of Asphalt Mixtures2013In: International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology (IJPRT), ISSN ISSN 1997-1400, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 745-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an algorithm based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) that can calculate rational values of phase angle (f) and moduli of the variants of asphalt mixtures for the data obtained from the different frequency sweep tests. f and moduli for ten different asphalt mixtures resulting in over 690 data points collected from both USA and Sweden were computed using FFT. Theoretical observations revealed that there were significant differences for f between FFT and other methods to the order of 10-50%; however, there was no difference in moduli estimates for any mix and was independent of the test. Precisely, the FFT method produced rational f for mixtures that deviate from conventional mixture properties. Furthermore, statistical comparisons corroborated the predicted f estimates indicative of significant differences between the analysis techniques; but, the moduli were unaffected by the analysis methods. The study successfully illustrated the FFT technique, a user-friendly analytical procedure that can obviate the errors in the rational estimation of the acutely sensitive viscoelastic parameters.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Characterization of heavy traffic axle load spectra for mechanistic-empirical pavement design applications2015In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 488-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Heavy traffic axle load spectrum (ALS) is  one of the key inputs for mechanistic-empirical analysis and design of pavement structures. Frequently, the entire ALS is aggregated into Equivalent Number of Single Axle Loads (ESAL) or assumed to have Constant Contact  Area  (CCA)  or  Constant  Contact  Pressure  (CCP).  These characterizations affect the accuracy and computational performance of the pavement analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate these  characterizations  based  on  predicted  performances  to  rutting and fatigue cracking of several pavement structures subjected to ALS data collected from 12 Bridge-Weigh-In-Motion stations. The results indicated  that  for  layers  below  the  top  25  cm,  all  characterizations produced similar values of predicted rutting. However, for the top 25 cm, the methods differed in the predicted performances to rutting and fatigue cracking. Furthermore an improvement to the CCA approach was proposed that enhanced the accuracy while maintaining the same level of computational performance.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Evaluation of a permanent deformation model for asphalt concrete mixtures using extra-large wheel-tracking and heavy vehicle simulator tests2015In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 154-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates a mechanistic–empirical permanent strain model for asphalt concrete mixtures. The evaluation was carried out based on two different types of tests: an extra-large wheel-tracking (ELWT) test and a full-scale accelerated pavement test using a heavy vehicle simulator (HVS). Asphalt slabs from three different types of asphalt mixtures were prepared for the ELWT test and tested at several pavement temperatures and tyre inflation pressures. Lateral wandering was also incorporated.

    The measured permanent deformations in the asphalt slabs were thereafter modelled using the permanent strain model from the US Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide and model parameters were estimated for the three types of mixes. For validation, data from an HVS tested pavement structure consisting of the same asphalt mixtures as those tested using the ELWT were used. A set of calibration factors for the three mixtures were therefore obtained between the two tests. In all cases, the calibration factors were within ±20% from unity. Differences in geometry, scale, wheel loading configuration as well as the speed of loading between the two test devices could be the possible reasons for the differences in observed calibration factors.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Evaluation of permanent deformation model for asphalt concrete mixtures by means of extra-large wheel tracking and full scale accelerated pavement testsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Evaluation of permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials using accelerated pavement tests2013In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 178-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic-empirical (M-E) pavement design methods have become the focus of modern pavement design procedure. One of the main distresses that M-E design methods attempt to control is permanent deformation (rutting). The objective of this paper is to evaluate three M-E permanent deformation models for unbound granular materials, one from the US M-E pavement design guide and two other relatively new models. Two series of heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) tests with three different types of base material were used for this purpose. The permanent deformation, wheel loading, pavement temperature, and other material properties were continuously controlled during the HVS tests. Asphalt concrete layers were considered as linear elastic where stress-dependent behaviour of unbound materials was considered when computing responses for the M-E permanent deformation models with a nonlinear elastic response model. Traffic wandering was also accounted for in modelling the traffic by assuming it was normally distributed and a time-hardening approach was applied to add together the permanent deformation contributions from different stress levels. The measured and predicted permanent deformations are in general in good agreement with only small discrepancies between the models. Model parameters were also estimated for three different types of material.

