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  • 1.
    Ashworth, Emma
    et al.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Fac Hlth, Sch Psychol, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi. Liverpool John Moores Univ, Fac Hlth, Sch Psychol, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Human & Community Dev, Dept Psychol, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi. Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Inst Translat Med & Biotechnol, Moscow, Russia..
    Neural activation of anxiety and depression in children and young people: A systematic meta-analysis of fMRI studies2021Inngår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 311, artikkel-id 111272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies consistently demonstrate altered neural activation in youth experiencing anxiety and depression in a way that is distinct from adult-onset disorders. However, there is a paucity of research systematically reviewing this, and no meta-analyses have been conducted using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE). The present study conducted a systematic literature search to identify fMRI studies in youth (age 4?18) with depression or anxiety disorders. 48 studies with over 2000 participants were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Significant foci were extracted. Five ALE meta-analyses were conducted: a) activation for both anxiety disorders and depression; b) activation for anxiety disorders only; c) activation for depression only; d) deactivation for both anxiety disorders and depression; e) deactivation for depression. Results indicated significant clusters of increased activation in the bilateral amygdala for youth with internalising disorders, and specifically for those with anxiety disorders. Significant increased activation extended into the dorsal anterior cingulate, entorhinal cortex, the putamen, and the medial and lateral globus pallidus in youth with anxiety disorders. These findings help to detail the nature of anxiety being an amygdala hyperactivity disorder, whilst also defining the distinction between neural activation patterns in anxiety and depression.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Burgos, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Kempton, Matthew J
    Nordenskjöld, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Nylander, Ruta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Craft, Suzanne
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Impaired Insulin Sensitivity as Indexed by the HOMA Score Is Associated With Deficits in Verbal Fluency and Temporal Lobe Gray Matter Volume in the Elderly2012Inngår i: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 488-494Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE

    Impaired insulin sensitivity is linked to cognitive deficits and reduced brain size. However, it is not yet known whether insulin sensitivity involves regional changes in gray matter volume. Against this background, we examined the association between insulin sensitivity, cognitive performance, and regional gray matter volume in 285 cognitively healthy elderly men and women aged 75 years from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

    Insulin sensitivity was calculated from fasting serum insulin and plasma glucose determinations using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) method. Cognitive performance was examined by a categorical verbal fluency. Participants also underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. Multivariate analysis using linear regression was conducted, controlling for potential confounders (sex, education, serum LDL cholesterol, mean arterial blood pressure, and abdominal visceral fat volume).

    RESULTS

    The HOMA-IR was negatively correlated with verbal fluency performance, brain size (S1), and temporal lobe gray matter volume in regions known to be involved in speech production (Brodmann areas 21 and 22, respectively). No such effects were observed when examining diabetic (n = 55) and cognitively impaired (n = 27) elderly subjects as separate analyses.

    CONCLUSIONS

    These cross-sectional findings suggest that both pharmacologic and lifestyle interventions improving insulin signaling may promote brain health in late life but must be confirmed in patient studies.

  • 3.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Nordenskjöld, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Burgos, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Le Grevès, Madeleine
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Association between physical activity and brain health in older adults2013Inngår i: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 83-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present cross-sectional study, we examined physical activity (PA) and its possible association with cognitive skills and brain structure in 331 cognitively healthy elderly. Based on the number of self-reported light and hard activities for at least 30 minutes per week, participants were assigned to 4 groups representing different levels of PA. The cognitive skills were assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination score, a verbal fluency task, and the Trail-making test as a measure of visuospatial orientation ability. Participants also underwent a magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Multiple regression analysis revealed that greater PA was associated with a shorter time to complete the Trail-making test, and higher levels of verbal fluency. Further, the level of self-reported PA was positively correlated with brain volume, white matter, as well as a parietal lobe gray matter volume, situated bilaterally at the precuneus. These present cross-sectional results indicate that PA is a lifestyle factor that is linked to brain structure and function in late life.

  • 4.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Rönnemaa, Elina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Sällman Almén, Markus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schultes, Bernd
    Interdisciplinary Obesity Center, Kantonsspital St. Gallen.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    The fat mass and obesity gene is linked to reduced verbal fluency in overweight and obese elderly men2011Inngår i: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 1159.e1-1159.e5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans carrying the prevalent rs9939609 A allele of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are more susceptible to developing obesity than noncarries. Recently, polymorphisms in the FTO gene of elderly subjects have also been linked to a reduced volume in the frontal lobe as well as increased risk for incident Alzheimer disease. However, so far there is no evidence directly linking the FTO gene to functional cognitive processes. Here we examined whether the FTO rs9939609 A allele is associated with verbal fluency performance in 355 elderly men at the age of 82 years who have no clinically apparent cognitive impairment. Retrieval of verbal memory is a good surrogate measure reflecting frontal lobe functioning. Here we found that obese and overweight but not normal weight FTO A allele carriers showed a lower performance on verbal fluency than non-carriers (homozygous for rs9939609 T allele). This effect was not observed for a measure of general cognitive performance (i.e., Mini-Mental State Examination score), thereby indicating that the FTO gene primarily affects frontal lobe-dependent cognitive processes in elderly men.

  • 5.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Shostak, Anton
    Lange, Tanja
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schultes, Bernd
    Born, Jan
    Oster, Henrik
    Hallschmid, Manfred
    Diurnal Rhythm of Circulating Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt/Visfatin/PBEF): Impact of Sleep Loss and Relation to Glucose Metabolism2012Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, nr 2, s. E218-E222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

     Animal studies indicate that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase [Nampt/visfatin/pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] contributes to the circadian fine-tuning of metabolic turnover. However, it is unknown whether circulating Nampt concentrations, which are elevated in type 2 diabetes and obesity, display a diurnal rhythm in humans.

    Objective

     Our objective was to examine the 24-h profile of serum Nampt in humans under conditions of sleep and sleep deprivation and relate the Nampt pattern to morning postprandial glucose metabolism.

    Intervention

    Fourteen healthy men participated in two 24-h sessions starting at 1800 h, including either regular 8-h-night sleep or continuous wakefulness. Serum Nampt and leptin were measured in 1.5- to 3-h intervals. In the morning, plasma glucose and serum insulin responses to standardized breakfast intake were determined.

    Main Outcome Measures

     Under regular sleep-wake conditions, Nampt levels displayed a pronounced diurnal rhythm, peaking during early afternoon (P < 0.001) that was inverse to leptin profiles peaking in the early night. When subjects stayed awake, the Nampt rhythm was preserved but phase advanced by about 2 h (P < 0.05). Two-hour postprandial plasma glucose concentrations were elevated after sleep loss (P < 0.05), whereas serum insulin was not affected. The relative glucose increase due to sleep loss displayed a positive association with the magnitude of the Nampt phase shift (r = 0.54; P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Serum Nampt concentrations follow a diurnal rhythm, peaking in the afternoon. Sleep loss induces a Nampt rhythm phase shift that is positively related to the impairment of postprandial glucose metabolism due to sleep deprivation, suggesting a regulatory impact of Nampt rhythmicity on glucose homeostasis.

  • 6.
    Brooks, Samantha
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper. Liverpool John Moores Univ, Sch Psychol, Liverpool, England.;Univ Witwatersrand, Neurosci Res Lab NeuRL, Dept Psychol, Sch Human & Community Dev, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Dahl, K.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Dudley-Jones, R.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Sch Psychol, Liverpool, England..
    Schiöth, Helgi
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Funktionell farmakologi och neurovetenskap.
    A neuroinflammatory compulsivity model of anorexia nervosa (NICAN)2024Inngår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 159, artikkel-id 105580Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder often highly resistant to treatment, characterised by restrictive eating and/or compensatory behaviours such as purging or excessive exercising, leading to low body weight and dysregulated appetite. The recovery rate is low for those with AN in standard treatment, including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), enhanced-CBT, and anti-depressant medication, and risk of relapse is high (Muratore, Attia, 2021; Monteleone et al., 2022; Dalle Grave et al., 2023) estimated at around an annual global rate of 50% (Steinhausen, 2002, Frostad et al., 2022). Moreover, longitudinal studies show that for those with over twenty years lived experience of AN, recovery rate is only 40–63% (Eddy et al., 2017, Fichter et al., 2017). And for the last five years in the UK (2017–2022), an alarming 84% rise in AN admissions to the National Health Service was reported (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2022), a rise echoed around the world, especially in high-income countries (Zipfel et al., 2022). Given this alarming rise, some clinicians are dividing opinion by suggesting palliative care and medically assisted death for treatment resistant AN (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2023). Considering the dangerous nature of AN and heightened risk of death, new approaches are urgently needed to examine novel neurobiological mechanisms maintaining the disorder that may improve global treatment resistance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Barker, Gareth J
    O'Daly, Owen G
    Brammer, Michael
    Williams, Steven Cr
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Treasure, Janet
    Campbell, Iain C
    Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study2011Inngår i: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 11, s. 179-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN) have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume.

    METHODS:

    Voxel based morphometry (VBM), corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN) and 21 women (HC) was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

    RESULTS:

    Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Burgos, J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Kempton, M J
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Nordenskjöld, Richard
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Nylander, Ruta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Late-life obesity is associated with smaller global and regional gray matter volumes: a voxel-based morphometric study2013Inngår i: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 230-236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: 

    Obesity adversely affects frontal lobe brain structure and function. Here we sought to show that people who are obese versus those who are of normal weight over a 5-year period have differential global and regional brain volumes.

