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  • 1.
    Blomgren, Eric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Nedre Dalalven Utvecklings AB, Swedish Biol Mosquito Control, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Schafer, Martina L.
    Nedre Dalalven Utvecklings AB, Swedish Biol Mosquito Control, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Nedre Dalalven Utvecklings AB, Swedish Biol Mosquito Control, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pest occurrence of Aedes rossicus close to the Arctic Circle in northern Sweden2018In: Journal of Vector Ecology, ISSN 1081-1710, E-ISSN 1948-7134, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major nuisance species are found among the floodwater mosquitoes and snow-pool mosquitoes, with the former being the main reason for mosquito control in most areas. Nuisance species vary with the area, and previous reports from northern areas conclude that the nuisance is most often caused by snow-pool mosquitoes. We investigated the mosquito fauna and abundances of host-seeking females using CDC traps baited with carbon dioxide, in overtornea city near the Arctic Circle in northern Sweden, after earlier complaints about massive mosquito nuisance. The abundance of host-seeking female mosquitoes was high in 2014, with a maximum of similar to 15,400 individuals per CDC trap night, of which 89% was the floodwater mosquito Aedes rossicus. Surprisingly, the main nuisance species was a floodwater mosquito, occurring at the northernmost location it has ever been recorded in Sweden. Our report is probably the first documentation of such large numbers of Aedes rossicus in any locality and probably the first documentation of a severe floodwater mosquito nuisance near the Arctic Circle. Given the historical data on river discharge in the area, the nuisance is recurrent. We conclude that in northern localities, as well as in more southern localities, production of floodwater mosquitoes is a natural component of the floodplain fauna of rivers with a fluctuating water flow regime. Also, the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans were found north of their formerly known distribution in Sweden.

  • 2.
    Caminade, Cyril
    et al.
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Liverpool CH64 7TE, Merseyside, England;Univ Liverpool, Hlth Protect Res Unit Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England.
    Turner, Joanne
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Liverpool CH64 7TE, Merseyside, England.
    Metelmann, Soeren
    Univ Liverpool, Sch Environm Sci, Dept Geog & Planning, Liverpool L69 7ZT, Merseyside, England;Univ Liverpool, Hlth Protect Res Unit Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Liverpool CH64 7TE, Merseyside, England.
    Blagrove, Marcus S. C.
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Liverpool CH64 7TE, Merseyside, England;Univ Liverpool, Hlth Protect Res Unit Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England.
    Solomon, Tom
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Dept Clin Infect Microbiol & Immunol, Liverpool L69 7BE, Merseyside, England;Univ Liverpool, Hlth Protect Res Unit Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England.
    Morse, Andrew P.
    Univ Liverpool, Sch Environm Sci, Dept Geog & Planning, Liverpool L69 7ZT, Merseyside, England;Univ Liverpool, Hlth Protect Res Unit Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England.
    Baylis, Matthew
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Liverpool CH64 7TE, Merseyside, England;Univ Liverpool, Hlth Protect Res Unit Emerging & Zoonot Infect, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England.
    Global risk model for vector-borne transmission of Zika virus reveals the role of El Nino 20152017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 119-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zika, a mosquito-borne viral disease that emerged in South America in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO in February of 2016. We developed a climate-driven R-0 mathematical model for the transmission risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) that explicitly includes two keymosquito vector species: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The model was parameterized and calibrated using the most up to date information from the available literature. It was then driven by observed gridded temperature and rainfall datasets for the period 1950-2015. We find that the transmission risk in South America in 2015 was the highest since 1950. This maximum is related to favoring temperature conditions that caused the simulated biting rates to be largest and mosquito mortality rates and extrinsic incubation periods to be smallest in 2015. This event followed the suspected introduction of ZIKV in Brazil in 2013. The ZIKV outbreak in Latin America has very likely been fueled by the 2015-2016 El Nino climate phenomenon affecting the region. The highest transmission risk globally is in South America and tropical countries where Ae. aegypti is abundant. Transmission risk is strongly seasonal in temperate regions where Ae. albopictus is present, with significant risk of ZIKV transmission in the southeastern states of the United States, in southern China, and to a lesser extent, over southern Europe during the boreal summer season.

  • 3.
    Halvarsson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Six polymorphic microsatellites in the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus2013In: Journal of Vector Ecology, ISSN 1081-1710, E-ISSN 1948-7134, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 404-407Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Clearing up Culex Confusion: A Basis for Virus Vector Discrimination in Europe2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosquito species of the Culex genus are the enzootic vectors for several bird-associated viruses that cause disease in humans. In Europe, these viruses include Sindbis (SINV), West Nile and Usutu viruses. The morphologically similar females of Cx. torrentium and Cx. pipiens are potential vectors of these viruses, but difficulties in correctly identifying the mosquito species have caused confusion regarding their respective distribution, abundance, ecology, and consequently their importance as vectors. Species-specific knowledge from correctly identified field material is however of crucial importance since previous research shows that the relatively unknown Cx. torrentium is a far more efficient SINV vector than the widely recognized Cx. pipiens. The latter is involved in the transmission of several other viruses, but its potential importance for SINV transmission is debated.

