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  • 1.
    Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Skeen, Sarah
    Duc, Duong M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Blandon, Elmer Zelaya
    Estabrooks, Carole
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong
    Kallestal, Carina
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Pervin, Jesmin
    Peterson, Stefan Swartling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Rahman, Anisur
    Selling, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Squires, Janet E.
    Tomlinson, Mark
    Waiswa, Peter
    Wallin, Lars
    Health system context and implementation of evidence-based practices-development and validation of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool for low- and middle-income settings2015In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 10, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The gap between what is known and what is practiced results in health service users not benefitting from advances in healthcare, and in unnecessary costs. A supportive context is considered a key element for successful implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP). There were no tools available for the systematic mapping of aspects of organizational context influencing the implementation of EBPs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, this project aimed to develop and psychometrically validate a tool for this purpose. Methods: The development of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool was premised on the context dimension in the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework, and is a derivative product of the Alberta Context Tool. Its development was undertaken in Bangladesh, Vietnam, Uganda, South Africa and Nicaragua in six phases: (1) defining dimensions and draft tool development, (2) content validity amongst in-country expert panels, (3) content validity amongst international experts, (4) response process validity, (5) translation and (6) evaluation of psychometric properties amongst 690 health workers in the five countries. Results: The tool was validated for use amongst physicians, nurse/midwives and community health workers. The six phases of development resulted in a good fit between the theoretical dimensions of the COACH tool and its psychometric properties. The tool has 49 items measuring eight aspects of context: Resources, Community engagement, Commitment to work, Informal payment, Leadership, Work culture, Monitoring services for action and Sources of knowledge. Conclusions: Aspects of organizational context that were identified as influencing the implementation of EBPs in high-income settings were also found to be relevant in LMICs. However, there were additional aspects of context of relevance in LMICs specifically Resources, Community engagement, Commitment to work and Informal payment. Use of the COACH tool will allow for systematic description of the local healthcare context prior implementing healthcare interventions to allow for tailoring implementation strategies or as part of the evaluation of implementing healthcare interventions and thus allow for deeper insights into the process of implementing EBPs in LMICs.

  • 2.
    Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Tomlinson, M.
    Squires, J.
    Duong, Duc
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Hoa, D. P.
    Källestål, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Pervin, J.
    Peterson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Rahman, A.
    Waiswa, P.
    Zelaya, E.
    Estabrooks, C.
    Wallin, L.
    The context assessment for community health tool: investigating why what works where2013In: Tropical medicine & international health, ISSN 1360-2276, E-ISSN 1365-3156, Vol. 18, no SI, p. 203-204Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bui, Ha Thi Thu
    et al.
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Fac Social Sci Behav & Hlth Educ, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Le, Thi Minh
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Fac Social Sci Behav & Hlth Educ, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Pham, Tac Van
    Minist Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Doan, Duong Thi Thuy
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Fac Social Sci Behav & Hlth Educ, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Duy Anh
    Hanoi Obstet & Gynecol Hosp, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Canh Chuong
    Hanoi Obstet & Gynecol Hosp, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Duc, Duong Minh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Fac Social Sci Behav & Hlth Educ, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    The Association Between Gender Inequalities and Women's Utilization of Maternal Health Services: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Eight South Central Coast Provinces, Vietnam2018In: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, ISSN 1078-4659, E-ISSN 1550-5022, Vol. 24, no 2, p. S19-S27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gender inequalities influence the utilization of maternal health services in Vietnam, but little research has been published. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the association between gender inequalities and women's utilization of maternal health services in Vietnam.

    Methods: The study was conducted in 8 provinces in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam during August 2013 to May 2014. A total of 907 women who delivered a year prior to the date of interview participated in the study. A multiple logistic regression model was used to examine the association between gender inequalities (including sociodemographic determinants of health) and utilization of 4 or more antenatal care (ANC4+) services, institutional delivery, and ever used contraceptive methods.

    Results: The utilization rate of maternal health services was varied, from 53.9% for ANC4+ to 87.7% for ever used a contraceptive method and 97% for institutional delivery. Ethnicity was identified as the most influential variable out of all sociodemographic determinants of health. Regarding gender inequalities, couple communication was the only variable having significant association with women's utilization of maternal health services.