    DESIGN: 

    Using voxel-based morphometry, contrasts were done between those who were recorded as being either obese or of normal weight over two time points in the 5 years prior to the brain scan. In a post-hoc preliminary analysis, we compared scores for obese and normal weight people who completed the trail-making task.

    SUBJECTS: 

    A total of 292 subjects were examined following exclusions (for example, owing to dementia, stroke and cortical infarcts) from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort with a body mass index of normal weight (<25 kg m−2) or obese (30 kg m−2).

    RESULTS: 

    People who were obese had significantly smaller total brain volumes and specifically, significantly reduced total gray matter (GM) volume (GMV) (with no difference in white matter or cerebrospinal fluid). Initial exploratory whole brain uncorrected analysis revealed that people who were obese had significantly smaller GMV in the bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left inferior frontal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus. Secondary more stringent corrected analyses revealed a surviving cluster of GMV difference in the left DLPFC. Finally, post-hoc contrasts of scores on the trail-making task, which is linked to DLPFC function, revealed that obese people were significantly slower than those of normal weight.

    CONCLUSION: 

    These findings suggest that in comparison with normal weight, people who are obese have smaller GMV, particularly in the left DLPFC. Our results may provide evidence for a potential working memory mechanism for the cognitive suppression of appetite that may lower the risk of developing obesity in later life.

  • 9.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Increased prefrontal and parahippocampal activation with reduced dorsolateral prefrontal and insular cortex activation to food images in obesity: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies.2013Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. e60393-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is emerging as the most significant health concern of the twenty-first century. A wealth of neuroimaging data suggest that weight gain might be related to aberrant brain function, particularly in prefrontal cortical regions modulating mesolimbic addictive responses to food. Nevertheless, food addiction is currently a model hotly debated. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data, examining the most common functional differences between normal-weight and obese participants in response to food stimuli.

    DATA SOURCE: We conducted a search using several journal databases and adhered to the 'Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses' (PRISMA) method. To this aim, 10 studies were found with a total of 126 obese participants, 129 healthy controls, equaling 184 foci (146 increased, 38 decreased activation) using the Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) technique. Out of the 10 studies, 7 investigated neural responses to food versus non-food images.

    RESULTS: In response to food images, obese in comparison to healthy weight subjects had increased activation in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right anterior cingulate cortex, and reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left insular cortex.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prefrontal cortex areas linked to cognitive evaluation processes, such as evaluation of rewarding stimuli, as well as explicit memory regions, appear most consistently activated in response to images of food in those who are obese. Conversely, a reduced activation in brain regions associated with cognitive control and interoceptive awareness of sensations in the body might indicate a weakened control system, combined with hypo-sensitivity to satiety and discomfort signals after eating in those who are prone to overeat.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 10.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Funk, Sabina G
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Young, Susanne Y
    Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Bellville, South Africa.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    The Role of Working Memory for Cognitive Control in Anorexia Nervosa versus Substance Use Disorder2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 1651Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefrontal cortex executive functions, such as working memory (WM) interact with limbic processes to foster impulse control. Such an interaction is referred to in a growing body of publications by terms such as cognitive control, cognitive inhibition, affect regulation, self-regulation, top-down control, and cognitive–emotion interaction. The rising trend of research into cognitive control of impulsivity, using various related terms reflects the importance of research into impulse control, as failure to employ cognitions optimally may eventually result in mental disorder. Against this background, we take a novel approach using an impulse control spectrum model – where anorexia nervosa (AN) and substance use disorder (SUD) are at opposite extremes – to examine the role of WM for cognitive control. With this aim, we first summarize WM processes in the healthy brain in order to frame a systematic review of the neuropsychological, neural and genetic findings of AN and SUD. In our systematic review of WM/cognitive control, we found n = 15 studies of AN with a total of n = 582 AN and n = 365 HC participants; and n = 93 studies of SUD with n = 9106 SUD and n = 3028 HC participants. In particular, we consider how WM load/capacity may support the neural process of excessive epistemic foraging (cognitive sampling of the environment to test predictions about the world) in AN that reduces distraction from salient stimuli. We also consider the link between WM and cognitive control in people with SUD who are prone to ‘jumping to conclusions’ and reduced epistemic foraging. Finally, in light of our review, we consider WM training as a novel research tool and an adjunct to enhance treatment that improves cognitive control of impulsivity.

  • 11.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Nilsson, Emil K
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Stein, Dan J
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    BDNF polymorphisms are linked to poorer working memory performance, reduced cerebellar and hippocampal volumes and differences in prefrontal cortex in a Swedish elderly population2014Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. e82707-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) links learning, memory and cognitive decline in elderly, but evidence linking BDNF allele variation, cognition and brain structural differences is lacking.

    METHODS: 367 elderly Swedish men (n = 181) and women (n = 186) from Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) were genotyped and the BDNF functional rs6265 SNP was further examined in subjects who completed the Trail Making Task (TMT), verbal fluency task, and had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) examined brain structure, cognition and links with BDNF.

    RESULTS: The functional BDNF SNP (rs6265,) predicted better working memory performance on the TMT with positive association of the Met rs6265, and was linked with greater cerebellar, precuneus, left superior frontal gyrus and bilateral hippocampal volume, and reduced brainstem and bilateral posterior cingulate volumes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The functional BDNF polymorphism influences brain volume in regions associated with memory and regulation of sensorimotor control, with the Met rs6265 allele potentially being more beneficial to these functions in the elderly.

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  • 12.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    O'Daly, Owen G.
    Uher, Rudolf
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Treasure, Janet
    Campbell, Iain C.
    Subliminal food images compromise superior working memory performance in women with restricting anorexia nervosa2012Inngår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 751-763Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is dysregulated in women with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN). It is not known whether appetitive non-conscious stimuli bias cognitive responses in those with RAN. Thirteen women with RAN and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed a dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) working memory task and an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) conflict task, while masked subliminal food, aversive and neutral images were presented. During the DLPFC task, accuracy was higher in the RAN compared to the HC group, but superior performance was compromised when subliminal food stimuli were presented: errors positively correlated with self-reported trait anxiety in the RAN group. These effects were not observed in the ACC task. Appetitive activation is intact and anxiogenic in women with RAN, and non-consciously interacts with working memory processes associated with the DLPFC. This interaction mechanism may underlie cognitive inhibition of appetitive processes that are anxiety inducing, in people with AN.

  • 13.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    O'Daly, Owen
    Uher, Rudolf
    Friederich, Hans-Christoph
    Giampietro, Vincent
    Brammer, Michael
    Williams, Steven C. R.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Treasure, Janet
    Campbell, Iain C.
    Thinking about Eating Food Activates Visual Cortex with Reduced Bilateral Cerebellar Activation in Females with Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study2012Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. e34000-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have aberrant cognitions about food and altered activity in prefrontal cortical and somatosensory regions to food images. However, differential effects on the brain when thinking about eating food between healthy women and those with AN is unknown.

    Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examined neural activation when 42 women thought about eating the food shown in images: 18 with AN (11 RAN, 7 BPAN) and 24 age-matched controls (HC).

    Results: Group contrasts between HC and AN revealed reduced activation in AN in the bilateral cerebellar vermis, and increased activation in the right visual cortex. Preliminary comparisons between AN subtypes and healthy controls suggest differences in cortical and limbic regions.

    Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that thinking about eating food shown in images increases visual and prefrontal cortical neural responses in females with AN, which may underlie cognitive biases towards food stimuli and ruminations about controlling food intake. Future studies are needed to explicitly test how thinking about eating activates restraint cognitions, specifically in those with restricting vs. binge-purging AN subtypes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Savov, Vasil
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Allzen, E.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Exposure to subliminal arousing stimuli induces robust activation in the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, insular cortex and primary visual cortex: A systematic meta-analysis of fMRI studies2012Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 2962-2973Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) demonstrates that the subliminal presentation of arousing stimuli can activate subcortical brain regions independently of consciousness-generating top-down cortical modulation loops. Delineating these processes may elucidate mechanisms for arousal, aberration in which may underlie some psychiatric conditions. Here we are the first to review and discuss four Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses of fMRI studies using subliminal paradigms. We find a maximum of 9 out of 12 studies using subliminal presentation of faces contributing to activation of the amygdala, and also a significantly high number of studies reporting activation in the bilateral anterior cingulate, bilateral insular cortex, hippocampus and primary visual cortex. Subliminal faces are the strongest modality, whereas lexical stimuli are the weakest. Meta-analyses independent of studies using Regions of Interest (ROI) revealed no biasing effect Core neuronal arousal in the brain, which may be at first independent of conscious processing, potentially involves a network incorporating primary visual areas, somatosensory, implicit memory and conflict monitoring regions. These data could provide candidate brain regions for the study of psychiatric disorders associated with aberrant automatic emotional processing.

  • 15.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Swenne, Ingemar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    Aronsson, Marianne
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Zarei, Sanaz
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Lundberg, Lina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Salonen-Ros, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Rosling, Agneta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Obsessive-compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder2014Inngår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 224, nr 3, s. 246-253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of rumination at the beginning of eating disorder (ED) is not well understood. We hypothesised that impulsivity, rumination and restriction could be associated with neural activity in response to food stimuli in young individuals with eating disorders (ED). We measured neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tested working memory (WM) and administered the eating disorders examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) and obsessive-compulsive inventory (OCI-R) in 15 adolescent females with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (mean age 15 years) and 20 age-matched healthy control females. We found that EDNOS subjects had significantly higher scores on the BIS 11, EDE-Q and OCI-R scales. Significantly increased neural responses to food images in the EDNOS group were observed in the prefrontal circuitry. OCI-R scores in the EDNOS group also significantly correlated with activity in the prefrontal circuitry and the cerebellum. Significantly slower WM responses negatively correlated with bilateral superior frontal gyrus activity in the EDNOS group. We conclude that ruminations, linked to WM, are present in adolescent females newly diagnosed with EDNOS. These may be risk factors for the development of an eating disorder and may be detectable before disease onset.