  • 9.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Mechanistic modelling of HVS flexible pavement structure2012In: EPAM 2012: Malmö, Sweden, 5–7 September: 4th European pavement and asset management conference, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2012, , p. 13Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A response model to be employed in a mechanistic-empirical pavement performance prediction model based on multilayer elastic theory has been developed. An iterative approach using a method of successive over-relaxation of stress dependency model is used to account for the nonlinear behaviour of unbound materials. Asphalt and subgrade materials are assumed as linear elastic. The response model is verified using heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) response measurements made under variety of wheel load configurations and at different pavement temperatures. The permanent deformation behaviours of the HVS structure is also modelled using mechanistic empirical approach and by employing permanent deformation prediction models. A time hardening approach has been applied to combine permanent deformation contributions from stress levels of different magnitude. The response model outputs and the predicted permanent deformations are in general in good agreement with the measurements.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Modeling of flexible pavement structure behavior: Comparisons with Heavy Vehicle Simulator measurements2012In: Advances in Pavement Design Through Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing / [ed] Jones, Harvey, Mateos & Al-Qadi, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2012, p. 493-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     A response model to be employed in a mechanistic-empirical pavement performance predictionmodel based on multilayer elastic theory has been developed. An iterative approach using a method of successiveover-relaxation of a stress dependency model is used to account for the nonlinear behavior of unbound materials. Asphalt and subgrade materials are assumed to be linear elastic. The response model was verified against two series of Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) response measurements made under a variety of wheel loadconfigurations and at different pavement temperatures. A comparison with Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD)data was also carried out. The model was subsequently used to predict permanent deformation from the HVS testing using simple work hardening models. A time hardening approach has been adopted to combine permanentdeformation contributions from stress levels of different magnitude.The response model outputs and the predictedpermanent deformations were generally in good agreement with the measurements.

  • 11.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Numerical validation of viscoelastic responses of a pavement structure in a full-scale accelerated pavement test2015In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the application of a generalised layered linear viscoelastic (LVE) analysis for estimating the structural response of flexible pavements. A comparison of the direct layered viscoelastic responses with approximate solutions based on the linear elastic (LE) and LVE collocation methods was also carried out. The different approaches were implemented by extending a layered elastic program with an improved computational performance. The LE and LVE collocation methods were further extended for analysis of pavements under moving loads.

    The methods were illustrated by analysing a pavement structure subjected to moving wheel loads of 30, 50, 60 and 80 kN using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). The various responses (stresses and strains) in the pavement, at pavement temperatures of 0, 10 and 20°C, were measured using various types of sensors installed in the structure. It was shown that the approximated LVE solution based on the LE collocation method agreed very well with the measurements and is computationally the least expensive.

  • 12.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Viscoelastic modelling of pavement structure behaviour in a full scale accelerated pavement testManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. University of Iceland.
    Viscoelastic Response Modelling of a Pavement under Moving Load2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, Vol. 14, p. 748-757Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the application of a generalized layered linear viscoelastic (LVE) analysis for estimating flexible pavements' structural response. The procedure is based on the Multi-Layered Elastic Theory (MLET) and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle using a numerical inverse Laplace transform. A comparison of the direct layered viscoelastic responses with approximate solutions based on the elastic collocation method was also carried out. Furthermore, it is proposed to use the collocation method using LVE solutions at selected time durations in order to improve the accuracy of the elastic collocation method. The LVE collocation method was further extended for analysis of moving loads. The method was illustrated by analysing a pavement structure subjected to moving wheel loads of 30, 50, 60 and 80 kN using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). The various responses (stresses and strains) in the pavement, at different pavement temperatures, were measured using various types of sensors installed in the structure. The LVE calculations agreed very well with the measurements.