    In this thesis I describe the development of a molecular method for species identification, based on reliably identified males of Cx. torrentium and Cx. pipiens. This identification method was then used in consecutive studies on the distribution and relative abundance of the two species in Sweden and 12 other European countries, SINV field infection rates in mosquitoes identified to species level, and evaluation of potential trap bias associated with common sampling techniques.

    The results showed that Cx. torrentium is a far more common species in Europe than previously assumed. In Sweden and Finland, it is the dominant species, accounting for 89% of the sampled Culex population. In central Europe, it is equally common to Cx. pipiens, while Cx. pipiens dominates south of the Alps Mountain range. Larvae of both species are often found together in both artificial containers (e.g. car tires) and natural sites. Also, a trapping bias against Cx. torrentium was revealed for CDC-traps. For the first time, SINV was isolated from species-identified Cx. torrentium and Cx. pipiens mosquitoes caught in the field, with Cx. torrentium being superior in infection rates (36/1,000 vs. 8.2/1,000). Future studies on SINV, as well as other mosquito-borne bird viruses in Europe, can hopefully gain from the baseline information provided here, and from principles of vector discrimination discussed in the thesis.

  • 5.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ignell, Rickard
    Hill, Sharon
    Östman, Örjan
    Lundström, Jan O
    Trapping biases of Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens revealed by comparison of captures in CDC traps, ovitraps, and gravid traps2015In: Journal of Vector Ecology, ISSN 1081-1710, E-ISSN 1948-7134, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 158-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Lundström, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Halvarsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Per, Erixon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
    Collado, Amandine
    A sensitive and reliable restriction enzyme assay to distinguish between the mosquitoes Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens2010In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, ISSN 0269-283X, E-ISSN 1365-2915, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 142-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Culex pipiens pipiens Linnaeus and Culex torrentium Martini (Diptera: Culicidae) are closely related vector species that exist sympatrically in Europe. The two species are morphologically almost identical and can only be distinguished with certainty by characters of the male genitalia. Hence, correct species identification and conclusions on distribution and vector status are very difficult and often neglected. Therefore, we developed a reliable and simple mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene restriction enzyme assay to discriminate between Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium, based on the analysis of morphologically identified male specimens. We sequenced approximately 830 bp in the 3′ region of the mitochondrial COI gene of 18 morphologically identified males of Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. Two restriction enzymes (FspBI and SspI) that could distinguish between the two species according to species-specific differences in these sequences were chosen. The restriction enzymes were tested on 227 samples from Sweden and verified by sequencing 44 of them. The enzyme FspBI correctly identified all investigated samples; the enzyme SspI identified all samples except one Cx. torrentium. We hope the method and the findings presented here will help to shed light on the true distribution and relative proportions of the two species in Europe.

  • 7.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rettich, Frantisek
    Merdic, Enrih
    Vignjevic, Goran
    Östman, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Schäfer, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Schaffner, Francis
    Foussadier, Remi
    Besnard, Gilles
    Medlock, Jolyon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Scholte, Ernst-Jan
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The arbovirus vector Culex torrentium is more prevalent than Culex pipiens in northern and central Europe2014In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, ISSN 0269-283X, E-ISSN 1365-2915, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 179-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two species of arbovirus vector, Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), occur in several European countries, but difficulties in their accurate identification and discrimination have hampered both detailed and large-scale distribution and abundance studies. Using a molecular identification method, we identified to species 2559 larvae of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected from 138 sites in 13 European countries ranging from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean coast. In addition, samples of 1712 males of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected at several sites in the Czech Republic were identified to species based on the morphology of their hypopygia. We found that the two species occur together in large areas of Europe, and that Cx. torrentium dominates in northern Europe and Cx. pipiens dominates south of the Alps. The transition in dominance occurs in central Europe, where both species are roughly equally common. There was a strong correlation between the length of the growing season at different sites and occurrences of the two species. As the growing season increases, the proportion and detection of Cx. torrentium decrease, whereas those of Cx. pipiens increase. The present findings have important consequences for the interpretation of the results of studies on major enzootic and link-vectors of mosquito-borne bird-associated viruses (i.e. Sindbis, West Nile and Usutu viruses), especially in central Europe and Scandinavia.