  • 16.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. UCT Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town South Africa.
    Wiemerslage, L
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Burch, K H
    Maiorana, S A
    Cocolas, E
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Kamaloodien, K
    Stein, D J
    The impact of cognitive training in substance use disorder: the effect of working memory training on impulse control in methamphetamine users2017Inngår i: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 234, nr 12, s. 1911-1921Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity is a vulnerability trait for poor self-regulation in substance use disorder (SUD). Working memory (WM) training improves impulsivity and self-regulation in psychiatric disorders. Here we test WM training in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD).

    METHODS: There are 15 MUD patients receiving inpatient treatment as usual (TAU) and 20 who additionally completed WM cognitive training (CT) and 25 healthy controls (HC). MANCOVA repeated measures analyses examined changes in impulsivity and self-regulation at baseline and after 4 weeks.

    RESULTS:  = 0.3523, p < 0.05). Compared to follow-up TAU, follow-up CT group had higher self-reported mood scores (t = 2.784, p = 0.01) and higher compared to CT baseline (t = 2.386, p = 0.036). Feelings of self-control were higher in CT than TAU at follow-up (t = 2.736, p = 0.012) and also compared to CT baseline (t = 3.390, p = 0.006), lack of planning significantly improved in CT between baseline and follow-up (t = 2.219, p = 0.048), as did total impulsivity scores (t = 2.085, p = 0.048). Measures of self-regulation were improved in the CT group compared to TAU at follow-up, in total score (t = 2.442, p = 0.038), receiving score (t = 2.314, p = 0.029) and searching score (t = 2.362, p = 0.027). Implementing self-regulation was higher in the CT group compared to TAU (t = 2.373, p = 0.026).

    CONCLUSIONS: WM training may improve control of impulsivity and self-regulation in people with MUD.

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    fulltext
  • 17.
    Brooks, Samantha Jane
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi Birgir
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    A debate on current eating disorder diagnoses in light of neurobiological findings: is it time for a spectrum model?2012Inngår i: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 12, s. 76-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sixty percent of eating disorders do not meet criteria for anorexia- or bulimia nervosa, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version 4 (DSM-IV). Instead they are diagnosed as 'eating disorders not otherwise specified' (EDNOS). Discrepancies between criteria and clinical reality currently hampering eating disorder diagnoses in the DSM-IV will be addressed by the forthcoming DSM-V. However, future diagnoses for eating disorders will rely on current advances in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics for classification of symptoms that will ultimately improve treatment. Discussion: Here we debate the classification issues, and discuss how brain imaging and genetic discoveries might be interwoven into a model of eating disorders to provide better classification and treatment. The debate concerns: a) current issues in the classification of eating disorders in the DSM-IV, b) changes proposed for DSM-V, c) neuroimaging eating disorder research and d) genetic eating disorder research. Summary: We outline a novel evidence-based 'impulse control' spectrum model of eating disorders. A model of eating disorders is proposed that will aid future diagnosis of symptoms, coinciding with contemporary suggestions by clinicians and the proposed changes due to be published in the DSM-V.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 18.
    Brooks, Samantha
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Lochner, Christine
    Univ Stellenbosch, US UCT MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, Stellenbosch, South Africa..
    Shoptaw, Steve
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA, USA..
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, US UCT MRC Unit Anxiety & Stress Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Using the research domain criteria (RDoC) to conceptualize impulsivity and compulsivity in relation to addiction2017Inngår i: Brain Research In Addiction / [ed] Calvey, T Daniels, WMU, ELSEVIER , 2017, s. 177-218Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nomenclature for mental disorder was updated in 2013 with the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). In DSM-5, substance use disorders are framed as more dimensional. First, the distinction between abuse and dependence is replaced by substance use. Second, the addictions section now covers both substances and behavioral addictions. This contemporary move toward dimensionality and transdiagnosis in the addictions and other disorders embrace accumulating cognitive-affective neurobiological evidence that is reflected in the United States' National Institutes of Health Research Domain Criteria (NIH RDoC). TheRDoCcalls for the further development of transdiagnostic approaches to psychopathy and includes five domains to improve research. Additionally, the RDoC suggests that these domains can be measured in terms of specific units of analysis. In line with these suggestions, recent publications have stimulated updated neurobiological conceptualizations of two transdiagnostic concepts, namely impulsivity and compulsivity and their interactions that are applicable to addictive disorders. However, there has not yet been a review to examine the constructs of impulsivity and compulsivity in relation to addiction in light of the research-oriented RDoC. By doing so it may become clearer as to whether impulsivity and compulsivity function antagonistically, complementarily or in some other way at the behavioral, cognitive, and neural level and how this relationship underpins addiction. Thus, here we consider research into impulsivity and compulsivity in light of the transdiagnostic RDoC to help better understand these concepts and their application to evidence-based clinical intervention for addiction.

  • 19.
    Burger, Antoinette
    et al.
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Anzio Rd, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, Inst Neurosci, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Anzio Rd, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa.
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Anzio Rd, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa;MRC Unit Risk & Resilience Mental Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, Inst Neurosci, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Howells, Fleur M.
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Anzio Rd, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, Inst Neurosci, Cape Town, South Africa.
    The impact of acute and short-term methamphetamine abstinence on brain metabolites: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy chemical shift imaging study2018Inngår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 185, s. 226-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Abuse of methamphetamine (MA) is a global health concern. Previous H-1-MRS studies have found that, with methamphetamine abstinence (MAA), there are changes in n-acetyl-aspartate (NAA/Cr), myo-inositol (mI/Cr), choline (Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA), and glutamate with glutamine (Glx) metabolites. Limited studies have investigated the effect of acute MAA, and acute-to-short-term MAA on brain metabolites.

    Methods

    Adults with chronic MA dependence (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 22) were recruited. Two-dimensional chemical shift H-1-MRS imaging (TR2000 ms, TE30 ms) slice was performed and included voxels in bilateral anterior-cingulate (ACC), frontal-white-matter (FWM), and dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortices (DLPFC). Control participants were scanned once. The MA group was scanned twice, with acute (1.5 +/- 0.6 weeks, n = 31) and short-term MAA (5.1 +/- 0.8 weeks, n = 22). The change in H-1-MRS metabolites over time (n = 19) was also investigated. Standard H-1-MRS metabolites are reported relative to Cr + PCr.

    Results

    Acute MAA showed lower n-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and n-acetyl-aspartate with n-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAA + NAAG) in left DLPFC, and glycerophosphocholine with phosphocholine (GPC + PCh) in left FWM. Short-term MAA showed lower NAA + NAAG and higher myo-inositol (mI) in right ACC, lower NAA and NAA + NAAG in the left DLPFC, and lower GPC + PCh in left FWM. Over time, MAA showed decreased NAA and NAA + NAAG and increased mI in right ACC, decreased NAA and NAA + NAAG in right FWM, and decreased in mI in left FWM.

    Conclusion

    In acute MAA, there was damage to the integrity of neuronal tissue, which was enhanced with short-term MAA. From acute to short-term MAA, activation of neuroinflammatory processes are suggested. This is the first H-1-MRS study to report the development of neuroinflammation with loss of neuronal integrity in MAA.

  • 20.
    Chapman, Colin Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brooks, Samantha Jane
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi Birgir
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Lifestyle determinants of the drive to eat: a meta-analysis2012Inngår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, nr 3, s. 492-497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is emerging as the most significant health concern of the 21st century. Although this is attributable in part to changes in our environment-including the increased prevalence of energy-dense food-it also appears that several lifestyle factors may increase our vulnerability to this calorie-rich landscape. Epidemiologic studies have begun to show links between adiposity and behaviors such as television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation. However, these studies leave unclear the direction of this association. In addition, studies that investigated the acute impact of these factors on food intake have reported a wide variety of effect sizes, from highly positive to slightly negative.

    Objective: The purpose of this article was to provide a meta-analysis of the relation between lifestyle choices and increases in acute food intake.

    Design: An initial search was performed on PubMed to collect articles relating television watching, sleep deprivation, and alcohol consumption to food intake. Only articles published before February 2012 were considered. Studies that took place in a controlled, laboratory setting with healthy individuals were included. Studies were analyzed by using 3 meta-analyses with random-effects models. In addition, a 1-factor ANOVA was run to discover any main effect of lifestyle.

    Results: The 3 most prominent lifestyle factors-television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation-had significant short-term effects on food intake, with alcohol being more significant (Cohen's d = 1.03) than sleep deprivation (Cohen's d = 0.49) and television watching (Cohen's d = 0.2).

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation are not merely correlated with obesity but likely contribute to it by encouraging excessive eating. Because these behaviors are all known to affect cognitive functions involved in reward saliency and inhibitory control, it may be that they represent common mechanisms through which this eating is facilitated.