    Conclusion: Women's equal role within context of their daily life and relations with their husbands (discussing maternal care with husband and having equal income to husband) supported their use of maternal health services. Therefore, there should be concerted efforts from all relevant stakeholders including the health system to focus on disadvantaged women in planning and delivery of maternal health services, especially to ethnic minority women. Male involvement strategy should be implemented to promote maternal health care, especially during the prenatal and postpartum period. To provide more culturally sensitive and right-based approaches in delivery of maternal health services to disadvantaged women in Vietnam, interventions are recommended that promote male involvement, that is, to engage men in service delivery to adapt and ensure the most appropriate and effective maternal health care.

  • 4. Chuong, Nguyen Canh
    et al.
    Duc, Duong Minh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Department of Reproductive Health, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Anh, Nguyen Duy
    Vui, Le Thi
    Cuong, Le Pham Sy
    Duong, Doan Thi Thuy
    Ha, Bui Thi Thu
    Amniocentesis test uptake for congenital defects: Decision of pregnant women in Vietnam2018In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 493-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitude, and factors associated with uptake of amniocentesis test amongst pregnant women of advanced maternal age (35+ years old). A cross-sectional survey was performed on 481 participants in 2016. Women with higher educational attainment, higher income level, having a baby with congenital defects, and women with better knowledge and/or attitude about amniocentesis test were more likely to accept the test. Our study suggested the importance of counseling for women and more time should be given for them to absorb information before they make their decision to uptake the amniocentesis test.

  • 5.
    Duc, Duong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Hanoi University of Public Health.
    Healthcare context for knowledge translation in Vietnam: Development and application of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The failure to translate evidence into clinical practice has been repeatedly highlighted. This failure is partly attributed to disregarding the context within which healthcare is delivered. The aim of this thesis was to develop and psychometrically evaluate the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool, and, through that process, provide opportunities to measure aspects of context perceived to be important for Knowledge Translation (KT) interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

    All four studies in this thesis were mainly undertaken in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam during 2008–2014. Study II, however, was also conducted in four other LMICs (Bangladesh, Nicaragua, South Africa, and Uganda). Study I employed inductive content analysis of 16 focus group discussions to explore the influence of context in a community-based facilitation intervention in Vietnam. Studies II and III reported on the development of the COACH tool and assessment of its psychometric properties. Study IV used the COACH tool in a survey among health workers in Vietnam.

    To date, three sources of evidence regarding validity of the COACH tool have been provided, that is, test content, response processes, and internal instrument structure, with promising psychometric characteristics. The COACH tool could be used as means of characterizing aspects of context ahead of KT interventions, for tailoring KT strategies, and for further understanding of the results of KT interventions.

  • 6.
    Duc, Duong M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Hanoi Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Social Sci Behav & Hlth Educ, 138 Giang Vo St, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Bergström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). UCL, Inst Global Hlth, London, England..
    Eriksson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Selling, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ha, Bui Thi Thu
    Faculty of Social Science - Behaviours and Health Education, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Wallin, Lars
    Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Response process and test-retest reliability of the Context Assessment for Community Health tool in Vietnam2016In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, article id 31572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The recently developed Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool aims to measure aspects of the local healthcare context perceived to influence knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. The tool measures eight dimensions (organizational resources, community engagement, monitoring services for action, sources of knowledge, commitment to work, work culture, leadership, and informal payment) through 49 items. Objective: The study aimed to explore the understanding and stability of the COACH tool among health providers in Vietnam. Designs: To investigate the response process, think-aloud interviews were undertaken with five community health workers, six nurses and midwives, and five physicians. Identified problems were classified according to Conrad and Blair's taxonomy and grouped according to an estimation of the magnitude of the problem's effect on the response data. Further, the stability of the tool was examined using a test-retest survey among 77 respondents. The reliability was analyzed for items (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and percent agreement) and dimensions (ICC and Bland-Altman plots). Results: In general, the think-aloud interviews revealed that the COACH tool was perceived as clear, well organized, and easy to answer. Most items were understood as intended. However, seven prominent problems in the items were identified and the content of three dimensions was perceived to be of a sensitive nature. In the test-retest survey, two-thirds of the items and seven of eight dimensions were found to have an ICC agreement ranging from moderate to substantial (0.5-0.7), demonstrating that the instrument has an acceptable level of stability. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that the Vietnamese translation of the COACH tool is generally perceived to be clear and easy to understand and has acceptable stability. There is, however, a need to rephrase and add generic examples to clarify some items and to further review items with low ICC.