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Impact of longer and heavier vehicles on the performance of asphalt pavements: A laboratory study2018In: Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields, BCRRA 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2018, p. 483-490Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, Longer and Heavier Vehicles (LHVs) have been permitted to operate in Sweden. Since 1996 and as of the beginning of 2015, the maximum gross vehicle weight of 60 tons and a length of up to 25.25 m have been permitted. The Swedish Transport Administration has decided to further increase the maximum gross vehicle weight to 74 tons and studies are undergoing to evaluate the impact of the proposed LHVs on existing transport infrastructure. To this end, repeated load triaxial tests and indirect tensile fatigue tests were conducted on selected conventional asphalt mixtures to investigate and quantify the impact of single, tandem and tridem axle configurations on permanent deformation and fatigue performances of conventional asphalt pavements. In addition, fatigue tests for selected LHV scenarios were conducted. This paper presents the results of the laboratory tests and simulations conducted. The test results have clearly demonstrated the impact of the different axle configurations on the rutting and fatigue performances of the mixture. Furthermore, such results can explain the significance of axle configuration on modelling the rutting and fatigue performances of asphalt pavements.

  • 15.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Impact of tire types and configurations on responses of a thin pavement structure2018In: Advances in Materials and Pavement Performance Prediction: Proceedings of the International AM3P Conference, 2018, London: CRC Press , 2018, p. 271-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of tire and tire configurations on the responses of a thin asphalt pavement structure by means of full-scale tests using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). A total of six different types of tires, four single and two dual tire configurations, were investigated. The structure was instrumented to measure tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt layer and vertical stresses and strains in the unbound base, subbase and subgrade layers. The results indicated that, in general, single tire configurations produced higher tensile strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer and higher vertical stresses and strains in unbound base, subbase and subgrade layers.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Said, Safwat F.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Lu, Xiaohu
    Nynäs AB.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Pavement performance follow-up and evaluation of polymer-modified test sections2018In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 2003 and 2006, a test road consisting of several conventional and polymer-modified structures was built on a motorway. Different combinations of styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) and ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer-modified binders were used. The test structures have been in service since then and have been monitored for over 9 years. The resistance of the different types of asphalt concrete mixes to rutting and cracking was measured and predicted. The impact of ageing on the mixes was also evaluated. Although all the sections are in good condition after 9 years of traffic, the predicted differences between the test sections based on the PEDRO (Permanent Deformation of asphalt concrete layers for Roads) approach and laboratory evaluations are noticeable. Lateral wander and transverse profile measurements indicated that studded winter tyre wear contributed to most of the rutting compared to permanent deformation due to heavy traffic. The unmodified mixes exhibited considerable ageing and the SBS-modified mixes were least affected by ageing. Furthermore, the SBS-modified base mix produced significantly better fatigue resistance than the conventional base mix. However, further investigations of the relationships between bitumen and mix properties and further follow-ups of the test sections are recommended to validate the findings.

  • 17.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Ahmed, Abubeker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    The Svappavaara road test sections: field coring and laboratory tests2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes laboratory testing of specimens taken from four new instrumented test road sections that have been built on E45 close to the Svappavaara municipality in Norrbotten County in Northern Sweden. The structures are located about 100 km north of the Arctic Circle in a climate that is characterized by long cold winters and short mild summers. The four test sections were built in a conventional manner. Each structure is about 200–250-metre-long with a central 100-metre-long part defined as the actual test section. All structures are in total 60 centimetres in thickness resting on top of a 70-centimetre-thick old existing road. The bitumen bound part of all the four structures consists of four layers; a thin surface course layer, two binder layers and a road base layer. All structures have the same wearing course, TSK 16 with a standard 160/220 penetration grade bitumen. The main difference between the structures lies in the binder as well as the two road base layers. As a part of the monitoring programme drilled asphalt specimens were taken in 2013 from the road structure and tested at VTI's material testing laboratory in Linköping. Furthermore, samples were taken from the unbound base course and tested. This report presents the test results for asphalt bound layers as well as for the unbound base course. For the bound layers the testing procedure included volumetric properties, stiffness modulus and fatigue tests for the different types of conventional and polymer modified asphalt mixtures. The tests were conducted in accordance with the Swedish or the equivalent European standards. For the unbound base course fundamental properties were estimated as well as stiffness and permanent deformation properties for different moisture contents.