  • 21.
    Chye, Yann
    et al.
    Monash Univ, Turner Inst Brain & Mental Hlth, Sch Psychol Sci, Clayton, Vic, Australia..
    Mackey, Scott
    Univ Vermont, Dept Psychiat, Burlington, VT 05405 USA..
    Gutman, Boris A.
    IIT, Biomed Engn, Chicago, IL 60616 USA..
    Ching, Christopher R. K.
    Univ Southern Calif, Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat Inst, Imaging Genet Ctr, Dept Neurol,Keck Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Batalla, Albert
    Univ Utrecht, Dept Psychiat, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Brain Ctr, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Barcelona, Dept Psychiat & Psychol, Hosp Clin, IDIBAPS,CIBERSAM,Inst Neurosci, Barcelona, Spain..
    Blaine, Sara
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurosci, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi. Liverpool John Moores Univ, Sch Psychol, Fac Hlth, Liverpool L3 3AF, Merseyside, England..
    Caparelli, Elisabeth C.
    NIDA, Neuroimaging Res Branch, Intramural Res Program, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Cousijn, Janna
    Univ Amsterdam, Dept Dev Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Dagher, Alain
    McGill Univ, McConnell Brain Imaging Ctr, Montreal Neurol Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Foxe, John J.
    Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Dept Neurosci, Rochester, NY USA.;Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Ernest J Del Monte Inst Neurosci, Rochester, NY USA..
    Goudriaan, Anna E.
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam Inst Addict Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Arkin Mental Hlth Care, Dept Res & Qual Care, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Hester, Robert
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Sch Psychol Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Hutchison, Kent
    Univ Colorado, Dept Psychol & Neurosci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Jahanshad, Neda
    Univ Southern Calif, Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat Inst, Imaging Genet Ctr, Dept Neurol,Keck Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Kaag, Anne M.
    Univ Amsterdam, Dept Dev Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Korucuoglu, Ozlem
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Li, Chiang-Shan R.
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurosci, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    London, Edythe D.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Jane & Terry Semel Inst Neurosci & Human Behav, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Lorenzetti, Valentina
    Monash Univ, Turner Inst Brain & Mental Hlth, Sch Psychol Sci, Clayton, Vic, Australia.;Australian Catholic Univ, Sch Psychol, Fac Hlth Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Luijten, Maartje
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Inst Behav Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Martin-Santos, Rocio
    Univ Barcelona, Dept Psychiat & Psychol, Hosp Clin, IDIBAPS,CIBERSAM,Inst Neurosci, Barcelona, Spain..
    Meda, Shashwath A.
    Hartford Hosp IOL, Olin Neuropsychiat Res Ctr, Hartford, CT USA..
    Momenan, Reza
    NIAAA, Clin NeuroImaging Res Core, Div Intramural Clin & Biol Res, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Morales, Angelica
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Jane & Terry Semel Inst Neurosci & Human Behav, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Orr, Catherine
    Univ Vermont, Dept Psychiat, Burlington, VT 05405 USA..
    Paulus, Martin P.
    VA San Diego Healthcare Syst, San Diego, CA USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.;Laureate Inst Brain Res, Tulsa, OK USA..
    Pearlson, Godfrey
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurosci, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Reneman, Liesbeth
    Locat AMC, Amsterdam UMC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Schmaal, Lianne
    Orygen, Natl Ctr Excellence Youth Mental Hlth, Parkville, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Ctr Youth Mental Hlth, Parkville, Vic, Australia..
    Sinha, Rajita
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurosci, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Solowij, Nadia
    Univ Wollongong, Sch Psychol, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.;Univ Wollongong, Illawarra Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.;Australian Ctr Cannabinoid Clin & Res Excellence, New Lambton Hts, NSW, Australia..
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, SA MRC Unit Risk & Resilience Mental Disorders, Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Inst Neurosci, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Stein, Elliot A.
    NIDA, Neuroimaging Res Branch, Intramural Res Program, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Tang, Deborah
    McGill Univ, McConnell Brain Imaging Ctr, Montreal Neurol Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Uhlmann, Anne
    Univ Cape Town, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa..
    van Holst, Ruth
    Univ Amsterdam, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Veltman, Dick J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio
    Monash Univ, Turner Inst Brain & Mental Hlth, Sch Psychol Sci, Clayton, Vic, Australia..
    Wiers, Reinout W.
    Univ Amsterdam, Addict Dev & Psychopathol ADAPT Lab, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Yuecel, Murat
    Monash Univ, Turner Inst Brain & Mental Hlth, Sch Psychol Sci, Clayton, Vic, Australia..
    Thompson, Paul M.
    Univ Southern Calif, Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat Inst, Imaging Genet Ctr, Dept Neurol,Keck Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Conrod, Patricia
    Univ Montreal, Dept Psychiat, CHU Ste Justine Hosp, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Garavan, Hugh
    Univ Vermont, Dept Psychiat, Burlington, VT 05405 USA..
    Subcortical surface morphometry in substance dependence: An ENIGMA addiction working group study2020Inngår i: Addiction Biology, ISSN 1355-6215, E-ISSN 1369-1600, Vol. 25, nr 6, artikkel-id e12830Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While imaging studies have demonstrated volumetric differences in subcortical structures associated with dependence on various abused substances, findings to date have not been wholly consistent. Moreover, most studies have not compared brain morphology across those dependent on different substances of abuse to identify substance-specific and substance-general dependence effects. By pooling large multinational datasets from 33 imaging sites, this study examined subcortical surface morphology in 1628 nondependent controls and 2277 individuals with dependence on alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, and/or cannabis. Subcortical structures were defined by FreeSurfer segmentation and converted to a mesh surface to extract two vertex-level metrics-the radial distance (RD) of the structure surface from a medial curve and the log of the Jacobian determinant (JD)-that, respectively, describe local thickness and surface area dilation/contraction. Mega-analyses were performed on measures of RD and JD to test for the main effect of substance dependence, controlling for age, sex, intracranial volume, and imaging site. Widespread differences between dependent users and nondependent controls were found across subcortical structures, driven primarily by users dependent on alcohol. Alcohol dependence was associated with localized lower RD and JD across most structures, with the strongest effects in the hippocampus, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala. Meanwhile, nicotine use was associated with greater RD and JD relative to nonsmokers in multiple regions, with the strongest effects in the bilateral hippocampus and right nucleus accumbens. By demonstrating subcortical morphological differences unique to alcohol and nicotine use, rather than dependence across all substances, results suggest substance-specific relationships with subcortical brain structures.

  • 22.
    Dahlén, Amelia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Funktionell farmakologi och neurovetenskap.
    Gaudio, Santino
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Funktionell farmakologi och neurovetenskap. Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dept Biomed & Prevent, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Funktionell farmakologi och neurovetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. IM Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Inst Translat Med & Biotechnol, Moscow, Russia.
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Funktionell farmakologi och neurovetenskap. Liverpool John Moores Univ, Sch Psychol, Fac Hlth, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Human & Community Dev, Dept Psychol, Neurosci Res Lab NeuRL, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Phonological working memory is adversely affected in adults with anorexia nervosa: a systematic literature review2022Inngår i: Eating and Weight Disorders, ISSN 1124-4909, E-ISSN 1590-1262, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 1931-1952Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Cognitive restraint has potentiating and deleterious effects on working memory (WM) in anorexia nervosa (AN). Conflicting evidence may be due to heterogeneity of tasks examining different WM components (e.g., verbal/auditory versus visuospatial), and differences in adolescent versus adult AN. Additionally, differential cognitive profiles of restricting versus binge/purging subtypes, comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medication use may confound findings.

    Methods To address these conflicts, 25 studies, published between 2016 and 2021, investigating WM in children, adolescents and adults with AN were systematically reviewed using PRISMA guidelines.

    Results In 71% of WM tasks, no difference in performance between AN patients and age-matched controls was reported, while 29% of WM tasks showed worse performance. Adults with AN displayed deficits in 44% of the verbal/auditory tasks, while performance remained unaffected in 86% of visuospatial tasks.

    Conclusion Examining age groups and WM subsystems separately revealed novel findings of differentially affected WM components in AN. Comorbidities and psychotropic medications were common among AN participants and should be regarded as critical confounding factors for WM measures. Future studies examining different components of WM, acknowledging these confounding factors, may reveal specific deficits in AN to aid treatment improvement strategies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 23. Dalvie, Shareefa
    et al.
    Stein, Dan J
    Koenen, Karestan
    Cardenas, Valerie
    Cuzen, Natalie L
    Ramesar, Raj
    Fein, George
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa.
    The BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism, childhood trauma, and brain volumes in adolescents with alcohol abuse2014Inngår i: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that early life adversity, genetic factors and alcohol dependence are associated with reduced brain volume in adolescents. However, data on the interactive effects of early life adversity, genetic factors (e.g. p.Met66 allele of BDNF), and alcohol dependence, on brain structure in adolescents is limited. We examined whether the BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism interacts with childhood trauma to predict alterations in brain volume in adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUDs).

    METHODS: We examined 160 participants (80 adolescents with DSM-IV AUD and 80 age- and gender-matched controls) who were assessed for trauma using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Magnetic resonance images were acquired for a subset of the cohort (58 AUD and 58 controls) and volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Samples were genotyped for the p.Val66Met polymorphism using the TaqMan® Assay. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and post-hoc t-tests were conducted using SPM8 VBM.

    RESULTS: No significant associations, corrected for multiple comparisons, were found between the BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism, brain volumes and AUD in adolescents with childhood trauma.

    CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest that the BDNF p.Met66 allele and childhood trauma may not be associated with reduced structural volumes in AUD. Other genetic contributors should be investigated in future studies.