  • 7.
    Duc, Duong M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Hanoi University of Public Health, Vietnam.
    Eriksson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wallin, Lars
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Ekholm Selling, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Cummings, Greta
    Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Canada.
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Bui, Ha
    Hanoi University of Public Health, Vietnam.
    Bergström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Measuring local healthcare context for knowledge translation in primary and secondary levels of care in northern Vietnam: A cross-sectional studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The influence of context in shaping the effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) is widely recognized. The Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool aims to assess contextual aspects that are of importance for KT in healthcare in low- and middle-income settings. This study used the COACH tool to describe healthcare context as perceived by health workers in primary and secondary levels of care in a northern province in Vietnam and to further evaluate the internal structure of the COACH tool.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study administered the COACH tool to 677 eligible health workers in primary and secondary levels of care. The relationships between individual background variables and COACH dimensions were analysed using binary logistic regression. Further, internal construct validity was calculated by a first-order independent cluster model confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

    Results

    Overall, the healthcare context was perceived as supportive for KT. Gender, age, and geographic location showed significant relationships to one of the COACH dimensions. Male health workers rated their Commitment to work as lower than female health workers (OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.20–0.78). There were, however, only minor differences in  scores for the dimensions of context, at each health facility as well as between health facilities. The CFA asserted an acceptable internal structure of the COACH tool.

    Conclusions

    The survey enhanced the understanding of how aspects of the healthcare context for KT are perceived by health workers at primary and secondary levels of care in a province in Vietnam. There was an overall positive perception of the work context with only minor variability, reflecting a ‘receptive to change’ context for KT. This should, however, be interpreted with caution due to the risk of social desirability response bias. The findings on the acceptable internal structure of the COACH tool supports its further use as a valid instrument. 

  • 8.
    Duc, Duong M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, 1A Duc Thang St, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Anh Duy
    Hanoi Obstet & Gynecol Hosp, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Chuong Canh
    Hanoi Obstet & Gynecol Hosp, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Le, Vui Thi
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, 1A Duc Thang St, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Hoang, Son Ngoc
    Viet Duc Univ Hosp, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Bui, Ha Thi Thu
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, 1A Duc Thang St, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    A Secular Trend in Birth Weight and Delivery Practices in Periurban Vietnam During 2005-20122017In: Asia-Pacific journal of public health, ISSN 1010-5395, Vol. 29, no 5 Suppl., p. 18S-24SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The remarkable increase in Vietnamese economic conditions can increase the birth weight in neonates and better delivery practices among women. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System started in 2004. An open cohort of data consisting of about 57561 people from 17993 households has been followed primarily with respect to demography, economy, and education. The aim of this research is to study secular trends in delivery practice and birth weight in the past decade (2005-2012) in Chi Linh. We found a significant change in delivery rates at hospitals and cesarean section rates, but the birth weights over a decade of drastic economic development were stable. Furthermore, the findings show significant associations of birth weight and delivery practices with the child's sex, mother's age, and household income. Our results might be considered as representative for other similar periurban settings in Vietnam. We suggest that appropriate policies should be developed given the reduction in the use of delivery services in commune health centers in urban areas.

  • 9.
    Duc, Duong M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Hanoi School of Public Health, 138 Giang Vo Street, Ba Dinh District, Ha Noi, Vietnam.
    Vui, Le Thi
    Hanoi School of Public Health, 138 Giang Vo Street, Ba Dinh District, Ha Noi, Vietnam.
    Son, Hoang Ngoc
    Department of General Surgery, Viet Duc University Hospital, 40 Trang Thi Street, Hoan Kiem District, Ha Noi, Vietnam.
    Minh, Hoang Van
    Hanoi School of Public Health, 138 Giang Vo Street, Ba Dinh District, Ha Noi, Vietnam.
    Smoking Initiation and Cessation among Youths in Vietnam: A Longitudinal Study Using the Chi Linh Demographic-Epidemiological Surveillance System (CHILILAB DESS)2017In: AIMS PUBLIC HEALTH, ISSN 2327-8994, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study of smoking initiation and cessation is particularly important in adolescent population because smoking prevention and cessation at this time may prevent several health consequences later in life. There is a very limited knowledge about the determinants of smoking initiation and cessation among youths in Vietnam. This limits the development and implementation of appropriately targeted anti-smoking prevention interventions. This study applied pooled data from 3 rounds of a longitudinal survey in the Chi Linh Demographic-Epidemiological Surveillance System (CHILILAB DESS) in a northern province in Vietnam to analyse the determinants of smoking initiation and cessation among youths. The total of youths in the first round, second, and third rounds was 12,406, 10,211, and 7,654, respectively. The random-effects logit model controlling for both time-variant and time-invariant variables was conducted to explore the associated factors with new smokers and quitters. We found an increase trend of new smokers (7.0% to 9.6%) and quitters (27.5% to 31.4%) during 2009-2013. Smoking initiation and cessation are the result of multifactorial influences of demographic and health behaviours and status. Demographic background (older youths, male, unmarried youths, and youths having informal work) and health behaviours and status (youths who had smoking family members and/or smoking close friends, and had harmful drinking) were more likely to initiate smoking and more difficult to quit smoking. Among these variables, youths who had smoking close-friends had the highest likelihood of both initiating smoking and failed quitting. Our results could represent the similar health problems among youths in peri-urban areas in Vietnam. Further, our findings suggested that anti-smoking interventions should involve peer intervention, integrated with the reduction of other unhealthy behaviours such as alcohol consumption, and to focus on adolescents in their very early age (10-14 years old).