  • 18.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Fast layered elastic response program for the analysis of flexible pavement structures2013In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 196-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key components in analysing pavement structural behaviour is the response model which is used to estimate the stresses, strains and displacements of the pavement structure subjected to the existing traffic, taking into account the material properties and prevailing environmental conditions. Multilayer elastic theory (MLET) is often preferred over other methods such as the finite element method, due to its computational performance for repeated applications. A new elastic response analysis program has been developed based on the Burmister MLET theory to calculate the response of flexible pavement structures. In the development of the program, the time-consuming part of MLET processes was optimised. To improve the convergence and accuracy of responses in the vicinity of the surface of the top layer, an approach based on Richardson's extrapolation was employed. Moreover, an iterative approach to model stress dependency of unbound granular materials was incorporated. A comprehensive comparison of the program with two frequently used programs demonstrated an excellent agreement and improved performance.

  • 19.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. University of Iceland.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Mechanistic rutting modelling of a LTPP road structure2019In: Pavement and Asset Management: Proceedings of the World Conference on Pavement and Asset Management, WCPAM 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2019, p. 241-249Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Mechanistic-Empirical (M-E) approach is under development to predict the structural degradation of road structures as a function of time. The aim is that the method will become one of the backbones in a new pavement asset management system. The calculation scheme is based two main steps; i) a response calculation step for the different traffic loads applied taking into account the ambient climate and ii) a performance prediction step where pavement degradation is predicted in time steps and thereafter accumulated over the entire design period of the pavement structure. The paper describes the approach briefly and is thereafter demonstrated by a calculation of the degradation of an arterial road in Southern Sweden and compared with measurements from the Swedish Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) database. The arterial road had reached the critical 15 mm rut after 18 years in operation. The analysis shows that the rutting development can be simulated adequately although the calculations show slower rate than the measurements towards the end of the simulated period.

  • 20.
    Gudmarsson, Anders
    et al.
    Peab Asfalt AB.
    Carret, Jean -Claude
    University of Lyon .
    Pouget, Simon
    EIFFAGE Infrastructures.
    Nilsson, Richard
    SKANSKA.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Di Benedetto, Hervé
    University of Lyon.
    Sauzéat, Cédric
    University of Lyon.
    Precision of modal analysis to characterise the complex modulus of asphalt concrete2019In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modal analysis is an economic and efficient test method to characterise the complex modulus of asphalt concrete. In this paper, the precision of modal analysis was evaluated by performing testing at several laboratories on two cylindrical asphalt concrete specimens. In addition, the complex moduli characterised by modal analysis were compared to cyclic tension-compression testing. The results showed that the coefficient of variation was less than 3% at loading frequencies above 10 Hz for the complex modulus determined through modal analysis. The comparison of the complex modulus determined from modal analysis and tension-compression testing resulted in a coefficient of variation values not more than 9% for loading frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 9 Hz.

  • 21.
    Jelagin, Denis
    et al.
    KTH.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Lu, Xiaohu
    Nynäs AB.
    Said, Safwat F.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Asphalt layer rutting performance prediction tools2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible pavement rutting due to permanent deformation accumulation in asphalt layers is one of the most common modes of road failures. In addition to creating high maintenance costs, rutting is a major concern for traffic safety, as the rut development increases the risk of hydroplaning and introduce difficulties in vehicle steering. In this context, accurate methodologies for pavement rutting performance prediction are crucial for decision support in pavement design and rehabilitation. In particular, better rutting performance models are needed to evaluate, new asphalt materials as well as to evaluate the impact of different vehicle types on roads’ service life.

    The main goal of this report is to present a summary of the existing asphalt rutting performance prediction tools. The present review is limited to available and/or frequently referred to tests and models with an established link to field rutting performance. Accordingly, models focusing solely on permanent deformation on the material level are beyond the framework of the present study.

    Road structure and its materials, heavy vehicle parameters and climate affecting rutting accumulation in the field are identified. Their significance has been evaluated based on the experimental and numerical findings reported in the literature. Several rutting performance prediction models recently proposed in the literature are summarized along with the material characterization tests used in the models. The reviewed models’ capability to quantify the influence of various structural, material and traffic parameters on the pavement’s rutting performance is examined.

    It is concluded that implementation of rutting performance models incorporating experimentally measured viscoelastic and permanent deformation properties of asphalt mixtures is a promising way to improve the accuracy of pavement performance predictions. In particular since they allow the effect of novel materials, e.g. polymer-modified, on the pavement’s rutting performance to be quantified.