  • 24.
    de Jorge Martínez, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi.
    Rukh, Gull
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi.
    Williams, Michael J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi.
    Gaudio, Santino
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi. Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi. School of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Liverpool John Moores University, UK; Department of Psychology, School of Human and Community Development, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi. Institute for Translational Medicine and Biotechnology, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia..
    Genetics of anorexia nervosa: An overview of genome-wide association studies and emerging biological links2022Inngår i: Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao, ISSN 1673-8527, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 1-12, artikkel-id S1673-8527(21)00320-9Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex disorder with a strong genetic component. Comorbidities are frequent and there is substantial overlap with other disorders. The lack of understanding of the molecular and neuroanatomical causes has made it difficult to develop effective treatments and it is often difficult to treat in clinical practice. Recent advances in genetics have changed our understanding of polygenic diseases, increasing the possibility of understanding better how molecular pathways are intertwined. This review synthetizes the current state of genetic research providing an overview of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) findings in AN as well as overlap with other disorders, traits, pathways, and imaging results. This paper also discusses the different putative global pathways that are contributing to the disease including the evidence for metabolic and psychiatric origin of the disease.

  • 25.
    Gaudio, Santino
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brooks, Samantha Jane
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Riva, Giuseppe
    Nonvisual Multisensory Impairment of Body Perception in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological Studies2014Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. e110087-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Body image distortion is a central symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Even if corporeal awareness is multisensory majority of AN studies mainly investigated visual misperception. We systematically reviewed AN studies that have investigated different nonvisual sensory inputs using an integrative multisensory approach to body perception. We also discussed the findings in the light of AN neuroimaging evidence. Methods: Pub Med and PsycINFO were searched until March, 2014. To be included in the review, studies were mainly required to: investigate a sample of patients with current or past AN and a control group and use tasks that directly elicited one or more nonvisual sensory domains. Results:Thirteen studies were included. They studied a total of 223 people with current or past AN and 273 control subjects. Overall, results show impairment in tactile and proprioceptive domains of body perception in AN patients. lnteroception and multisensory integration have been poorly explored directly in AN patients. A limitation of this review is the relatively small amount of literature available. Conclusions: Our results showed that AN patients had a multisensory impairment of body perception that goes beyond visual misperception and involves tactile and proprioceptive sensory components. Furthermore, impairment of tactile and proprioceptive components may be associated with parietal cortex alterations in AN patients. Interoception and multisensory integration have been weakly explored directly. Further research, using multisensory approaches as well as neuroimaging techniques, is needed to better define the complexity of body image distortion in AN. Key Findings: The review suggests an altered capacity of AN patients in processing and integration of bodily signals: body parts are experienced as dissociated from their holistic and perceptive dimensions. Specifically, it is likely that not only perception but memory, and in particular sensorimotor/proprioceptive memory, probably shapes bodily experience in patients with AN.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Gaudio, Santino
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. Univ Campus Biomed Roma, Ctr Integrated Res, Area Diagnost Imaging, Via Alvaro Portillo 200, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Wiemerslage, Lyle
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Old Groote Schuur Hosp, Psychiat Neuroimaging Grp, Anzio Rd, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa..
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    A systematic review of resting-state functional-MRI studies in anorexia nervosa: Evidence for functional connectivity impairment in cognitive control and visuospatial and body-signal integration2016Inngår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 71, s. 578-589Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper systematically reviews the literature pertaining to the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in anorexia nervosa (AN), classifying studies on the basis of different analysis approaches. We followed PRISMA guidelines. Fifteen papers were included, investigating a total of 294 participants with current or past AN and 285 controls. The studies used seed-based, whole-brain independent component analysis (ICA), network-of-interest ICA based and graph analysis approaches. The studies showed relatively consistent overlap in results, yet little overlap in their analytical approach and/or a-priori assumptions. Functional connectivity alterations were mainly found in the corticolimbic circuitry, involved in cognitive control and visual and homeostatic integration. Some overlapping findings were found in brain areas putatively important in AN, such as the insula. These results suggest altered functional connectivity in networks/areas linked to the main symptom domains of AN, such as impaired cognitive control and body image disturbances. These preliminary evidences suggest that more targeted treatments need to be developed that focus on these two symptom domains. Further studies with multi-approach analyses and longitudinal designs are needed to better understand the complexity of AN.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Heany, Sarah J.
    et al.
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, J2,Anzio Rd, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa..
    van Honk, Jack
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, J2,Anzio Rd, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Utrecht, Dept Psychol, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Cape Town, Inst Infect Dis & Mol Med, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa..
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, J2,Anzio Rd, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa..
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, J2,Anzio Rd, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa..
    A quantitative and qualitative review of the effects of testosterone on the function and structure of the human social-emotional brain2016Inngår i: Metabolic brain disease, ISSN 0885-7490, E-ISSN 1573-7365, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 157-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social and affective research in humans is increasingly using functional and structural neuroimaging techniques to aid the understanding of how hormones, such as testosterone, modulate a wide range of psychological processes. We conducted a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of testosterone administration, and of fMRI studies that measured endogenous levels of the hormone, in relation to social and affective stimuli. Furthermore, we conducted a review of structural MRI i.e. voxel based morphometry (VBM) studies which considered brain volume in relation to testosterone levels in adults and in children. In the included testosterone administration fMRI studies, which consisted of female samples only, bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal regions as well as the right caudate were significantly activated by social-affective stimuli in the testosterone condition. In the studies considering endogenous levels of testosterone, stimuli-invoked activations relating to testosterone levels were noted in the bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal regions and the brainstem. When the endogenous testosterone studies were split by sex, the significant activation of the brain stem was seen in the female samples only. Significant stimuli-invoked deactivations relating to endogenous testosterone levels were also seen in the right and left amygdala/parahippocampal regions studies. The findings of the VBM studies were less consistent. In adults larger volumes in the limbic and temporal regions were associated with higher endogenous testosterone. In children, boys showed a positive correlation between testosterone and brain volume in many regions, including the amygdala, as well as global grey matter volume, while girls showed a neutral or negative association between testosterone levels and many brain volumes. In conclusion, amygdalar and parahippocampal regions appear to be key target regions for the acute actions of testosterone in response to social and affective stimuli, while neurodevelopmentally the volumes of a broader network of brain structures are associated with testosterone levels in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  • 28.
    Hogenkamp, Pleunie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Chapman, Colin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Vogel, Heike
    Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Hjorth, Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Zarei, Sanaz
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Lundberg, Lina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Dickson, Suzanne
    Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Calorie anticipation alters food intake after low-caloric but not high-caloric preloads2013Inngår i: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 1548-1553Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Cognitive factors and anticipation are known to influence food intake. The current study examined the effect of anticipation and actual consumption of food on hormone (ghrelin, cortisol, insulin) and glucose levels, appetite and ad libitum intake, to assess whether changes in hormone levels might explain the predicted differences in subsequent food intake.

    Design and Methods: During four breakfast sessions, participants consumed a yogurt preload that was either low-caloric (LC; 180 kcal/300 g) or high-caloric (HC; 530 kcal/300 g), and were provided with either consistent or inconsistent calorie information (i.e. stating the caloric content of the preload was low or high). Appetite ratings and hormone and glucose levels were measured at baseline (t=0), after providing the calorie information about the preload (t=20), after consumption of the preload (t=40) and just before ad libitum intake (t=60).

    Results: Ad libitum intake was lower after HC preloads (as compared to LC preloads; p<0.01). Intake after LC preloads was higher when provided with (consistent) LC-information (467±254 kcal) as compared to (inconsistent) HC-information (346±210 kcal), but intake after the HC preloads did not depend on the information provided (LC-info: 290±178 kcal, HC-info: 333±179 kcal; caloric load*information p=0.03). Hormone levels did not respond in an anticipatory manner, and the post-prandial responses depended on actual calories consumed.

    Conclusions: These results suggest that both cognitive and physiological information determine food intake. When actual caloric intake was sufficient to produce physiological satiety, cognitive factors played no role; however, when physiological satiety was limited, cognitively-induced satiety reduced intake to comparable levels.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Sällman Almén, Markus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Hedberg, Lilia A.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Ortopedi.
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Molekylär medicin.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Detailed Analysis of Variants in FTO in Association with Body Composition in a Cohort of 70-Year-Olds Suggests a Weakened Effect among Elderly2011Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. e20158-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

     The rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene has previously been associated with higher BMI levels in children and young adults. In contrast, this association was not found in elderly men. BMI is a measure of overweight in relation to the individuals' height, but offers no insight into the regional body fat composition or distribution.

    Objective

    To examine whether the FTO gene is associated with overweight and body composition-related phenotypes rather than BMI, we measured waist circumference, total fat mass, trunk fat mass, leg fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and daily energy intake in 985 humans (493 women) at the age of 70 years. In total, 733 SNPs located in the FTO gene were genotyped in order to examine whether rs9939609 alone or the other SNPs, or their combinations, are linked to obesity-related measures in elderly humans.

    Design

    Cross-sectional analysis of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort.

    Results

     Neither a single SNP, such as rs9939609, nor a SNP combination was significantly linked to overweight, body composition-related measures, or daily energy intake in elderly humans. Of note, these observations hold both among men and women.

    Conclusions

    Due to the diversity of measurements included in the study, our findings strengthen the view that the effect of FTO on body composition appears to be less profound in later life compared to younger ages and that this is seemingly independent of gender.