  • 10.
    Duong, Duc M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Bergström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Wallin, Lars
    Bui, Ha T. T.
    Eriksson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Exploring the influence of context in a community-based facilitation intervention focusing on neonatal health and survival in Vietnam: a qualitative study2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the Neonatal health - Knowledge into Practice (NeoKIP) trial in Vietnam, local stakeholder groups, supported by trained laywomen acting as facilitators, promoted knowledge translation (KT) resulting in decreased neonatal mortality. In general, as well as in the community-based NeoKIP trial, there is a need to further understand how context influences KT interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, the objective of this study was to explore the influence of context on the facilitation process in the NeoKIP intervention. Methods: A secondary content analysis was performed on 16 Focus Group Discussions with facilitators and participants of the stakeholder groups, applying an inductive approach to the content on context through naive understanding and structured analysis. Results: The three main-categories of context found to influence the facilitation process in the NeoKIP intervention were: (1) Support and collaboration of local authorities and other communal stakeholders; (2) Incentives to, and motivation of, participants; and (3) Low health care coverage and utilization. In particular, the role of local authorities in a KT intervention was recognized as important. Also, while project participants expected financial incentives, non-financial benefits such as individual learning were considered to balance the lack of reimbursement in the NeoKIP intervention. Further, project participants recognized the need to acknowledge the needs of disadvantaged groups. Conclusions: This study provides insight for further understanding of the influence of contextual aspects to improve effects of a KT intervention in Vietnam. We suggest that future KT interventions should apply strategies to improve local authorities' engagement, to identify and communicate non-financial incentives, and to make disadvantaged groups a priority. Further studies to evaluate the contextual aspects in KT interventions in LMICs are also needed.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Duc, Duong M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet.
    Thanh, Vu Pham N
    Institute of Sociology, Public Health and Environment Depertment, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Huy, Tran Q
    Nursing office, Department of Medical Services Administration, Ministry of Health Vietnam.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Wallin, Lars
    School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, SE-791 88, Falun.
    Lessons learned from stakeholders in a facilitation intervention targeting neonatal health in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam2013In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 13, p. 234-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In northern Vietnam the Neonatal health - Knowledge Into Practice (NeoKIP, Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN44599712) trial has evaluated facilitation as a knowledge translation intervention to improve neonatal survival. The results demonstrated that intervention sites, each having an assigned group including local stakeholders supported by a facilitator, lowered the neonatal mortality rate by 50% during the last intervention year compared with control sites. This process evaluation was conducted to identify and describe mechanisms of the NeoKIP intervention based on experiences of facilitators and intervention group members.

    METHODS: Four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with all facilitators at different occasions and 12 FGDs with 6 intervention groups at 2 occasions. Fifteen FGDs were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English, and analysed using thematic analysis.