  • 22.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Said, Safwat F.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Poisson’s Ratio of Asphalt Concrete Mixes Using Indirect Tensile Test2019In: Journal of Testing and Evaluation, ISSN 0090-3973, E-ISSN 1945-7553, Vol. 47, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased interest in mechanistic evaluation of flexible pavement structures has brought a demand for accurate and practical methods, models, or both to estimate the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures. One of these properties is the Poisson’s ratio (ν) of asphalt concrete mixtures, which is often assumed to have a constant value of 0.35 in asphalt concrete evaluations. However, investigations have reported that mixture type, air void content, and temperature produce considerable variation in measured ν-values that could have a significant effect on evaluations of asphalt concrete mixes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of air voids, binder type, and testing conditions on the measured ν-values. Indirect tensile (IDT) tests were conducted to measure ν-values. The study indicated that the Poisson’s ratio of the asphalt concrete mixes, on average, attained a maximum value at a particular level of air void content. Furthermore, when comparing the Poisson’s ratio values in relation to the dynamic modulus, calculated using the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) equation, higher ν-values were attained. This demonstrates the importance of measuring the Poisson’s ratio of a mix type.

  • 23.
    Said, Safwat F.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Prediction of heavy vehicle impact on rut development using pedro model2018In: Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields, BCRRA 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2018, p. 1359-1366Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Permanent deformation or flow rutting in bituminous layers is a common distress mode in flexible pavements that is exhibited as an excessive deformation of bituminous material in the wheel paths. Rutting gradually increases with repeated loading of heavy vehicles. To predict surface rutting, it is therefore essential to include the influence of heavy vehicle parameters such as the number of passages of wheel loads, axle load configuration (single or dual wheel), tire type, inflation pressure, vehicle speed and lateral wandering of the traffic in addition to variation in mixture properties at ambient temperatures over elapsed time. The linear viscoelastic permanent deformation model for a bituminous layer of roads, PEDRO, has been adopted in this work to analyse the vertical strain distribution in a flexible pavement and prediction of rutting under various combination of heavy vehicle parameters. The effects of heavy vehicles with different axle load configurations are evaluated with support of field measurements over a 14-year period.

  • 24.
    Said, Safwat F.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Rahman, Shafiqur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    McGarvey, Terence
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ahmed, Abubeker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Enocksson, Carl-Gösta
    Trafikverket.
    Utförandets inverkan på hållbarhet för beläggningslager2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-destructive testing in quantifying the asphalt pavement layers homogeneity can be used for the quality assurance in paving contracts. This paper summarizes the findings from a field study on segregation in bituminous pavement mixes that relates pavement layer surface texture to the homogeneity of the paved bituminous layer by distinguishing mix segregated area. The mean profile depth (MPD) values of paved layer were measured. Based on these values three locations on the road were identified having low, intermediate and high MPD values. Thereafter, cored samples were tested for stiffness modulus before and after moisture conditioning by performing the moisture induced sensitivity test (MIST). Results clearly showed that the samples from the locations with high MPD values were mostly affected by the moisture conditioning for which the stiffness moduli were significantly reduced. The samples with high MPD values had the highest air voids as well. Thus, this study demonstrated that construction quality described by segregation in the paved asphalt mix has a significant impact on the moisture sensitive performance of pavements. A limited number of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measurements were performed at positions with different degree of separation in the road base layer. There was a tendency for the effect of separation in the road base layer on FWD even though there was a variation in data. The strong correlation between the MPD values and change in stiffness modulus also suggests that the measurements of the MPD values can be a reliable and non-destructive method for evaluating the construction quality of a pavement and in developing the quality assurance criteria based on pavement performance that can be used in paving contracts.