  • 30.
    Meneguzzo, Paolo
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua, Padova, Italy.
    Tsakiris, Manos
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Stein, Dan J
    Brooks, Samantha
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Cape Town 7995, South Africa.
    Subliminal versus supraliminal stimuli activate neural responses in anterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus and insula: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies2014Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikkel-id 52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Non-conscious neural activation may underlie various psychological functions in health and disorder. However, the neural substrates of non-conscious processing have not been entirely elucidated. Examining the differential effects of arousing stimuli that are consciously, versus unconsciously perceived will improve our knowledge of neural circuitry involved in non-conscious perception. Here we conduct preliminary analyses of neural activation in studies that have used both subliminal and supraliminal presentation of the same stimulus.

    METHODS

    We use Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) to examine functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies that uniquely present the same stimuli subliminally and supraliminally to healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We included a total of 193 foci from 9 studies representing subliminal stimulation and 315 foci from 10 studies representing supraliminal stimulation.

    RESULTS

    The anterior cingulate cortex is significantly activated during both subliminal and supraliminal stimulus presentation. Subliminal stimuli are linked to significantly increased activation in the right fusiform gyrus and right insula. Supraliminal stimuli show significantly increased activation in the left rostral anterior cingulate.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Non-conscious processing of arousing stimuli may involve primary visual areas and may also recruit the insula, a brain area involved in eventual interoceptive awareness. The anterior cingulate is perhaps a key brain region for the integration of conscious and non-conscious processing. These preliminary data provide candidate brain regions for further study in to the neural correlates of conscious experience.

  • 31.
    Nordenskjöld, Richard
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Malmberg, Filip
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Simmons, Andrew
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Intracranial volume estimated with commonly used methods could introduce bias in studies including brain volume measurements2013Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 83, s. 355-360Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In brain volumetric studies, intracranial volume (ICV) is often used as an estimate of pre-morbid brain size as well as to compensate for inter-subject variations in head size. However, if the estimated ICV is biased by for example gender or atrophy, it could introduce errors in study results. To evaluate how two commonly used methods for ICV estimation perform, computer assisted reference segmentations were created and evaluated. Segmentations were created for 399 MRI volumes from 75-year-old subjects, with 53 of these subjects having an additional scan and segmentation created at age 80. ICV estimates from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM, version 8) and Freesurfer (FS, version 5.1.0) were compared to the reference segmentations, and bias related to skull size (approximated with the segmentation measure), gender or atrophy were tested for. The possible ICV related effect on associations between normalized hippocampal volume and factors gender, education and cognition was evaluated by normalizing hippocampal volume with different ICV measures. Excellent agreement was seen for inter- (r=0.999) and intra- (r=0.999) operator reference segmentations. Both SPM and FS overestimated ICV. SPM showed bias associated with gender and atrophy while FS showed bias dependent on skull size. All methods showed good correlation between time points in the longitudinal data (reference: 0.998, SPM: 0.962, FS: 0.995). Hippocampal volume showed different associations with cognition and gender depending on which ICV measure was used for hippocampal volume normalization. These results show that the choice of method used for ICV estimation can bias results in studies including brain volume measurements.

  • 32.
    Olivo, Gaia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi.
    Zhukovsky, Christina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi.
    Salonen-Ros, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Radiologi.
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi. Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Research Centre for Brain & Behaviour, Byrom Street, Liverpool, UK.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi. Institute for Translational Medicine and Biotechnology, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
    Functional connectivity underlying hedonic response to food in female adolescents with atypical AN: The role of somatosensory and salience networks2019Inngår i: Translational Psychiatry, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Atypical Anorexia Nervosa (AN) usually occurs during adolescence. Patients are often in the normal-weight range at diagnosis, however they often present with signs of medical complications and severe restraint over eating, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem. We investigated functional circuitry underlying the hedonic response in 28 female adolescent patients diagnosed with atypical AN and 33 healthy controls. Participants were shown images of food with high (HC) or low (LC) caloric content in alternating blocks during functional MRI. The HC > LC contrast was calculated. Based on previous literature on full-threshold AN, we hypothesized that patients would exhibit increased connectivity in areas involved in sensory processing and bottom-up responses, coupled to increased connectivity from areas related to top-down inhibitory control, compared with controls. Patients showed increased connectivity in pathways related to multimodal somatosensory processing and memory retrieval. The connectivity was on the other hand decreased in patients in salience and attentional networks, and in a wide cerebello-occipital network. Our study was the first investigation of food-related neural response in atypical AN. Our findings support higher somatosensory processing in patients in response to HC food images compared with controls, however HC food was less efficient than LC food in engaging patients’ bottom-up salient responses, and was not associated with connectivity increases in inhibitory control regions. These findings suggest that the psychopathological mechanisms underlying food restriction in atypical AN differ from full-threshold AN. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of eating behaviour in atypical AN might help designing specific treatment strategies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Craft, Suzanne
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Frey, William H., II
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brain Insulin Signaling and Alzheimer's Disease: Current Evidence and Future Directions2012Inngår i: Molecular Neurobiology, ISSN 0893-7648, E-ISSN 1559-1182, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 4-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insulin receptors in the brain are found in high densities in the hippocampus, a region that is fundamentally involved in the acquisition, consolidation, and recollection of new information. Using the intranasal method, which effectively bypasses the blood-brain barrier to deliver and target insulin directly from the nose to the brain, a series of experiments involving healthy humans has shown that increased central nervous system (CNS) insulin action enhances learning and memory processes associated with the hippocampus. Since Alzheimer's disease (AD) is linked to CNS insulin resistance, decreased expression of insulin and insulin receptor genes and attenuated permeation of blood-borne insulin across the blood-brain barrier, impaired brain insulin signaling could partially account for the cognitive deficits associated with this disease. Considering that insulin mitigates hippocampal synapse vulnerability to amyloid beta and inhibits the phosphorylation of tau, pharmacological strategies bolstering brain insulin signaling, such as intranasal insulin, could have significant therapeutic potential to deter AD pathogenesis.

  • 34.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Frey, William H.
    HealthPartners Res Fdn, Alzheimers Res Ctr Reg Hosp, St Paul, MN USA.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Insulin to treat Alzheimer's disease: just follow your nose?2012Inngår i: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 1751-2433, E-ISSN 1751-2441, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 17-20Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is linked to CNS insulin resistance, decreased expression of insulin and insulin receptor genes, and lower cerebrospinal insulin levels. Against this background, impaired brain insulin signaling may account for some of the cognitive deficits associated with this disease. Using the intranasal method, which effectively bypasses the blood-brain barrier to deliver and target insulin directly from the nose to the brain, a series of acute clinical trials involving healthy humans and AD patients have shown that increased CNS insulin action enhances learning and memory processes. This article summarizes and evaluates data from a recently published clinical trial, in which 4 months of intranasal insulin administration (20 IU insulin/day) preserved not only general cognition but also reduced the loss of metabolic integrity of the brain in adults with mild-to-moderate AD.

  • 35.
    Schiöth, Helgi Birgir
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brooks, Samantha Jane
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Healthcare systems never sleep: are medical residents today the patients of tomorrow?2012Inngår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 965-965Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Wiemerslage, Lyle
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Swenne, Ingemar
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Aronsson, Marianne
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Larsen, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Stark, Julia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Salonen-Ros, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Radiologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Funktionell farmakologi och neurovetenskap.
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Adolescents Newly Diagnosed with Eating Disorders have Structural Differences in Brain Regions linked with Eating Disorder Symptoms2017Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 188-196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adults with eating disorders (ED) show brain volume reductions in the frontal, insular, cingulate, and parietal cortices, as well as differences in subcortical regions associated with reward processing. However, little is known about the structural differences in adolescents with behavioural indications of early stage ED.

    Aim: This is the first study to investigate structural brain changes in adolescents newly diagnosed with ED compared to healthy controls (HC), and to study whether ED cognitions correlate with structural changes in adolescents with ED of short duration.

    Methods: Fifteen adolescent females recently diagnosed with ED, and 28 age-matched HC individuals, were scanned with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses were conducted using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). ED cognitions were measured with self-report questionnaires and working memory performance was measured with a neuropsychological computerized test.

    Results and conclusions: The left superior temporal gyrus had a smaller volume in adolescents with ED than in HC, which correlated with ED cognitions (concerns about eating, weight, and shape). Working memory reaction time correlated positively with insula volumes in ED participants, but not HC. In ED, measurements of restraint and obsession was negatively correlated with temporal gyrus volumes, and positively correlated with cerebellar and striatal volumes. Thus, adolescents with a recent diagnosis of ED had volumetric variations in brain areas linked to ED cognitions, obsessions, and working memory. The findings emphasize the importance of early identification of illness, before potential long-term effects on structure and behaviour occur.