  • 8.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Univ Liverpool, Inst Infect & Global Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Schafer, Martina
    Nedre Dalalvens Utvecklings AB, Swedish Biol Mosquito Control Project, Gysinge, Sweden..
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Nedre Dalalvens Utvecklings AB, Swedish Biol Mosquito Control Project, Gysinge, Sweden..
    First report on human-biting Culex pipiens in Sweden2016In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 9, article id 632Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Culex mosquitoes are vectors of several bird-hosted arboviruses that cause outbreaks in Europe, such as Sindbis virus and West Nile virus. Recently, the human-biting form of Culex pipiens, Cx. pipiens biotype molestus, was found causing big nuisance in a housing cooperative in Gothenburg in southern Sweden, confirmed by molecular identification. This is the first report of human-biting Culex in Scandinavia, signalling increased risk of arbovirus infection in northern Europe.

  • 9.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ahmed, Raija
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Culex torrentium Mosquito Role as Major Enzootic Vector Defined by Rate of Sindbis Virus Infection, Sweden, 20092015In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 875-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We isolated Sindbis virus (SINV) from the enzootic mosquito vectors Culex torrentium, Cx. pipiens, and Culiseta morsitans collected in an area of Sweden where SINV disease is endemic. The infection rate in Cx. torrentium mosquitoes was exceptionally high (36 infections/1,000 mosquitoes), defining Cx. torrentium as the main enzootic vector of SINV in Scandinavia.

  • 10.
    Hesson, Jenny C
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Verner-Carlsson, Jenny
    Larsson, Anders
    Ahmed, Raija
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Exceptional Sindbis virus infection rate in Swedish Culex torrentium defines its role as a major enzootic vector2015In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Hesson, Jenny C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Östman, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Schäfer, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Geographic distribution and relative abundance of the sibling vector species Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens in Sweden2011In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 1383-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens are sibling species and potential viral vectors that coexist in Europe. Larvae and females of the two species are morphologically almost identical, and reliable identification can only be done on males. To investigate the distribution and relative abundance of the two species in Sweden, we collected Culex larvae from sites spread over the country, identified them as Culex pipiens/torrentium based on morphology, and identified them to species using a recently developed restriction enzyme method. Cx. torrentium was the dominant species (89%, n = 1012) and it occurred in 48 of the 49 sites investigated, and also dominated in most of the study sites. The proportion of Cx. pipiens larvae in relation to Cx. torrentium collected at each site decreased with both increasing latitude and altitude, and the presence of Cx. pipiens decreased with latitude. In addition, Cx. pipiens/torrentium females were sampled with Centres for Disease Control light traps baited with carbon dioxide. The overall country mean was 4.0 Cx. pipiens/torrentium caught per trap night, with decreasing numbers of Cx. pipiens/torrentium caught per trap night with increasing latitude. Thus, the abundance of Cx. pipiens/torrentium decreased, but the proportion Cx. torrentium increased, with increasing latitude. This is the first study that shows the vast dominance of Cx. torrentium over Cx. pipiens in Sweden. The unexpected dominance of Cx. torrentium highlights the importance of distinguishing between the two species in studies of Culex-borne arboviruses in Europe.

  • 12.
    Lundström, Jan O
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Schäfer, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hesson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Blomgren, Eric
    Lindstöm, Anders
    Wahlqvist, Pernilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Halling, Arne
    Hagelin, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Evander, Magnus
    Broman, Tina
    Forsman, Mats
    Persson Vinnersten, Thomas Z
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The geographic distribution of mosquito species in Sweden2013In: Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association, ISSN 2054-930X, Vol. 31, p. 21-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveillance of the actual distribution of mosquito species in Northern Europe is fundamental for evaluating risk for emerging pathogens, and for research on potential vectors. The Swedish mosquito fauna composition and geographic distribution, originally described by Professor Christine Dahl in the 1970´s, included 43 species. We have compiled the information published from 1978 to 2012, and our own surveillance data from 2001 to 2013, and compared this with the species list and geographic distribution provided in “Taxonomy and geographic distribution of Swedish Culicidae” by Dahl (1977). New species detected during these 36 years were Culiseta (Culicella) ochroptera (Peus, 1935) published 1984, Aedes (Aedes) rossicus Dolbeskin, Goritzkaja & Mitrofanova, 1930 published 1986, Anopheles (Anopheles) beklemishevi published 1986, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) euedes (Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1912) published 2001, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918) first recorded in 2012, and Anopheles (Anopheles) algeriensis Theobald, 1903, first recorded in 2013. We provide maps with the distribution by province for each species, including historic information up until 1977, and new records from 1978 to 2013, showing the similarities and differences between the old and the new records. Important findings in recent years include the wide distribution of the Sindbis virus enzootic vector Culex (Culex) torrentium Martinii, 1925, and the more limited distribution of the potential West Nile virus vector Culex (Culex) pipiens Linnaeus, 1758. The updated list of mosquito species in Sweden now includes 49 species.

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