  • 25. Sulejmani, Pajtim
    et al.
    Said, Safwat F.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Agardh, Sven
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Moisture Sensitivity of Asphalt Mixtures using Cycling Pore Pressure Conditioning2019In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major causes of premature failure in asphalt pavements is moisture damage. Asphalt mixtures designed without considering climate impacts may suffer from durability problems caused by movement of water inside the asphalt mixture. Rolling traffic over wet pavement builds up pore pressure in the mixture, which will consequently accelerate deterioration. The objective of the study was to assess the moisture damage to asphalt concrete mixtures by means of complex modulus testing of dry and moisture-conditioned asphalt specimens with various mixture compositions. The asphalt mixtures were conditioned with the Moisture Induced Sensitivity Tester (MIST), which aims to replicate pore pressure in field conditions. The results showed a decline in stiffness modulus and a reduction in elastic properties after MIST conditioning. In addition, the results indicated that binder content and air void content had a significant influence on the reduction in stiffness. To capture the relationship between air void content, binder content, and the reduction in stiffness, a relationship was developed and validated with measurements on cores extracted in the field.

  • 26.
    Viman, Leif
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Said, Safwat F.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Lind, Lotta
    Evaluation of Slag as aggregates in Asphalt Mixtures2016In: Proceedings of 6th Eurasphalt & Eurobitume Congress, Czech Technical University in Prague , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, the Swedish Transport Administration together with contractors, Steel industry in Sweden and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute have built test road sections with Steel slag in various locations in Sweden.  Steel slag has well-known good adhesion, durability, wear resistance and noise reducing properties.  This project pointed out the importance for steel slag producers to produce a slag quality that fulfils the requirements as road material, where also particle emission is an important issue. There are over 10 producers of steel slag in Sweden. There are several goals for using steel slag in asphalt mixes; mainly longer technical lifetime caused by good wear resistance against studded tyres, good stability performance in binder and base course, and good durability performance, the latter being especially important in porous asphalt, where it also potentially gives some noise-reducing effects. In addition, the environmental aspects in terms of particle emission, were an important issue for this project.  So far, test sections show good performance according to road surface measurements.  Laboratory test according to European standards for aggregate and several road simulator test for wear resistance and particle emission have been performed during the last five years by means of the unique road simulator at VTI. An important part of the project is to increase the knowledge for the steel slag producers to develop a material that fulfils the requirements for road material in as many aspects as possible, both technical and environmental issues. The results are so far promising, and expectations are met.

  • 27.
    Waldemarson, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ahmed, Abubeker W
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Validering av ålderssamband för asfaltbeläggningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Asphalt pavements age due to climatic impact and oxidation. Aging affects the physical and chemical properties of the adhesive and results in an increase of stiffness and reduced sensitivity to deformation. As a result, asphalt pavement usually become harder, stiffer and brittle thus more sensitive to cracking over time.

    The Swedish Transport Administration specification document contains calculation formulas (aging models) which take the changes in mechanical properties over time into account. These formulas were derived based on asphalt mixtures with conventional binders. To investigate whether these formulas are valid for asphalt mixtures with modified bitumen, a study was conducted using laboratory manufactured samples of mix type ABb 16 with three different binders from Nynas, namely, 70/100, Nypol 67 and Nypol 73.

    The samples were drilled from compacted asphalt slabs and cyclic compression creep and indirect tensile stiffness modules tests were carried out at a predefined time schedule. The drilled samples werestored at room temperature whereas the slabs were stored in a cold storehouse. Before testing, the densities of the constituent material were determined and theoretical air void content in each sample were calculated.

    The main purpose of the study was to validate the existing aging models for cyclic compression creep test and stiffness modulus tests using the collected test data. The collected data from the tests were analyzed using non-linear regression. The results indicated that time coefficient (exponent) for both test methods have lower absolute value in this study than stated in the specifications. The coefficients are different for penetration and polymer modified bitumen.

    There may be several reasons why the models in this study differ from the results of the previous investigations. The earlier relationships were derived based on analysis of samples aged in the field while the models in this study are based on analysis of samples aging in a more controlled laboratory environment. Another possible reason for the higher time coefficients (exponents) from the previousinvestigations could be that manufacturing temperatures for asphalt mixtures were generally significantly higher at that time.

    To establish a broader basis to assesses the impact of aging on asphalt mixture mechanical properties, it is recommended to investigate several types of polymer bitumen. A more frequent field follow-up ofnewly paved pavement sections should be carried out.

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