  • 37.
    Suda, Masashi
    et al.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Sect Eating Disorders, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Giampietro, Vincent
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Ctr Neuroimaging Studies, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Uher, Rudolf
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Sect Eating Disorders, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Mataix-Cols, David
    Kings Coll London, Dept Psychosis Studies, London WC2R 2LS, England.;Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Dept Psychol, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Brammer, Michael J.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Ctr Neuroimaging Studies, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Williams, Steven C. R.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Ctr Neuroimaging Studies, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Treasure, Janet
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Sect Eating Disorders, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Campbell, Iain C.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Sect Eating Disorders, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Provocation of Symmetry/Ordering Symptoms in Anorexia nervosa: A Functional Neuroimaging Study2014Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikkel-id e97998Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) are often co-morbid; however, the aetiology of such co-morbidity has not been well investigated. This study examined brain activation in women with AN and in healthy control (HC) women during the provocation of symmetry/ordering-related anxiety. During provocation, patients with AN showed more anxiety compared to HCs, which was correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. Activation in the right parietal lobe and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) in response to provocation was reduced in the AN group compared with the HC group. The reduced right parietal activation observed in the AN group is consistent with parietal lobe involvement in visuospatial cognition and with studies of OCD reporting an association between structural abnormalities in this region and the severity of 'ordering' symptoms. Reduced rPFC activation in response to symmetry/ordering provocation has similarities with some, but not all, data collected from patients with AN who were exposed to images of food and bodies. Furthermore, the combination of data from the AN and HC groups showed that rPFC activation during symptom provocation was inversely correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. These data suggest that individuals with AN have a diminished ability to cognitively deal with illness-associated symptoms of provocation. Furthermore, our data also suggest that symptom provocation can progressively overload attempts by the rPFC to exert cognitive control. These findings are discussed in the context of the current neurobiological models of AN.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38. Suda, Masashi
    et al.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Giampietro, Vincent
    Friederich, Hans-Christoph
    Uher, Rudolf
    Brammer, Michael J.
    Williams, Steven C. R.
    Campbell, Iain C.
    Treasure, Janet
    Functional Neuroanatomy of Body Checking in People with Anorexia Nervosa2013Inngår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. 653-662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveThe neural correlates of body checking perceptions in eating disorders have not yet been identified. This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study examined the neuroanatomy involved in altered perception and identification with body checking in female with anorexia nervosa (AN). MethodBrain activation while viewing images depicting normal weight individuals involved in either body checking behavior or a neutral (noneating disorder) body action, was compared between 20 females with AN and 15 matched healthy controls (HC). ResultsFemales with AN reported higher anxiety compared to HC during the body checking task. The level of anxiety positively correlated with body shape concern scores. People with AN had less activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and right fusiform gyrus compared to HC in response to body checking compared to neutral action images. Body shape concern scores correlated negatively with medial PFC activation in AN group. DiscussionThis preliminary study with modest power suggests that AN patients have reduced activation in cortical areas associated with self-reference, body action perception, and social cognition in females with AN.

  • 39.
    Titova, Olga E
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Ax, Erika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Mediterranean diet habits in older individuals: Associations with cognitive functioning and brain volumes2013Inngår i: Experimental Gerontology, ISSN 0531-5565, E-ISSN 1873-6815, Vol. 48, nr 12, s. 1443-1448Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine the association between dietary habits, cognitive functioning and brain volumes in older individuals, data from 194 cognitively healthy individuals who participated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort were used. At age 70, participants kept diaries of their food intake for 1week. These records were used to calculate a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) score (comprising dietary habits traditionally found in Mediterranean countries, e.g. high intake of fruits and low intake of meat), with higher scores indicating more pronounced MeDi-like dietary habits. Five years later, participants' cognitive capabilities were examined by the seven minute screening (7MS) (a cognitive test battery used by clinicians to screen for dementia), and their brain volumes were measured by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate linear regression analyses were constructed to examine the association between the total MeDi score and cognitive functioning and brain volumes. In addition, possible associations between MeDi's eight dietary features and cognitive functioning and brain volumes were investigated. From the eight dietary features included in the MeDi score, pertaining to a low consumption of meat and meat products was linked to a better performance on the 7MS test (P=0.001) and greater total brain volume (P=0.03), i.e. the sum of white and gray matter. Integrating all dietary features of MeDi into score did not explain additional variance. These observational findings suggest that keeping to a low meat intake could prove to be an impact-driven public health policy to support healthy cognitive aging, when confirmed by longitudinal studies. Further, they suggest that the MeDi score is a construct that may mask possible associations of single MeDi features with brain health domains in elderly populations.

  • 40.
    Titova, Olga E.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Ayvazova, Elena A.
    Bichkaeva, Fatima A.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Chumakova, Galina N.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    The influence of active and passive smoking during pregnancy on umbilical cord blood levels of vitamins A and E and neonatal anthropometric indices2012Inngår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 108, nr 8, s. 1341-1345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be detrimental for the developing fetus. The effects of active and passive maternal smoking on umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E were examined. Secondary measures included anthropometric parameters in the newborn. Maternal and umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E were measured at delivery. The mothers were assigned to three groups: non-smoking (n 12); passive smoking (n 13); active smoking (n 18). Based on multivariate linear regressions, active smoking during pregnancy was associated with increased umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E. While enhanced circulating levels of vitamin A in cord blood were also found in non-smoking mothers exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, those of vitamin E were not influenced. Further, an inverse association between smoking behaviour during pregnancy and birth length was observed, with shortest length in active smokers followed by passive smoking mothers. Active and passive maternal smoking behaviour during pregnancy increases the fetal demand for antioxidant compounds in order to counteract the oxidative burden by cigarette smoke. Against this background, the observed increase in umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E may subserve antioxidative processes in response to tobacco smoke-induced oxidative stress. This would reduce the availability of vitamins A and E for fetal maturation, which is critical inasmuch as both compounds are indispensable for the developing fetus. However, due to the cross-sectional nature of our observation, this line of reasoning definitely requires validation in cause-effect experiments in the future.

  • 41.
    Titova, Olga E
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Hjorth, Olof C
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Anorexia nervosa is linked to reduced brain structure in reward and somatosensory regions: a meta-analysis of VBM studies2013Inngår i: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 110-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Structural imaging studies demonstrate brain tissue abnormalities in eating disorders, yet a quantitative analysis has not been done.

    METHODS

    In global and regional meta-analyses of 9 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies, with a total of 228 eating disorder participants (currently ill with anorexia nervosa), and 240 age-matched healthy controls, we compare brain volumes using global and regional analyses.

    RESULTS

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have global reductions in gray (effect size = -0.66) and white matter (effect size = -0.74) and increased cerebrospinal fluid (effect size = 0.98) and have regional decreases in left hypothalamus, left inferior parietal lobe, right lentiform nucleus and right caudate, and no significant increases. No significant difference in hemispheric lateralization was found.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Global and regional meta-analyses suggest that excessive restrained eating as found in those with anorexia nervosa coincides with structural brain changes analogous to clinical symptoms.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Titova, Olga E
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Ax, Erika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för radiologi, onkologi och strålningsvetenskap, Enheten för radiologi.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Kardiovaskulär epidemiologi.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi.
    Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids is linked to gray matter volume and cognitive function in elderly2013Inngår i: Age (Omaha), ISSN 0161-9152, E-ISSN 1574-4647, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 1495-1505Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we tested whether elderly with a high dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) would have higher cognitive test scores and greater brain volume than those with low dietary intake of these fatty acids. Data were obtained from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. The dietary intake of EPA and DHA was determined by a 7-day food protocol in 252 cognitively healthy elderly (122 females) at the age of 70 years. At age 75, participants' global cognitive function was examined, and their brain volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different multivariate linear regression models were applied to test our hypothesis: model A (adjusted for gender and age), model B (additionally controlled for lifestyle factors, e.g., education), and model C (further controlled for cardiometabolic factors, e.g., systolic blood pressure). We found that the self-reported 7-day dietary intake of EPA and DHA at the age of 70 years was positively associated with global gray matter volume (P < 0.05, except for model C) and increased global cognitive performance score (P < 0.05). However, no significant associations were observed between the dietary intake of EPA and DHA and global white matter, total brain volume, and regional gray matter, respectively. Further, no effects were observed when examining cognitively impaired (n = 27) elderly as separate analyses. These cross-sectional findings suggest that dietary intake of EPA and DHA may be linked to improved cognitive health in late life but must be confirmed in patient studies.

  • 43.
    Uhlmann, Anne
    et al.
    Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Psychiat, MRC Unit Risk & Resilience Mental Disorders, POB 241, ZA-8000 Cape Town, South Africa; Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Dias, Angelo
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Taljaard, Lian
    Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Psychiat, MRC Unit Risk & Resilience Mental Disorders, POB 241, ZA-8000 Cape Town, South Africa.
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Schiöth: Funktionell farmakologi. Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Lochner, Christine
    Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Psychiat, MRC Unit Risk & Resilience Mental Disorders, POB 241, ZA-8000 Cape Town, South Africa.
    White matter volume alterations in hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania)2020Inngår i: Brain Imaging and Behavior, ISSN 1931-7557, E-ISSN 1931-7565, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 2202-2209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is a disorder characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Key processes affected in TTM comprise affective, cognitive, and motor functions. Emerging evidence suggests that brain matter aberrations in fronto-striatal and fronto-limbic brain networks and the cerebellum may characterize the pathophysiology of TTM. The aim of the present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study was to evaluate whole brain grey and white matter volume alteration in TTM and its correlation with hair-pulling severity. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (3 T) data were acquired from 29 TTM patients and 28 age-matched healthy controls (CTRLs). All TTM participants completed the Massachusetts General Hospital Hair-Pulling Scale (MGH-HPS) to assess illness/pulling severity. Using whole-brain VBM, between-group differences in regional brain volumes were measured. Additionally, within the TTM group, the relationship between MGH-HPS scores, illness duration and brain volumes were examined. All data were corrected for multiple comparisons using family-wise error (FWE) correction at p < 0.05. Patients with TTM showed larger white matter volumes in the parahippocampal gyrus and cerebellum compared to CTRLs. Estimated white matter volumes showed no significant association with illness duration or MGH-HPS total scores. No significant between-group differences were found for grey matter volumes. Our observations suggest regional alterations in cortico-limbic and cerebellar white matter in patients with TTM, which may underlie deficits in cognitive and affective processing. Such volumetric white matter changes may precipitate impaired cortico-cerebellar communication leading to a reduced ability to control hair pulling behavior.