    RESULTS: Four themes and 17 sub-themes emerged from the 3 FGDs with facilitators, and 5 themes and 18 sub-themes were identified from the 12 FGDs with the intervention groups mirroring the process of, and the barriers to, the intervention. Facilitators and intervention group members concurred that having groups representing various organisations was beneficial. Facilitators were considered important in assembling the groups. The facilitators functioned best if coming from the same geographical area as the groups and if they were able to come to terms with the chair of the groups. However, the facilitators' lack of health knowledge was regarded as a deficit for assisting the groups' assignments. FGD participants experienced the NeoKIP intervention to have impact on the knowledge and behaviour of both intervention group members and the general public, however, they found that the intervention was a slow and time-consuming process. Perceived facilitation barriers were lack of money, inadequate support, and the function of the intervention groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: This qualitative process evaluation contributes to explain the improved neonatal survival and why this occurred after a latent period in the NeoKIP project. The used knowledge translation intervention, where facilitators supported multi-stakeholder coalitions with the mandate to impact upon attitudes and behaviour in the communes, has low costs and potential for being scaled-up within existing healthcare systems.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Huy, Tran Q
    Nursing office, Department of Medical Services Administration, Ministry of Health Vietnam.
    Duc, Duong M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Ekholm Selling, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hoa, Dinh P
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Vietnam.
    Thuy, Nguyen T
    Vietnam Sweden Uong Bi General Hospital, Quang Ninh, Vietnam.
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Vietnam Sweden Uong Bi General Hospital, Quang Ninh, Vietnam.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Wallin, Lars
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Process evaluation of a knowledge translation intervention using facilitation of local stakeholder groups to impove neonatal survival in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam2016In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Annually, 2.8 million neonatal deaths occur worldwide, despite the fact that three-quarters of them could be prevented if available evidence-based interventions were used. Facilitation of community groups has been recognized as a promising method to translate knowledge into practice. In northern Vietnam, the Neonatal Health – Knowledge Into Practice trial evaluated facilitation of community groups (2008–2011) and succeeded in reducing the neonatal mortality rate (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95 % confidence interval 0.30–0.89). The aim of this paper is to report on the process (implementation and mechanism of impact) of this intervention.

    Methods

    Process data were excerpted from diary information from meetings with facilitators and intervention groups, and from supervisor records of monthly meetings with facilitators. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. An evaluation including attributes and skills of facilitators (e.g., group management, communication, and commitment) was performed at the end of the intervention using a six-item instrument. Odds ratios were analyzed, adjusted for cluster randomization using general linear mixed models.

    Results

    To ensure eight active facilitators over 3 years, 11 Women’s Union representatives were recruited and trained. Of the 44 intervention groups, composed of health staff and commune stakeholders, 43 completed their activities until the end of the study. In total, 95 % (n = 1508) of the intended monthly meetings with an intervention group and a facilitator were conducted. The overall attendance of intervention group members was 86 %. The groups identified 32 unique problems and implemented 39 unique actions. The identified problems targeted health issues concerning both women and neonates. Actions implemented were mainly communication activities. Communes supported by a group with a facilitator who was rated high on attributes and skills (n = 27) had lower odds of neonatal mortality (odds ratio, 0.37; 95 % confidence interval, 0.19–0.73) than control communes (n = 46).

    Conclusions

    This evaluation identified several factors that might have influenced the outcomes of the trial: continuity of intervention groups’ work, adequate attributes and skills of facilitators, and targeting problems along a continuum of care. Such factors are important to consider in scaling-up efforts.

  • 13.
    Le, Vui Thi
    et al.
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Duc, Duong M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Anh Duy
    Hanoi Obstet & Gynecol Hosp, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Chuong Canh
    Hanoi Obstet & Gynecol Hosp, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Bui, Ha Thi Thu
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Pham, Cuong Viet
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Le, Thi Minh
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Tran, Bich Huu
    Hanoi Univ Publ Hlth, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Sex Ratio at Birth in Vietnam: Results From Data in CHILILAB HDSS, 2004 to 20132017In: Asia-Pacific journal of public health, ISSN 1010-5395, Vol. 29, no 5 Suppl., p. 25S-34SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and imbalanced sex ratio at birth (SRB) in Chi Linh district, Hai Duong. The data were collected from a longitudinal study using a community-based periodic, referred as Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) during 2004 to 2013. A total of 7568 children were analyzed. Results showed that SRB in Chi Linh dramatically increased to the imbalanced sex ratio (114.6 boys to 100 girls) by 2013. SRB was associated with birth order and sex of preceding siblings. SRB was extremely high among families without any sons (136/100). SRB was highest among families having third or more children (175/100). Imbalanced SRB was more likely to occur among women working in small business/homemakers and others, women who attained high education level, and women in wealthy households. We suggested further efforts to tackle imbalanced SRB in periurban areas in Vietnam.