  • 44.
    Walton, Esther
    et al.
    Univ Bath, Dept Psychol, Bath, Avon, England..
    Bernardoni, Fabio
    Tech Univ Dresden, Div Psychol & Social Med & Dev Neurosci, Fac Med, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Dresden, Germany..
    Batury, Victoria-Luise
    Tech Univ Dresden, Div Psychol & Social Med & Dev Neurosci, Fac Med, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Dresden, Germany..
    Bahnsen, Klaas
    Tech Univ Dresden, Div Psychol & Social Med & Dev Neurosci, Fac Med, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Dresden, Germany..
    Lariviere, Sara
    McGill Univ, Montreal Neurol Inst & Hosp, McConnell Brain Imaging Ctr, Multimodal Imaging & Connectome Anal Lab, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni
    Univ Turin, Eating Disorders Ctr Treatment & Res, Turin, Italy..
    Andres-Perpina, Susana
    Univ Barcelona, Hosp Clin Univ, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental, Inst Clin Neurociencies, Barcelona, Spain..
    Bang, Lasse
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Reg Dept Eating Disorders, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, Oslo, Norway..
    Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, La Jolla, CA USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Eating Disorders Ctr Treatment & Res, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Brooks, Samantha
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap. Liverpool John Moores Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Sch Psychol, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Campbell, Iain C.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Dept Psychol Med, Eating Disorders Unit, London, England..
    Cascino, Giammarco
    Univ Salerno, Dept Med, Sect Neurosci, Scuola Med Salernitana, Salerno, Italy..
    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina
    Univ Barcelona, Hosp Clin Univ, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental, Inst Clin Neurociencies, Barcelona, Spain..
    Collantoni, Enrico
    Univ Padua, Dept Neurosci, Padua, Italy..
    D'Agata, Federico
    Univ Turin, Dept Neurosci, Turin, Italy..
    Dahmen, Brigitte
    Univ Hosp Rhein Westfalische TH Aachen, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Psychosomat & Psychotherapy, Aachen, Germany..
    Danner, Unna N.
    Altrecht Mental Hlth Inst, Altrecht Eating Disorders Rintveld, Zeist, Netherlands.;Univ Utrecht, Fac Social Sci, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Favaro, Angela
    Univ Padua, Dept Neurosci, Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Padova Neurosci Ctr, Padua, Italy..
    Feusner, Jamie D.
    Univ Toronto, Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Psychiat & Biobehav Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Frank, Guido K. W.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, La Jolla, CA USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Psychiat & Biobehav Sci, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA..
    Friederich, Hans-Christoph
    Univ Hosp Heidelberg, Ctr Psychosocial Med, Dept Gen Internal Med & Psychosomat, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Graner, John L.
    Duke Univ, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Durham, NC USA..
    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate
    Univ Hosp Rhein Westfalische TH Aachen, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Psychosomat & Psychotherapy, Aachen, Germany..
    Hess, Andreas
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Pharmacol & Toxicol, Erlangen, Germany..
    Horndasch, Stefanie
    Univ Clin Erlangen, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kaplan, Allan S.
    Univ Toronto, Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Kaufmann, Lisa-Katrin
    Univ Zurich, Univ Hosp Zurich, Dept Consultat Liaison Psychiat & Psychosomat, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Zurich, Dept Psychol, Div Neuropsychol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Kaye, Walter H.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, La Jolla, CA USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Eating Disorders Ctr Treatment & Res, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Khalsa, Sahib S.
    Univ Tulsa, Laureate Inst Brain Res, Tulsa, OK USA.;Univ Tulsa, Oxley Coll Hlth Sci, Tulsa, OK USA..
    LaBar, Kevin S.
    Duke Univ, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Durham, NC USA..
    Lavagnino, Luca
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, McGovern Med Sch, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Lazaro, Luisa
    Univ Barcelona, Hosp Clin Univ, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental, Inst Clin Neurociencies, Barcelona, Spain..
    Manara, Renzo
    Univ Padua, Dept Neurosci, Padua, Italy..
    Miles, Amy E.
    Univ Toronto, Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Milos, Gabriella F.
    Univ Zurich, Univ Hosp Zurich, Dept Consultat Liaison Psychiat & Psychosomat, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Monteleone, Alessio Maria
    Univ Campania L Vanvitelli, Dept Psychiat, Naples, Italy..
    Monteleone, Palmiero
    Univ Salerno, Dept Med, Sect Neurosci, Scuola Med Salernitana, Salerno, Italy..
    Mwangi, Benson
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, McGovern Med Sch, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    O'Daly, Owen
    Kings Coll London, Ctr Neuroimaging Studies, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England..
    Pariente, Jose
    Inst Invest Biomed August Pi I Sunyer, Magnet Resonance Image Core Facil, Barcelona, Spain..
    Roesch, Julie
    Univ Clin Erlangen, Dept Neuroradiol, Erlangen, Germany..
    Schmidt, Ulrike H.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Dept Psychol Med, Eating Disorders Unit, London, England..
    Seitz, Jochen
    Univ Hosp Rhein Westfalische TH Aachen, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Psychosomat & Psychotherapy, Aachen, Germany..
    Shott, Megan E.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, La Jolla, CA USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Eating Disorders Ctr Treatment & Res, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Simon, Joe J.
    Univ Hosp Heidelberg, Ctr Psychosocial Med, Dept Gen Internal Med & Psychosomat, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Smeets, Paul A. M.
    Univ Utrecht, UMC Utrecht Brain Ctr, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Wageningen Univ, Div Human Nutr & Hlth, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Tamnes, Christian K.
    Univ Oslo, Norwegian Ctr Mental Disorders Res, Inst Clin Med, Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, PROMENTA Res Ctr, Dept Psychol, Oslo, Norway.;Diakonhjemmet Hosp, Dept Psychiat Res, Oslo, Norway..
    Tenconi, Elena
    Univ Padua, Dept Neurosci, Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Padova Neurosci Ctr, Padua, Italy..
    Thomopoulos, Sophia, I
    Univ Southern Calif, Imaging Genet Ctr, Keck Sch Med, Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat Inst, Marina Del Rey, CA USA..
    van Elburg, Annemarie A.
    Altrecht Mental Hlth Inst, Altrecht Eating Disorders Rintveld, Zeist, Netherlands.;Univ Utrecht, Fac Social Sci, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Voineskos, Aristotle N.
    Univ Toronto, Campbell Family Mental Hlth Res Inst, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Psychiat, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    von Polier, Georg G.
    Univ Hosp Rhein Westfalische TH Aachen, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Psychosomat & Psychotherapy, Aachen, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Neurosci & Med Brain & Behav, Julich, Germany.;Goethe Univ, Univ Hosp Frankfurt, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Wierenga, Christina E.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, La Jolla, CA USA.;Univ Calif San Diego, Eating Disorders Ctr Treatment & Res, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Zucker, Nancy L.
    Duke Univ Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Durham, NC USA..
    Jahanshad, Neda
    Univ Southern Calif, Imaging Genet Ctr, Keck Sch Med, Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat Inst, Marina Del Rey, CA USA..
    King, Joseph A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Div Psychol & Social Med & Dev Neurosci, Fac Med, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Dresden, Germany..
    Thompson, Paul M.
    Univ Southern Calif, Imaging Genet Ctr, Keck Sch Med, Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat Inst, Marina Del Rey, CA USA..
    Berner, Laura A.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Ehrlich, Stefan
    Tech Univ Dresden, Div Psychol & Social Med & Dev Neurosci, Fac Med, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Dresden, Germany.;Tech Univ Dresden, Eating Disorders Res & Treatment Ctr, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Fac Med, Dresden, Germany..
    Brain Structure in Acutely Underweight and Partially Weight-Restored Individuals With Anorexia Nervosa: A Coordinated Analysis by the ENIGMA Eating Disorders Working Group2022Inngår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 92, nr 9, s. 730-738Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of structural brain abnormalities in anorexia nervosa (AN) is still not well understood. While several studies report substantial deficits in gray matter volume and cortical thickness in acutely underweight patients, others find no differences, or even increases in patients compared with healthy control subjects. Recent weight regain before scanning may explain some of this heterogeneity. To clarify the extent, magnitude, and de-pendencies of gray matter changes in AN, we conducted a prospective, coordinated meta-analysis of multicenter neuroimaging data.

    METHODS: We analyzed T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans assessed with standardized methods from 685 female patients with AN and 963 female healthy control subjects across 22 sites worldwide. In addition to a case-control comparison, we conducted a 3-group analysis comparing healthy control subjects with acutely underweight AN patients (n = 466) and partially weight-restored patients in treatment (n = 251).

    RESULTS: In AN, reductions in cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and, to a lesser extent, cortical surface area were sizable (Cohen's d up to 0.95), widespread, and colocalized with hub regions. Highlighting the effects of un-dernutrition, these deficits were associated with lower body mass index in the AN sample and were less pronounced in partially weight-restored patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: The effect sizes observed for cortical thickness deficits in acute AN are the largest of any psychiatric disorder investigated in the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium to date. These results confirm the importance of considering weight loss and renutrition in biomedical research on AN and underscore the importance of treatment engagement to prevent potentially long-lasting structural brain changes in this population.

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