  • 14.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Thi Phuong Hoa, Dinh
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Eriksson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Wallin, Lars
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Selling, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Huy, Tran Q
    Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Duc, Duong M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Tiep, Tran V
    Vietnam-Sweden Uong Bi General Hospital, Uong Bi, Viet Nam.
    Thi Thu Thuy, Vu
    Provincial Health Bureau, Quang Ninh Province, Viet Nam.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Effect of Facilitation of Local Maternal-and-Newborn Stakeholder Groups on Neonatal Mortality: Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial2013In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 10, no 5, p. e1001445-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Facilitation of local women's groups may reportedly reduce neonatal mortality. It is not known whether facilitation of groups composed of local health care staff and politicians can improve perinatal outcomes. We hypothesised that facilitation of local stakeholder groups would reduce neonatal mortality (primary outcome) and improve maternal, delivery, and newborn care indicators (secondary outcomes) in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS:

    In a cluster-randomized design 44 communes were allocated to intervention and 46 to control. Laywomen facilitated monthly meetings during 3 years in groups composed of health care staff and key persons in the communes. A problem-solving approach was employed. Births and neonatal deaths were monitored, and interviews were performed in households of neonatal deaths and of randomly selected surviving infants. A latent period before effect is expected in this type of intervention, but this timeframe was not pre-specified. Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) from July 2008 to June 2011 was 16.5/1,000 (195 deaths per 11,818 live births) in the intervention communes and 18.4/1,000 (194 per 10,559 live births) in control communes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.96 [95% CI 0.73-1.25]). There was a significant downward time trend of NMR in intervention communes (p = 0.003) but not in control communes (p = 0.184). No significant difference in NMR was observed during the first two years (July 2008 to June 2010) while the third year (July 2010 to June 2011) had significantly lower NMR in intervention arm: adjusted OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.30-0.89). Women in intervention communes more frequently attended antenatal care (adjusted OR 2.27 [95% CI 1.07-4.8]).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    A randomized facilitation intervention with local stakeholder groups composed of primary care staff and local politicians working for three years with a perinatal problem-solving approach resulted in increased attendance to antenatal care and reduced neonatal mortality after a latent period.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION:

    Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN44599712

  • 15.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Eriksson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hoa, Dinh P.
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Ba ĐÌnh District, Hà Nội, Việt Nam.
    Huy, Tran Q.
    Ministry of Health, Ba ĐÌnh District, Hà Nội, Việt Nam.
    Duc, Duong M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Implementing knowledge into practice for improved neonatal survival: a cluster-randomised, community-based trial in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam2011In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 11, no 239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Globally, almost 4 million newborns die during the first 4 weeks of life every year. By increased use of evidence-based knowledge in the healthcare system a large proportion of these neonatal deaths could be prevented. But there is a severe lack of knowledge on effective methods for successful implementation of evidence into practice, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated promising results with increased survival among both mothers and newborns using community-based approaches. In Vietnam evidence-based guidelines on reproductive health were launched in 2003 and revised in 2009. The overall objective of the current project is to evaluate if a facilitation intervention on the community level, with a problem-solving approach involving local representatives if the healthcare system and the community, results in improvements of neonatal health and survival.

    Methods/Design: The study, which has been given the acronym NeoKIP (Neonatal Health - Knowledge Into Practice), took place in 8 districts composed by 90 communes in a province in northern Vietnam, where neonatal mortality rate was 24/1000 in 2005. A cluster randomised design was used, allocating clusters, as defined as a commune and its correponding Commune Health Center (CHC) to either intervention or control arm. The facilitation intervention targeted staff at healthcare centres and key persons in the communes. The facilitator role was performed by lay women (Women's Union representatives) using quality improvement techniques to initiate and sustain improvement processes targeting identified problem areas. The intervention has been running over 3 years and data were collected on the facilitation process, healthcare staff knowledge in neonatal care and their behaviour in clinical practice, and reproductive and perinatal health indicators. Primary outcome is neonatal mortality.

    Discussion: The intervention is participatory and dynamic, focused on developing a learning process and a problem-solving cycle. The study recognises the vital role of the local community as actors in improving their own and their newborns' health, and applies a bottom-up approach where change will be accomplished by an increasing awareness at and demand from grass root level. By utilising the existing healthcare structure this intervention may, if proven successful, be well suited for scaling up.

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